[WRITTEN FROM CORINTH, AND SENT TO ROME, A. D. 57.]
I.--PAUL, a servant of Jesus Christ, a called Apostle, set apart for the Gospel of God, (which he formerly announced by his prophets, in the Sacred Writings,) concerning his Son, Jesus Christ our Lord; descended from David, as to his flesh, and constituted the Son of God, with power, as to his spiritual nature, after his resurrection from the dead: by whom we have received favor, even the apostolic office, for the obedience of faith among all nations, for his name's sake; among whom are you, also, called of Jesus Christ: to all who are in Rome, beloved of God, called saints; favor be to you, and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.
8.--First of all, I thank my God, through the Lord Jesus Christ, for you all, that your faith is published in all the world. For God is my witness, whom I serve sincerely in the gospel of his Son, that continually I make mention of you; always in my prayers requesting that, by some means, now at length, I may have a prosperous journey, (God willing,) to come to you. For I greatly desire to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift, that you may be established; and that I may be comforted, together with you, through the mutual faith both of you and me.
13.--Now, brethren, I would not have you ignorant, that I often proposed to come to you, though I have as yet been hindered; that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among the other Gentiles. I am a debtor, both to the Greeks and to the barbarians; both to the wise and to the unwise.--Therefore, I am willing, according to my ability, to declare the glad tidings, even to you who are in Rome. For I am not ashamed of the gospel; because it is the power of God for salvation, to every one who believes; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. For in it the justification of God by faith is revealed, in order to faith; as it is written, "Now the just by faith, shall live."
18.--Besides, the wrath of God is revealed from heaven, against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth by unrighteousness. Because that which may be known of God is manifest among them, for God has manifested it to them: (for his invisible attributes, even his eternal power and divinity, since the creation of the world, are every evident; being known by his works:) so that they are inexcusable. Because, though they knew God, they did not glorify him as God, neither gave him thanks; but became foolish by their own reasonings, and their inconsiderate heart was darkened. Professing to be wise men, they became fools: for they changed the glory of the immortal God into the likeness of an image of mortal man, of fowls, of four-footed beasts, and of reptiles. Therefore also God, through the lusts of their own hearts, delivered them over to uncleanness, to dishonor their own bodies among themselves. Who changed the truth concerning God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature, rther than the Creator, who is forever blessed. Amen.
26.--For this, God delivered them over to shameful passions; for even their females changed the natural use into what is contrary tonature. In like manner, also, the males, leaving the natural use of the female, burned in their lust towards one another, males with males, working out that which is shameful, and receiving in themselves that recompense of their error which was due. And as they did not like to acknowledge God, God delivered them over to an undiscerning mind, to work those things, which are not suitble; being filled with all injustice, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, bad habits, whisperers, revilers, haters of God, insolent, proud, boasters, inventors of evil pleasures, disobedient to parents, impudent, covenant breakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful. Some, who clearly understand the law of God, (that they who practise such things are worthy of death,) not only do these things, but even commend those who practise them.
II.--Wherefore, you are inexcusable, O man! whoever you are, who condemn: for in condemning another, you pass sentence on yourself; because you, who condemn, practise the same things. Besides, we know that the sentence of God is according to truth, upon them who commit such things. And do you think this, O man, who condemn those who practise such things, and yet do the sme, that you shall escape the sentence of God? Or do you despise the riches of his goodness, and forbearance, and long-suffering; not acknowledging that the goodness of God invites you to a reformation? But, according to your obdurate and impenitent heart, you treasure up to yourself wrath, against a day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God; who will render to every one according to his works: eternal life, indeed, to them who, by perseverance in well-doing, seek glory, honor, and immortality: but anger and wrath, to them who are contentious, and obey not the truth, but obey unrighteousness. Affliction and great distress shall come on every soul of man who works evil; first of the Jew, and also of the Greek. But glory, honor, and peace, to every one who works good; first to the Jew, and also to the Greek. For there is no respect of persons with God. As many, therefore, as have sinned without law, shallalso perish without law; and as many as have sinned under law, shall be condemned by law: for not those who hear the law, are just before God; but those who obey the law, shallbe justified, int he day when God will judge the hidden things of men by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel. When, therefore, the Gentiles, who have not a law, do by nature the things of the law, these persons, though they have not a law, are a law to themselves: who show plainly the work of the law, written on their hearts; their conscience bearing witness, and also their reasonings between one another, when they accuse or excuse each other.
17.--If, now, you are called a Jew, and rest in the law, and boast inGod, and know his will, and approve the things that are excellent, being instructed by the law; and boast that you yourself are a guide to the blind, a light of them who are in darkness, an instructor of the foolish, a teacher of babes, having the representation of knowledge and of truth in the law: you, then, who teach another; do you not teach yourself? You who proclaim, Do not steal; do you steal? You who command, Do not commit adultery; do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols; do you rob temples? You who boast in the law; by the breaking of the law, do you dishonor God? For it is written, "The name of God is evil spoken of among the Gentiles, through you." Now circumcision indeed profits, if you practise law; but if you be a transgressor of law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. And if the uncircumcision keep the precepts of the law, will not his uncircumcisioin be counted for circumcision? Andwill not the uncircumcision which by nature fulfils the law, condemn you, a transgressor of law, though in possession of the scriptures and circumcision? For he is not a Jew, who is one outwardly; neither is circumcision, that which is outward in the flesh: but he is a Jew, who is one inwardly; and circumcision is of the heart, in the spirit, not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God.
III.--What is the pre-eminence of the Jew, then? or what profit is there of circumcision?
2.--Much, in every respect: chiefly, indeed, because they were entrusted with the Oracles of God.
3.--For what if some did not believe,--will not their unbelief destroy the faithfulness of God?
4.--By no means. But let God be true, and every man a liar; as it is written, "That thou mayest be justified in thy sayings, and mayest overcome when thou judgest."
5.--But if our unrighteousness display the justice of God, what shall we say? Is not God unjust, who inflicts vengeance? (I speak after the manner of men.)
6.--By no means: otherwise, how shall God judge the world?
7.--Still, if the truth of God has, through my lie, more abounded to his glory, why am I also yet condemned as a sinner,--and not because we have done evil that good may come, as we are slandered, and as some affirm that we teach,--whose condemnation is just?
9.--What then? Do we excel?
Not at all. For we have before proved both Jews and Gentiles to be all under sin. As it is written, "Surely there is none righteous; no, not one. There is none that understands; there is none that seeks after God. They are all gone out of the way: they are together become unprofitable. There is none that does good; there is not so much as one. Their throat is an open sepulchre: with their tongues they have used deceit; the poison of asps is under their lips: their mouth is full of cursing and bitterness. Their feet are swift to shed blood. Destruction and misery lurk in their paths; but the path of peace they have not known. There is no fear of God before their eyes." Now we know, that whatever things the law says, it says to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and that all the world may be liable to punishment before God. Wherefore, by works of law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight; because through law is the knowledge of sin.
21.--But now, a justification which is of God, without law, is exhibited, attested by the law and the prophets: even a justification which is of God, through faith in Jesus Christ, for all, and on all, who believe; for there is no difference. For all, having sinned and come short of the glory of God, are justified freely by his favor, through the redemption which is by Christ Jesus: whom God has set forth a propitiatory through faith in his blood, for a demonstration of his own justice in passing by the sins which were before committed, through the forebearance of God: for a demonstration, also, of his justice in the present time, in order that he may be just, when justifying him, who is of the faith of Jesus. Where, then, is boasting? It is excluded. By what law? of works? No: but by the law of faith. We conclude, then, that by faith man is justified without works of law. Is he the God of the Jews only, and not of the Gentiles also. Seeing there is one God, he will justify the circumcision by faith, and the uncircumcision through the faith. Do we, then, make law useless through the faith? By no means: but we establish law.
IV.--What do we then say, that Abraham our father obtained by the flesh? for if Abraham were justified by works, he might boast; but not before God. For what says the scripture? "And Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him for righteousness." Now to him who works, the reward is not counted as a favor, but as a debt. But to him who does not work, but believes on him who justifies the ungodly, his aith is counted for righteousness. In like manner, also, David describes the blessedness of the man to whom God counts righteousness without works: saying, "Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered. Blessed is the man, to whm the Lord will not count sin." Does this blessedness come, then, on the circumcision only, or on the uncircumcison also? for we affirm, that faith was counted to Abraham for righteousness. How then was it counted? when he was in circumcison, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. And he received the mark of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness of the faith, which he had whilst uncircumcised; that he might be the father of all uncircumcised believers, that righteousness might be counted even to them. And a father of the circumcised, who are not only circumcised, but who also walk in the footsteps of the faith of our father Abraham, which he had whilst in uncircumcision.
13.--For the promise to Abraham, that he should be the heir of a world, was not to him, or to his seed, through law; but through a righteousness of faith. For if they who are of law are heirs; faith is rendered vain, and the promise is made of no effect. Farther, the law works out wrath: but where law is not, there is no transgression. For this reason, it is through faith, that it might be by favor, that the promise might be sure to all the seed: not to that only which is of the law; but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all: (as it is written, "Surely a father of many nations have I constituted you,") in the presence of him whom he believed, even of God, who makes alive the dead, and calls things which exist not as though they existed. He, contrary to hope, believed with hope, that he should be a father of many nations, according to what was spoken, "So shall your seed be."
19.--And not being weak in fatih, he did not consider his own body now dead, being about a hundred years old; neither the deadness of Sarah's womb. Therefore, against the promise of God, through unbelief, he did not dispute; but was strong in faith, giving glory to God. And was fully persuaded, that what was promised, he was able to perform. Therefore, also, it was counted to him for righteousness. Now it was not written for his sake only, that it was so counted to him; but for our sakes also, to whom it will be counted, even to those who believe on him who raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead; who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification.
V.Wherefore, being justified by faith, we have peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ--through whom we stand, and rejoice in the hope of the glory of God: and not only so, but we rejoice even in afflictions; knowing that affliction produces patience; and patience, approbation; and approbation, hope. And this hope makes not ashamed: because the love of God is diffused in our hearts by the Holy Spirit, that is given us. Bsides, we being yet weak, in the appointed time Christ died for the ungodly. Now scarrcely for a just man will one die, though for a good man one would, perhaps, even dare to die. But God recommends his love to us; because while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him. For if, being enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son; much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life. And not only so, but we even rejoice in God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconcilation.
12.--Wherefore, as sin entered into the world by one man, in whom all sinned, and by sin, death: thus death came upon all men. (For sin was in the world till the law: but sin is not imputed, when there is no law. Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them who had not sinned, in the manner of Adam's transgression, who is atype of him that was to come. But not as the offence, so also is the free gift: for if by the offence of the one, the many died; much more the favor of God, and the gift by favor, which is of the one man, Jesus Christ, has abounded to the many. And not as through one who sinned, is the free gift: for the sentence was from one to condemnation; but the free gift is from many offences to justification. For if by the offence of the one, deth reigned by the one; much more shall they, who receive the abundance of favor, and of the gift of justification, reign in life, by the one--Jesus Christ.) Now, therefore, as through one offence, the sentence came upon all men to condemnation: so, also, by one act of obedience, the sentence came upon all men to justification of life. For s thourgh the disobedience of one man, the many were constituted sinners; so by the obedience of the one, the many shall be constituted righteous. Moreover, the law supervened, that the offence might aobund; but where sin abounded, favor superabounded--that as sin reigned by death, so, also, favor might reign by justification to eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.
VI.--What do we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that favor may abound? By no means. How shall we, who have died to sin, continue to live in it? Do you not know, that as many as have been immersed into Jesus Christ, have been immersed into his death? We have been buried, then, together with him by the immersion into death: that like as Chirst was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father; so we also shall walk in newness of life. For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death; we shall then, also, certainly be in the likeness of his resurrection. Knowing this, that our old man has been crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that we should not any loner serve sin: for he that has died is released from sin. Moreover, if we have died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him. Knowing that Christ, having been raised from the dead, dies not again; death has no longer dominion over him: for that he has died, he has died for sin once: but that he lives, he lives for God. So reckon yourselves also dead, indeed, to sin; but alive to God, by Jesus Christ. Let not sin, therefore, reign in your mortal body, by obeying it. Neither present your members as instruments of unrighteousness, to sin; but present yourselves to God, as alive from the dead; and your members as instruments of righteousness, to God.
14.--Besides, sin shall not have dominion over you: for you are not under law, but under favor. What then do we say? Shall we sin, because we are not under law; but under favor? By no means. Do you not know, that to whom you present yourselves servants, by obedience; his servants you are whom you thus obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? But thanks to God, that though you were the righteousness? But thanks to God, that though you were the servants of sin; yet you have hearily obeyed that model of doctrine to which yyou have been given up. And being made free from sin, you have become the servants of righteousness. (I speak after the manner of men, because of the infirmity of your flesh.) Wherefore, as you have presented your members servants to uncleanness, and to inquity, to work inquity; so present now your members, servants to righteousness, to work holiness. For when you were servants of sin, you were free from righteousness. And what fruit had you, then, from those things of which you are now ashamed? for the reward of these things is death. But now, being set free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit to holiness: and the end, everlasting life. For the wages of sin is death: but the gracious gift of God is everlasting life, by Jesus Christ our Lord.
VII.--Do you know, brethren, (for I speak to them who know law,) that the law has dominion over a man as long as he lives? For the married woman is bound, by law, to her husband as long as he lives; but if the husband be dead, she is released from the law of her husband. If, then, indeed, while her husband lives, she is married to another, she shall be called an adulteress: but if her husband be dead, she is free from the law; so that she is not an adulteress, though married to another husband. Thus, my brethren, you also have become dead to the law, by the body of Christ, that you may be married to another, who rose from the dead, that we may bring forth fruit to God. For when we were in the flesh, our sinful passions which were through the law, wrought effectually in our members, to bring forth fruit to deth. But now, having died with Christ, we are released from the law, by which we were held in bondage; so that we may serve God in newness of spirit, and not in oldness of the letter.
7.--What shall we say, then? Is the law sin?
By no means. Indeed, I had not known sin, except by the law. For I had not known even inordinate desire, unless the law had said, "You shall not lust." But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of inordinate desire: for without the law sin is dead. For I was alive, once, without the law: but when the commandment came, sin revived, but I died. Yes, the commandment which was for life, the very same was found to be deth to me. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me. Wherefore, the law is holy, and the commandment holy, just, and good.
13.--Has, then, that which is good become death to me?
By no means. But sin becomes death, in order that it might manifest itself causing death to me by that which is good: so that sin (through the commandment,) might be an exceedingly great sinner. Besides, we know that the law is spiritual: but I am carnal, sold under sin. For that which I do, I do not approve; since it is not what I desire that I do: but I do that which I hate. If, now, I do that which I do not desire, I consent to the law that it is good. But now it is no longer I myself who do this; but sin which dwells in me. For I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, there dwells no good thing: for to desire what is good, is easy to me; but to do it, I find difficult. For the good which I desire, that I do not: but the evil which I desire not, that I do. Now, if I do that which I do not desire, it is no longer I who do it; but sin, which dwells in me. I find, then, that it is a law to me, when desirous to do good, that evil is near me. For I take pleasure in the law of God, as to the inner man: but I perceive another law, in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and making me a captive to the law of sin, which is in my members. Wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from this body of death? I thank God, through Jesus Christ our Lord! Wherefore, then, indeed, I myself serve, with my mind, the law of God; but, with the flesh, the law of sin.
VIII.--There is, then, no condemnation, now, to those who are in Christ Jesus. For the Law of the Spirit of Life by Christ Jesus, has freed me from the law of sin, and of death. For what the law could not accomplish, because it was weak through the flesh; God sending his own Son, in the likeness of sinful flesh, accomplished; and by an offering for sin, condemned sin in the flesh. That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled by us, who walk not according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit. Now, they who live according to the flesh, mind the things of the flesh; and they who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. But the mind of the flesh is death; andthe mind of the Spirit is life and peace: because the mind of the flesh, is enmity against God: for, to the law of God it is not subject; neither, indeed, can be. Those,t hen, who are in the flesh, cannot please God. Now, you are not in the flesh, but in the Spriit; because the Spirit of God dwells in you. But, if any one have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his. And if Christ be in you, the body, indeed, is dead, with respect to sin; but the spirit is life, with respect to righteousness. For, if the Spirit of him, who raised up Jesus from the dead, dwell in you; he who raised up Christ from the dead, will make even your mortal bodies alive, through his Spirit, who dwells in you. Well, then, brethren, we are not debtors to the flesh, to live according to the flesh. Wherefore, if you live according to the flesh, you shall die; but if, through the Spirit, you put to death the deeds of the body, you shall live. Because, as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are the sons of God. For you have not received the spirit of bondage, again, to fear; but you have received the spirit of adoption, by which we cry, Abba, Father. The spirit itself bears witness, together with our spirit, that we are children of God. And if children, then heirs; heirs, indeed, of God, and joint heirs with Christ; if, indeed, we suffer with him, that with him also we may be glorified.
18.--However, I esteem not the sufferings of the present time, as worthy of comparison with the glory, which is hereafter to be revealed in us. For the earnest expectation of the creature, is waiting for the revelation of the sons of God. For the creature was subjected to frailty, (not of its own choice, but by him who has subjected it,) in hope, that it may be liberated, from the bondage of a perishing state, and brought into the glorious liberty of the sons of God. Besides, we know, that the whole creation sighs together, and travails in anguish, till the present time. And not only so, but ourselves, also, who have the first gruit of the Spirit; even we ourselves, also, who have the first fruit of the Spirit; even we ourselves, groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption; namely the redemption of our body. For even we are saved by hope. Now, hope that is attained, is not hope; for who can hope for that which he enjoys? But if we hope for that which we do not enjoy, then, with patience, we wait for.
26.--In like manner, also, the Spirit helps our infirmities; for we know not what we should pray for, as we ought; however, the Spirit himself interceds for us, in sighs which cannot be uttered. But he who searches the hearts, knows the mind of the Spirit; that, according to the will of God, he makes intercession for the saints. Besides, we know, that all things work together for good, to them who love God; to them, who are called according to his purpose. For, whom he foreknew, he also predestinated to be conformed to the image of his Son; that he might be the first born among many brethren. Moreover, whom he predestinated, them he also called; and whom he called, them he also justified; and whom he justified, them he also glorified.--What shall we say, then, to these things? Since God is for us, who can be against us? He, certainly, who spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all; how will he not, with him also, graciously give us all things? Who will bring an accusation against the elect of God? Is it God who justifies them? Who is he, who condemns them? Is it Christ, who died; or rather, who has risen: who also, is at the right hand of God; and who makes intercession for us? Who will separate us from the love of Christ? Will affliction, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? As it is written, "Truly, for thy sake, we are put to death all the day long: we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter." Nay, in all these things, we do more than overcome, through him who has loved us. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life; neither angels, nor principalities; nor powers; neither things present, nor to come; neither height, nor depth; nor any created thing, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is by Christ Jesus our Lord.
IX.--I speak the truth in Christ, I do not speak falsely, my conscience bearing me witness, in the Holy Spirit, that I have great grief, and unceasing anguish, in my heart, for my brethren,--my kinsmen, according to the flesh; (for I was, myself, wishing to be accursed from Christ:) who are Israelites; whose, are the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the rites of service, and the promises; whose are the fathers; and from whom the Messiah descended, according to the flesh; who is over all, God blessed forever. Amen.
6.--Now, it is not to be supposed, that the promise of God has failed; for all the descendants of Israel, are not Israel. Neither are they all children, because they are the seed of Abraham; but, "In Isaac shall your seed be called." That is, the children of the flesh, are not the children of God; but the children of the promise are counted for seed. For the word of promise was this, "According to this time, I will come, and Sarah shall hve a son." And not only this, but even Rebecca having conceived twins, by one, even by Isaac our father; (they, indeed, not being yet born; neither having done any good or evil; that the purpose of God might stand, by an election; not on account of works, but of him who calls:) it was said to her, "The elder shall serve the younger;" as it is written, "Jacob have I loved, but Esau I have slighted."
14.--What shall we then say? Is there not injustice with God?
15.--By no means. For he says to Moses, "I will have mercy, on whom I will have mercy; and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion." So, then, it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs; but of God, who shows mercy. Besides, the scripture says to Pharaoh, "Even for this same purpose, I have roused you up; that I might show in you, my power; and that my fame might be published through all the earth." Well, then, he has mercy, on whom he will; and whom he will, he hardens.
19.--But, you will say to me, Why does he still find fault, for who has resisted his will? Nay, but, O man, who are you, who reply against God? Shall the thing formed, say to him who formed it, Why have you made me thus? Has not the potter a just power over the clay, to make of the same lump, one vessel to honor, and another to dishonor? Yet God, willing to show his wrath, and make known his power, did bear, with much long-suffering, the vessels of wrath fitted for destruction. And that he might make known the riches of his glory, on the vessels of mercy, which he had before prepared for glory: even us, whom he has called; not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles. Even as he says, by Hosea, "They shall be called my people, who were not my people; and she beloved, who was not beloved. And it shall come to pass, in the place where it was said to them, You are not my people; there they shall be called, Sons of the living God."
27.--Besides, Isaiah cries, concerning Israel, "Though the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, only a remnant shall be saved. For he is about to complete, and hasten, his work in righteousness; for a short work will the land make, on this land." And, as Isaiah has said before, "Unless the Lord of hosts had left us a seed, we should have become as Sodom, and been made like to Gomorrah." What shall we say, then, that the Gentiles, who did not seek after justification, have attained justification, even a justification which is by faith? But Israel, who followed a law of justification, have not attained to a law of justification. Why? Because they sought it not by faith; but, as it were, by works of law: for they stumbled, at the stone of stumbling. As it is written, "Behold I place in Zion, a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence; and whoever believes on it, shall not be ashamed."
X.--Brethren, indeed my heart's desire and prayer to God for them, is, that they may be saved. For I testify for them, that they have a zeal for God; but not according to knowledge; for being ignorant of God's justification, and seeking to establish their own, they have not submitted to the justification which is of God. For Christ is the end of the law for justification to every believer. Now Moses describes the justification which is by the law, that "the man who does these things shall live by them." But th justification which is by faith speaks thus: Say not in your heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? that is, to bring Christ down. Or, Who shall descend into the abyss? that is, to bring up Christ from the dead. But what does it say? (The word is near you;--in your mouth, and in your heart; that is, the word of faith which we preach:) that if you will openly confess with our mouth, that Jesus is Lord, and believe with your heart, that God raised him from the dead, you shall be saved. (For with the heart man believes to justification; and with the mouth confession is made to salvation.) For the Scripture says, "No one, who believes on him, shall be ashamed."
12.--Indeed, there is no distinction either of Jew or of Greek: for the same Lord of all, is rich towards all, who call on him. "For whoever will call on the name of the Lord shall be saved." But how shall they all on him, in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him, of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear, without a proclaimer? and how shall they proclaim, unless they be sent? as it is written, "How beautiful are the feet of them, wo bring the joyful message of peace--of them, who bring the joyful news of good things!" Nevertheless, all have not obeyed the gospel; for Isaiah says, "Lord, who has believed our report?" (So, then, faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.) But I ask, have they not heard? yes, indeed, "Their sound has gone out to all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world." I ask again, has not Israel known? First, Moses says, "I will provoke you to jealousy by that, which is no nation;--by a foolish nation I will enrage you." Besides, Isaiah is very bold when he says, "I am found by them, who did not seek me: I am shown to them, who did not ask for me." But concerning Israel he says, "All the day long, have I stretched forth my hand to a disobedient and rebelling people."
XI.--I say, then, has God cast off his people? By no means. For, even I am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. God has not cast off his people whom formerly he acknowledged. Do you not know, what the Scripture says to Elijah; when he complains to God against Israel, saying, "Lord, they have killed the prophets, and have digged down thy altars, and I am let alone, and they seek my life." But what says the answer of God to him? "I have reserved to myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to Baal." So, then, even at this present time, thereis a remnant according to an election by favor. And if by favor, it is no more of works; otherwise favor is no more favor.
7.--What then? The thing Israel earnestly seeks, that he has not obtained.
8.--But the election has obtained it, and the rest are blinded. As it is written, "God has given them a spirit of deep sleep; eyes not seeing, and ears not hearing, till this present day." And David says, "Let their table be for a snare, and a trap, and a stumbling block, and a recompense to them. Let their eyes be darkened, so as not to see; and let them bow down their back continually."
11.--I ask, then, have they stumbled, that they may fall? By no means. But, through their fall, salvation is given to the Gentiles, to excite them to emulation.
12. Now, if the fall of them be the riches of the world; and the diminishing of them, the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fulness? Now I speak to you Gentiles, (and inasmuch as I am the Apostle to the Gentiles, I do honor to my ministry,) if by any means I may excite to emulation my kindred, and may save some of them. For, if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world; what will be the receiving of them be, but life from the dead? Moreover, if the first fruit be holy, the mass is also holy; and if the root be holy, so are the branches. Now, if some of the branches were broken off, and you who are a wild olive, are ingrafted among them, and are become a joint partaker of the root and fatness of the olive; boast not against the branches: but if you boast, still, you bear not the root, but the root you.
19.--You will say, however, The branches were broken off, that I might be grafted in.
20.--True: by unbelief they were broken off, and you by faith stand. Be not high-minded, but fear. For, if God spared not the natural branches; perhaps, neither will he spare you.
22.--Behold, then, the goodness and the severity of God! Towards them who fell, severity: but towards you, goodness, if you continue in his goodness: otherwise, you shall also be cut off. And even they, if they continue not in unbelief, shall be grafted in: for God is able to graft them in again. For if you were cut off from the olive by nature wild, and were, contrary to nature, grafted in to the good olive; how much rather shall those, who are the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive? For, brethren, that you may not be wise in your own conceits, I would not have you ignorant of this secret, that blindness in part has happened to Israel, till the fullness of the Gentiles comes in. And so all Israel shall be saved; as it is written, "The deliverer shall come out of Zion, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob. For this is my covenant with them, when I shall take away their sins." With respect to the gospel, indeed, they are enemies, on your account: but with respect to the election, they are beloved on account of the fathrs. For the free gifts and the calling of God are without repentance. Besides, as you, in times past, have disobeyed God, yet now have obtained mercy through their disobedience; even so these, also, ahve now disobeyed, that through your mercy, they also may obtain mercy. For God has shut up together all for disobedience, that he might have mercy on all.
33.--O the depth of the riches and of the wisdom and of the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out! For who has known the mind of the Lord? or who has been his counsellor? or who has first given to him, and it shall be recompensed to him again? For from him, and by him, and to him, are all things: to him be the glory for ever. Amen.
XII.--Wherefore, brethren, I beseech you by the tender mercies of God, that you present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your reasonable service. And be not conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewal of your mind; that you may approve the will of God, which is good, and acceptable, and perfect. Also, by the favor which is given to me, I charge every one of you, not to think more highly of himself than he ought to think; but to think modestly, as God has distributed to every one a portion of faith. For, as in one body we have many members, but all th emembers have not the same office; so we, the many, are one body under Christ, and individually members of one another. Having, then, gifts differing according to the favor, which is given to us;--if prophecy, act according to the measure of faith; if a ministerial office, in that office; if one is a teacher, in teaching; and the exhorter, in exhortation. Let him who distributes, act with disinteresedness; him that presides, with assiduity; him that shows mercy, with cheerfulness. Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor the evil: adhere closely to the good. In brotherly love be tenderly affectionate to one another: in honor prefer one another. In business be not slothful. Be fervent in spirit: constant in serving the Lord. Be joyful in hope, patient in affliction, steadfastly persevering in prayer. Communicate to the necessities of the saints. Follow hospitality to strangers. Bless them who persecute you: bless, and curse not. Rejoice with them who rejoice, and weep with them who weep. Be of the same disposition towards one another. Do not care for high things; but accommodate yourselves to those, which are humble. Be not wise in your own conceits. to no one return evil for evil. Seek after things honorable in the sight of all men. What relates to you is, live in peace with all men, if possible. Beloved, do not avenge yourselves, but give place to the wrath of God; for it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord." Therefore, if your enemy hunger, give him food: if he thirst, give him drink: for by doing this, you will heap coals of fire on his head. Be not overcome with evil, but overcome evil with good.
XIII.Let every soul be subject to the higher powers. For there is no power but from God; and those that exist, are placed under God. Wherefore, he who sets himself in opposition to the power, resists the ordinance of God: and they who resist, shall procure punishment to themselves. For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to evil. Would you, then, not beafrid of the power? Do that which is good, and you shallhave praise of the sme. For the ruler is a servant of God for good to you. But if you do that which is evil, be afraid; because he does not bera the sword in vain. For he is a servant of God, a revenger to inflict wrath on him who works evil. Wherefore, it is necessary for you to be subject, not only on account of punishment, but also on account of conscience. For this reason, therefore, you pay taxes also to them, because they are public ministers of God, attending continually to this very business. Render, therefore, too all their dues; to whom tax is due, tax; to whom custom, custom; to whom fear, fear; to whom honor, honor. Owe no man any thing, unelss to love one another. For he who loves another, has fulfilled the law. For this, "You shall not commit adultery, You shall not kill, You shall not steal, You shall not covet;" and if there be any other commandment, it is summed up in this precept, namely, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself." Love works no evil to one's neighbor: therefore, love is the fulfilling of the law. Further, knowing the season, that it is now the hour for us to awake out of sleep. (For now our salvation is nearer than when we believed: the night is far advanced, and the day is at hand.) Let us, therefore, put off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armor of light. Let us walk about decently as in the day, not in revellings and drunkenness, not in chamberlings and lasciviousness, not in strife and envy. But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the lusts of the flesh.
XIV.--Receive him who is weak in the faith, without regard to differences of opinions. One, indeed, believes he may eat every thing; but he who is weak eats herbs only. Let not him who eats, despise him who eats not: and let not him who eats not, condemn him who eats: for God has received him. Who are you that condemns another man's servant? By his own master he stands or falls; and he shall be made to stand, for God is able to make him stand. One, indeed, thinks one day more holy than another: but another thinks every day alike. Let every one be convinced in his own mind. He who observes the day, observes it to the Lord; but he who does not obseve the day to the Lord, does not observe it: he who eats, eats to the Lord, for he gives God thanks: and he who eats not to the Lord, eats not, and gives God thanks. For none of us lives to himself, and none of us dies to himself. but whether we live, we live to the Lord; and whether we die, we die to the Lord: whether we live, therefore, or die, we are the Lord's. For to this end Christ both died and rose, and lives again, that he might rule over both the dead and the living. But you, why do you condemn your brother? and you, also, why do you despise your brother? for we shall all be placed before the judgment seat of Christ? For it is writen, "As I live, says the Lord, surely every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God." Well, then, every one of us shall give n account of himself to God. Let us, therefore, no more judge one another; but let us decide rather, not to lay an occasion of stumbling before a brother, or a cause of falling. I know, and am persuaded of the Lord Jesus, that thereis nothing unclean of itself; yet to him who accounts any thing to be unclean, to that man it is unclean. Now, if your brother be hurt through your meat, you no longer walk as love requires. Do not destroy him, with your meat, for whom Christ died. Let not your good, then, be evil spoken of. For the Reign of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy, in the Holy Spirit. And he who, by these things, serves Christ, is acceptable to God God, and approved by men. Well, then, let us strive after peace, and mutual edification. Do not, for the sake of meat, destroy the work of God. All meats, indeed, are clean; but that meat is hurtful to the man who eats to occasion stubmling. It is good, neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor, to do any thing, by which your brother is made to stumble, or to fall, or is weakened. You have faith: keep it to yourself, in the sight of God. Happy is he, who does not condemn himself, in what he approves. For, he who discerns a difference between meats, is condemned, if he eat; because, he eats not from faith: for what is not from faith, is sin.
XV.--We, then, who are strong, ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves. Wherefore, let every one of us please his neighbor, as far as is good, for edification. For even Christ sought not his own pleasure: but, as it is written, "The reproaches of them, who reproached you, have fallen on me." Now, whatever things were before written, wre written for our instruction; that, through the patience and admonition of the Scriptures, we might have hope. Now, may the God who gives patience and consolation, give to you mutual unity of sentiment, according to Christ Jesus. That with one mind, and with one voice, you may glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Wherefore, cordially receive one another; even as Christ also has received us, to the glory of God.
8.--Now, I affirm, that Jesus Christ became a minister of the circumcision, on account of the truth of God, in order to confirm the promises, made to the fathers; and, that the Gentiles might praise God, on account of mercy: as it is written, "For this cause, I will glorify thee among the Gentiles, and sing to thy name." And again, he says, "Rejoice you Gentiles, with his people." And again, "praise the Lord, all you Gentiles; and extol him, all you people." And again, Isaiah says, "There shall be a root of Jesse, and one shall arise, to be a leader of the Genitles,--on him shall the Gentiles place place their hope." Now, may the God of hope fill you with all joy, and peace, in believing; in order that you may abound in that hope, through the power of the Holy Spirit. However, my brethren, I myself am persuaded, concerning you, that you also are full of goodness, being filled with all knowledge; able, also, to instruct one another. But, I have written the more boldly to you, brethren; partly, as calling things to your remembrance, through the favor which is given me of God. In order to my being a minister of Jesus Christ, among the Gentiles, ministering the gospel of God, that there might be an offering of the Gentiles, most acceptable; being sanctified by the Holy Spirit. I have, therefore, glorifying, through Christ Jesus, with respect to things pertaining to God. But, Im will not dare to speak any thing of what Christ has not wrought; but, of what he has wrought, by me, in order to the obedience of the Gentiles, in word and deed; by the power of signs and wonders, and by the power of the Holy Spirit: so that from Jerusalem, and round about, as far as Illyricum, i have fully declared the gospel of Christ; and so also, that I was strongly desirous to declare the gospel, where Christ was not named, that I might not build on another's foundation. But, as it is written, "They shall see, to whom, nothing has been told concerning him; and they, who have not heard, shall understand."
22.--For which reason, also, I have been greatly hindered from coming to you. But now, having no more place in these parts, and having for many years a strong desire to come to you, whenever I go towards Spain, I hope, as I pass on, to see you, and to be brought on my way thither by you, when I shall first, in some measure, be satisfied with your company. But now I go to Jerusalem, ministering to the saints; for Macedonia and Achaia have been pleased to make some contribution for the poor of the saints who are in Jerusalem. They have been pleased, indeed; and their debtors they are: for if the Gentiles have partaken of their spiritual things, they ought certainly to minister to them in temporal things. Wherefore, having finished this affair, and having sealed to them this fruit, I will go from thence by you into Spain. And I know that when I come to you, I shall come in the fullness of the blessing of Christ.
30.--Now I beseech you, brethren, by the Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the Spirit, that you strive together with me, by prayers for me to God; that I may be delivered from the disobedient in Judea; and that my service, which I am performing for Jerusalem, may be acceptable to the sains: that in joy I may come to you, through the will of God, and may be refreshed among you. Now may the God of peace be with you all. Amen.XVI.--I recommend toyou Phebe, our sister, who is a deaconess of the congregation at Cenchrea, that you may receive her in the Lord, as becomes saints, and assist her, in whatever business she may have need of you: for, indeed, she has been a helper of many, and especially of me. Salute Priscilla and Aquila, my fellow-laborers in Christ Jesus. These persons, for my life, laid down their own neck; to whom not only I give thanks, but even all the congregations of the Gentiles. Likewise, salute the congregation which is in their house. Salute Epnetus, my beloved, who is the first fruit of Asia to Christ Jesus. Salute Mary, who labored much for us. Salute Andronicus, and Junias, my kinsmen, and my fellow-prisoners, who are of note among the Apostles, and who were in Christ before me. Salute Amplias, my beloved in the Lord. Salute Urbanas, our fellow-laborer in Christ, and Stachys, my beloved. Salute Apelles, the approved in Christ. salute those who are of the family of Aristobulus. Salute Herodion, my kinsman. Salute those of the family of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, who labor in the Lord. Salute hte beloved Persis, who labored much in the Lord. Salute Rufus, the chosen in the Lord, and her who is the mother both of him and of me. Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren with them. Salute Philologus, and Julia, Nereus, and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints who are with them. Salute one another with a holy kiss. The congregations of Christ salute you. Now, I beseech you, brethren, mark them who make separations and occasions of falling, contrary to the doctrine whicy you have learned; and avoid them. For they who are such, do not serve our Lord Jesus, but their own belly; and by flattery and fair speeches, deceive the hearts of the simple. Now your obedience is reported to all men. I, therefore, rejoice on your account; nevertheless, I wish you, indeed, to be wise with respect to good; and simple with respect to evil. May the God of peace bruise Satan under your feet soon! The favor of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Timothy, my fellow-laborer, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my kinsmen, salute you. I, Tertius, who wrote this letter, salute you in the Lord. Gaius, my host, and of the whole congregation, salutes you. Erastus, the chamberlain of the city, salutes you, and Quartus, your brother. The favor of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all! Amen. Now to Him, who is able to establish you according to my gospel and the proclamation of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the secret, concealed in the times of the ages, (but now made manifest by the prophetic writings, and by the commandment of the eternal God made known to all the Gentiles, in order to the obedience of faith:) to the wise God alone, through Jesus Christ, to him be the glory forever. Amen.
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