Parthia (Old Persian Parthava): satrapy of the ancient Persian empire, the north-east of modern Iran. In 522/521 it revolted against the Persians, joining the Median rebel king Phraortes. The Persian satrap of Parthia was Hystaspes, the father of the new Persian king Darius; he managed to stand his ground against the Parthian rebels in the city Vishpauzâtish, where he repelled his enemies on March 8, 521 BC. After Hystaspes had received the troops which had captured Phraortes at Ragae as reinforcements, he was able to attack the Parthians and Hyrcanians near the Parthian town Patigrabana (July 11). After his victory, Parthia was pacified again.

After the fall of the Persian Empire, Parthia was governed by the Seleucid kings: a Macedonian dynasty that ruled in the Asian territories of the former Persian Empire. In //