Babylon (Akkadian Bâb-ilî): ancient capital of Babylonia, i.e., the southern part of modern Iraq. After the fall of the Assyrian empire, Babylonia became the leading power in the ancient Near East under its famous king Nebuchadnezzar II (ruled 604-562). After his death, there were several kings; the rule of Nabonidus was disastrous, and the town was captured by Cyrus, the king of Persia, in October 539.

In October 522, after the coup d' état of the MagianGaumâta had been suppressed by the Persian king Darius, Babylon revolted for eleven weeks under Nidintu-Bêl or Nebuchadnezzar III. A second rebellion was lead by Arakha or Nebuchadnezzar IV and lasted four months.

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