Phraortes: son of Upadaranma, rebel leader from Media, who rose against the Persian king Darius after he had killed the Magian Gaumâta and left Media. His rebellion started in December 522 BC, but he was defeated in the South near Marush (near modern Yazd) on January 12, 521 by a Persian army led by Hydarnes. The Persians were unable to exploit their victory, until Darius decided to solve the problem personally. In May, he invaded Media from the West, and defeated Phraortes near Kundurush (modern Kangâvar?). The Median king fled to Ragae (modern Teheran), where he was caught. Darius writes in the Behistun inscription that he personally cut off his nose, ears and tongue, put out his eyes, and had him crucified in Ecbatana. The monument shows him before the mutilation (picture).