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1The words of the Preacher, the son of David,
king in Jerusalem. 2Vanity of vanities, says the Preacher, vanity
of vanities; all is vanity. 3What profit has a man of all
his labor which he takes under the sun?
4One generation passes away, and another generation
comes: but the earth abides for ever. 5The sun also rises, and
the sun goes down, and hurries to the place where it arose. 6The
wind goes toward the south, and turns about to the north; it whirls about
continually, and the wind returns again according to its circuits.
7All the rivers run into the sea; yet the sea is not full;
to the place from where the rivers come, there they return again.
8All things are full of labor; man cannot utter it:
the eye is not satisfied with seeing, nor the ear filled with hearing.
9The thing that has been, it is that which shall be; and
that which is done is that which shall be done: and there is
no new thing under the sun. 10Is there any thing
of which it may be said, See, this is new? it has been already from
old time, which was before us. 11There is no remembrance
of former things; neither shall there be any remembrance of
things that are to come with those that shall come after.
12I the Preacher was king over Israel in Jerusalem.
13And I gave my heart to seek and search out by wisdom concerning
all things that are done under heaven: this sore travail has God given
to the sons of man to be exercised with it. 14I have seen all
the works that are done under the sun; and, behold, all is vanity
and vexation of spirit. 15That which is crooked cannot
be made straight: and that which is lacking cannot be numbered.
16I communed with my own heart, saying, Lo, I have come to great
estate, and have got more wisdom than all those who have been before
me in Jerusalem: yes, my heart had great experience of wisdom and knowledge.
17And I gave my heart to know wisdom, and to know madness and
folly: I perceived that this also is vexation of spirit. 18For
in much wisdom is much grief: and he who increases knowledge increases
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1I said in my heart, Go to now, I will prove you with mirth, therefore
enjoy pleasure: and, behold, this also is vanity. 2I said
of laughter, It is mad: and of mirth, What does it? 3I
sought in my heart to give myself to wine, yet acquainting my heart with
wisdom; and to lay hold on folly, till I might see what was the good
for the sons of men, which they should do under the heaven all the days of
their life. 4I made great works; I built houses; I planted vineyards:
5I made gardens and orchards, and I planted trees in them of all
kind of fruits: 6I made pools of water, to water there
the woods that brings forth trees: 7I got servants and maidens,
and had servants born in my house; also I had great possessions of great
and small cattle above all who were in Jerusalem before me: 8I
also gathered silver and gold, and the peculiar treasure of kings and of
the provinces: I got men singers and women singers, and the delights of the
sons of men, as musical instruments, and that of all sorts.
9So I was great, and increased more than all who were before me
in Jerusalem: also my wisdom remained with me. 10And what ever
my eyes desired I did not keep from them, I did not withhold my heart from
any joy; for my heart rejoiced in all my labor: and this was my portion of
all my labor. 11Then I looked on all the works that my hands had
worked, and on the labor that I had labored to do: and, behold, all
was vanity and vexation of spirit, and there was no profit
under the sun.
12And I turned myself to behold wisdom, and madness, and folly:
for what can the man do who comes after the king? even
that which has been already done. 13Then I saw that wisdom excels
folly, as far as light excels darkness. 14The wise man's eyes
are in his head; but the fool walks in darkness: and I myself perceived
also that one event happens to them all. 15Then I said in my heart,
As it happens to the fool, so it happens even to me; and why then was I more
wise? Then I said in my heart, that this also is vanity.
16For there is no remembrance of the wise more than of
the fool for ever; seeing that which now is in the days to come shall
all be forgotten. And how does the wise man die? even as the fool.
17Therefore I hated life; because the work that is worked under
the sun is grievous to me: for all is vanity and vexation of
spirit. 18Yes, I hated all my labor which I had taken under the
sun: because I would leave it to the man who shall be after me.
19And who knows whether he shall be a wise man or a fool?
yet he shall have rule over all my labor in which I have labored, and in
which I have shown myself wise under the sun. This is also vanity.
20Therefore I went about to cause my heart to despair of all the
labor which I took under the sun. 21For there is a man whose labor
is in wisdom, and in knowledge, and in equity; yet he shall leave
it to a man who has not labored there for his portion. This also
is vanity and a great evil. 22For what has man of all his
labor, and of the vexation of his heart, in which he has labored under the
sun? 23For all his days are sorrows, and his travail grief;
yes, his heart takes no rest in the night. This is also vanity.
24There is nothing better for a man, than that he
should eat and drink, and that he should make his soul enjoy good
in his labor. This also I saw, that it was from the hand of God.
25For who can eat, or who else can hurry to it, more than
I? 26For God gives to a man who is good in his sight
wisdom, and knowledge, and joy: but to the sinner he gives travail, to gather
and to heap up, that he may give to him who is good before God. This
also is vanity and vexation of spirit.
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1To every thing there is a season, and a time to every
purpose under the heaven: 2A time to be born, and a time to die;
a time to plant, and a time to pluck up that which is planted;
3A time to kill, and a time to heal; a time to break down, and
a time to build up; 4A time to weep, and a time to laugh; a time
to mourn, and a time to dance; 5A time to cast away stones, and
a time to gather stones together; a time to embrace, and a time to refrain
from embracing; 6A time to get, and a time to lose; a time to
keep, and a time to cast away; 7A time to tear, and a time to
sew; a time to keep silence, and a time to speak; 8A time to love,
and a time to hate; a time of war, and a time of peace. 9What
profit has he who works in that in which he labors? 10I have seen
the travail, which God has given to the sons of men to be exercised in it.
11He has made every thing beautiful in its time: also he
has set the world in their heart, so that no man can find out the work that
God makes from the beginning to the end. 12I know that there
is no other good in them, but for a man to rejoice, and
to do good in his life. 13And also that every man should eat and
drink, and enjoy the good of all his labor, it is the gift of God.
14I know that, what ever God does, it shall be for ever: nothing
can be put to it, nor any thing taken from it: and God does it, that
men should fear before him. 15That which has been is now;
and that which is to be has already been; and God requires that which is
16And moreover I saw the place of judgment under the sun,
that wickedness was there; and the place of righteousness,
that iniquity was there. 17I said in my heart, God
shall judge the righteous and the wicked: for there is a time there
for every purpose and for every work. 18I said in my heart concerning
the estate of the sons of men, that God might manifest them, and that they
might see that they themselves are beasts. 19For that which befalls
the sons of men befalls beasts; even one thing befalls them: as the one dies,
so the other dies; yes, they all have one breath; so that a man has no
preeminence above a beast: for all is vanity. 20All go
to one place; all are of the dust, and all turn to dust again.
21Who knows the spirit of man that goes upward, and the spirit
of the beast that goes downward to the earth? 22Therefore I perceive
that there is nothing better, than that a man should rejoice in his
own works; for that is his portion: for who shall bring him to see
what shall be after him?
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1So I returned, and considered all the oppressions that are done
under the sun: and behold the tears of such as were oppressed, and
they had no comforter; and on the side of their oppressors there was
power; but they had no comforter. 2Therefore I praised the dead
which are already dead more than the living which are yet alive.
3Yes, better is hewho has not yet been than they both,
who has not seen the evil work that is done under the sun.
4Again, I considered all travail, and every right work, that for
this a man is envied of his neighbor. This is also vanity and vexation
of spirit. 5The fool folds his hands together, and eats his own
flesh. 6Better is a handful with quietness, than
both the hands full with travail and vexation of spirit.
7Then I returned, and I saw vanity under the sun.
8There is one alone, and there is not a second;
yes, he has neither child nor brother: yet is there no end of all
his labor; nor is his eye satisfied with riches; nor does he say,
For whom do I labor, and bereave my soul of good? This is also vanity,
yes, it is a sore travail. 9Two are better than
one; because they have a good reward for their labor. 10For if
they fall, the one will lift up his fellow: but woe to him who is
alone when he falls; for he does not have another to help him up.
11Again, if two lie together, then they have heat: but how can
one be warm alone? 12And if one prevails against him, two
shall withstand him; and a threefold cord is not quickly broken.
13Better is a poor and a wise child than an old and foolish
king, who will no more be admonished. 14For out of prison he comes
to reign; whereas also he who is born in his kingdom becomes poor.
15I considered all the living who walk under the sun, with the
second child who shall stand up in his place. 16There is
no end of all the people, even of all who have been before them: they
also who come after shall not rejoice in him. Surely this also is
vanity and vexation of spirit.
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1Keep your foot when you go to the house of God, and be more ready
to hear, than to give the sacrifice of fools: for they do not consider that
they do evil. 2Do not be rash with your mouth, and let not your
heart be hasty to utter any thing before God: for God is in
heaven, and you on earth: therefore let your words be few. 3For
a dream comes through the multitude of business; and a fool's voice is
known by multitude of words.
4When you vow a vow to God, defer not to pay it; for he has
no pleasure in fools: pay that which you have vowed. 5Better is
it that you should not vow, than that you should vow and not pay.
6Do not suffer your mouth to cause your flesh to sin; nor say
before the angel, that it was an error: why should God be angry at
your voice, and destroy the work of your hands? 7For in the multitude
of dreams and many words there are also different vanities:
but fear God. 8If you see the oppression of the poor, and violent
perverting of judgment and justice in a province, do not marvel at the matter:
for he who is higher than the highest regards; and he is higher
9Moreover the profit of the earth is for all: the king
himself is served by the field. 10He who loves silver shall
not be satisfied with silver; nor he who loves abundance with increase: this
is also vanity. 11When goods increase, they are increased
who eat them: and what good is there to the owners of it, except the
beholding of them with their eyes? 12The sleep of a laboring
man is sweet, whether he eats little or much: but the abundance of
the rich will not suffer him to sleep. 13There is a sore evil
which I have seen under the sun, namely, riches kept for the
owners of it to their hurt. 14But those riches perish by evil
travail: and he begets a son, and there is nothing in his hand.
15As he came out of his mother's womb, naked he shall return to
go as he came, and shall take nothing of his labor, which he may carry away
in his hand. 16And this also is a sore evil, that
in all points as he came, so shall he go: and what profit has he who has
labored for the wind? 17All his days also he eats in darkness,
and he has much sorrow and wrath with his sickness.
18Behold that which I have seen: it is good and
comely for one to eat and to drink, and to enjoy the good of all his
labor that he takes under the sun all the days of his life, which God gives
him: for it is his portion. 19Every man also to whom God
has given riches and wealth, and has given him power to eat of it, and to
take his portion, and to rejoice in his labor; this is the gift of
God. 20For he shall not remember much of the days of his life;
because God answers him in the joy of his heart.
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1There is an evil which I have seen under the sun, and it
is common among men: 2A man to whom God has given riches,
wealth, and honor, so that he wants nothing for his soul of all that he desires,
yet God does not give him power to eat of it, but a stranger eats it: this
is vanity, and it is an evil disease. 3If a man
begets a hundred children, and lives many years, so that the days
of his years are many, and his soul is not filled with good, and also
that he has no burial; I say, that an untimely birth is
better than he. 4For he comes in with vanity, and departs in darkness,
and his name shall be covered with darkness. 5Moreover he has
not seen the sun, nor known any thing: this has more rest than the
other. 6Yes, though he lives twice a thousand years told,
yet he has seen no good: do not all go to one place?
7All the labor of man is for his mouth, and yet the appetite
is not filled. 8For what has the wise more than the fool? what
has the poor, who knows to walk before the living? 9Better
is the sight of the eyes than the wandering of the desire: this
is also vanity and vexation of spirit. 10That which has
been is already named, and it is known that it is man: neither may
he contend with him who is mightier than he.
11Seeing there are many things that increase vanity, what
is man the better? 12For who knows what is good
for man in this life, all the days of his vain life which he spends
as a shadow? for who can tell a man what shall be after him under the sun?
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1A good name is better than precious ointment; and the
day of death than the day of one's birth. 2It is better
to go to the house of mourning, than to go to the house of feasting: for
that is the end of all men; and the living will lay it to his
heart. 3Sorrow is better than laughter: for by the sadness
of the countenance the heart is made better. 4The heart of the
wise is in the house of mourning; but the heart of fools is
in the house of mirth. 5It is better to hear the rebuke
of the wise, than for a man to hear the song of fools. 6For as
the crackling of thorns under a pot, so is the laughter of the fool:
this also is vanity.
7Surely oppression makes a wise man mad; and a gift destroys the
heart. 8Better is the end of a thing than the beginning
of it: and the patient in spirit is better than the proud in
spirit. 9Do not be hasty in your spirit to be angry: for anger
rests in the bosom of fools. 10Do not say, What is the cause
that the former days were better than these? for you do not enquire wisely
11Wisdom is good with an inheritance: and by it there
is profit to those who see the sun. 12For wisdom is
a defense, and money is a defense: but the excellency of knowledge
is, that wisdom gives life to them who have it. 13Consider
the work of God: for who can make that straight, which he has made
crooked? 14In the day of prosperity be joyful, but in the day
of adversity consider: God also has set the one over against the other, to
the end that man should find nothing after him. 15All
things I have seen in the days of my vanity: there is a just
man who perishes in his righteousness, and there is a wicked
man who prolongs his life in his wickedness. 16Do
not be over much righteous; neither make yourself over wise: why should you
destroy yourself? 17Do not be over much wicked, neither be foolish:
why should you die before your time? 18It is good that
you should take hold of this; yes, also do not withdraw your hand from this:
for he who fears God shall come out of them all. 19Wisdom strengthens
the wise more than ten mighty men who are in the city.
20For there is not a just man on earth, who does good,
and does not sin. 21Also take no heed to all words that are spoken;
lest you hear your servant curse you: 22For oftentimes also your
own heart knows that you yourself likewise have cursed others.
23All this have I proved by wisdom: I said, I will be wise; but
it was far from me. 24That which is far off, and exceedingly
deep, who can find it out? 25I applied my heart to know, and to
search, and to seek out wisdom, and the reason of things, and to know
the wickedness of folly, even of foolishness and madness:
26And I find more bitter than death the woman, whose heart
is snares and nets, and her hands as bands: who ever
pleases God shall escape from her; but the sinner shall be taken by her.
27Behold, this I have found, says the preacher, counting
one by one, to find out the account: 28Which yet my soul seeks,
but I have not found: One man among a thousand I have found; but a woman
among all those I have not found. 29Lo, this only have I found,
that God has made man upright; but they have sought out many inventions.
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1Who is as the wise man? and who knows the
interpretation of a thing? a man's wisdom makes his face to shine, and the
boldness of his face shall be changed. 2I counsel you to
keep the king's commandment, and that in regard of the oath of God.
3Do not be hasty to go out of his sight: do not stand in an evil
thing; for he does what ever pleases him. 4Where the word of a
king is, there is power: and who may say to him, What do you do?
5Who ever keeps the commandment shall feel no evil thing: and
a wise man's heart discerns both time and judgment.
6Because to every purpose there is time and judgment, therefore
the misery of man is great on him. 7For he does not know
that which shall be: for who can tell him when it shall be?
8There is no man who has power over the spirit to retain
the spirit; neither has he power in the day of death: and there
is no discharge in that war; neither shall wickedness deliver
those who are given to it.
9All this I have seen, and applied my heart to every work that
is done under the sun: there is a time in which one man rules over
another to his own hurt. 10And so I saw the wicked buried, who
had come and gone from the place of the holy, and they were forgotten in
the city where they had done so: this is also vanity.
11Because sentence against an evil work is not executed speedily,
therefore the heart of the sons of men is fully set in them to do evil.
12Though a sinner does evil a hundred times, and his days
are prolonged, yet surely I know that it shall be well with those who fear
God, who fear before him: 13But it shall not be well with the
wicked, nor shall he prolong his days, which are as a shadow;
because he does not fear before God.
14There is a vanity which is done on the earth; that there are
just men, to whom it happens according to the work of the wicked;
again, there are wicked men, to whom it happen according to the work
of the righteous: I said that this also is vanity. 15Then
I commended mirth, because a man has no better thing under the sun, than
to eat, and to drink, and to be merry: for that shall abide with him of his
labor the days of his life, which God gives him under the sun.
16When I applied my heart to know wisdom, and to see the business
that is done on the earth: (for also there is who sees sleep with
his eyes neither day nor night:) 17Then I beheld all the work
of God, that a man cannot find out the work that is done under the sun: because
though a man labor to seek it out, yet he shall not find it;
yeas further; though a wise man thinks to know it, yet he shall
not be able to find it.
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1For all this I considered in my heart even to declare all this,
that the righteous, and the wise, and their works, are in the hand
of God: no man knows either love or hatred by all that is before
them. 2All things come alike to all: there is one
event to the righteous, and to the wicked; to the good and to the clean,
and to the unclean; to him who sacrifices, and to him who who does not sacrifice:
as the good is, so is the sinner; and he who swears,
as he who fears an oath. 3This is an evil among
all things that are done under the sun, that there is one event
to all: yes, also the heart of the sons of men is full of evil, and madness
is in their heart while they live, and after that they go to
4For to him who is joined to all the living there is hope: for
a living dog is better than a dead lion. 5For the living know
that they shall die: but the dead know not any thing, nor have they any more
reward; for the memory of them is forgotten. 6Also their love,
and their hatred, and their envy, is now perished; nor have they any more
a portion for ever in any thing that is done under the sun.
7Go your way, eat your bread with joy, and drink your wine with
a merry heart; for God now accepts your works. 8Let your garments
be always white; and let your head lack no ointment. 9Live joyfully
with the wife whom you love all the days of the life of your vanity, which
he has given you under the sun, all the days of your vanity: for that
is your portion in this life, and in your labor which you take
under the sun. 10What ever your hand finds to do, do it
with your might; for there is no work, nor device, nor knowledge,
nor wisdom, in the grave, where you go.
11I returned, and saw under the sun, that the race is not
to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise,
nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favor to men of skill; but
time and chance happens to them all. 12For man also does not know
his time: as the fish that are taken in an evil net, and as the birds that
are caught in the snare; so are the sons of men snared in an evil
time, when it falls suddenly on them.
13This wisdom have I seen also under the sun, and it seemed
great to me: 14There was a little city, and few men in
it; and there came a great king against it, and besieged it, and built great
bulwarks against it: 15Now there was a poor wise man found in
it, and he delivered the city by his wisdom; yet no man remembered that same
poor man. 16Then I said, Wisdom is better than strength:
nevertheless the poor man's wisdom is despised, and his words are
not heard. 17The words of wise men are heard in quiet more
than the cry of him who rules among fools. 18Wisdom is
better than weapons of war: but one sinner destroys much good.
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1 Dead flies cause the ointment of the apothecary to send forth
a stinking savor: so does a little folly him who is in reputation
for wisdom and honor. 2A wise man's heart is at
his right hand; but a fool's heart at his left. 3Yes also, when
he who is a fool walks by the way, his wisdom fails him, and he says
to every one that he is a fool.
4If the spirit of the ruler rises up against you, do not leave
your place; for yielding pacifies great offences. 5There is an
evil which I have seen under the sun, as an error which proceeds
from the ruler: 6Folly is set in great dignity, and the rich sits
in a low place. 7I have seen servants on horses, and princes walking
as servants on the earth. 8He who digs a pit shall fall into it;
and whoever breaks a hedge, a serpent shall bite him. 9Whoever
removes stones shall be hurt with them; and he who cleaves wood shall
be endangered by it. 10If the iron is blunt, and he does not whet
the edge, then he must put more strength: but wisdom is profitable
to direct. 11Surely the serpent will bite without enchantment;
and a babbler is no better.
12The words of a wise man's mouth are gracious; but the
lips of a fool will swallow up himself. 13The beginning of the
words of his mouth is foolishness: and the end of his talk is
mischievous madness. 14A fool also is full of words: a man cannot
tell what shall be; and what shall be after him, who can tell him?
15The labor of the foolish wearies every one of them, because
he does not know how to go to the city.
16Woe to you, O land, when your king is a child, and your
princes eat in the morning! 17Blessed are you, O land, when your
king is the son of nobles, and your princes eat in due season, for
strength, and not for drunkenness! 18By much slothfulness the
building decays; and through idleness of the hands the house drops through.
19A feast is made for laughter, and wine makes merry: but money
answers all things. 20Do not curse the king, no not in
your thought; and do not curse the rich in your bedchamber: for a bird of
the air shall carry the voice, and that which has wings shall tell the matter.
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1Cast your bread on the waters: for you shall find it after many
days. 2Give a portion to seven, and also to eight; for you do
not know what evil shall be on the earth. 3If the clouds are full
of rain, they empty themselves on the earth: and if the tree fall
toward the south, or toward the north, in the place where the tree falls,
there it shall be. 4He who observes the wind shall not sow; and
he who regards the clouds shall not reap. 5As you know not what
is the way of the spirit, nor how the bones grow in
the womb of her who is with child: even so you do not know the works of God
who makes all. 6In the morning sow your seed, and in the evening
do not withhold your hand: for you do not know whether it shall prosper,
either this or that, or whether they both shall be alike good.
7Truly the light is sweet, and a pleasant thing it is
for the eyes to behold the sun: 8But if a man lives many years,
and rejoices in them all, yet let him remember the days of darkness;
for they shall be many. All that comes is vanity. 9Rejoice,
O young man, in your youth; and let your heart cheer you in the days of your
youth, and walk in the ways of your heart, and in the sight of your eyes:
but know that for all these things God will bring you into judgment.
10Therefore remove sorrow from your heart, and put away evil from
your flesh: for childhood and youth are vanity.
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1Remember now your Creator in the days of your youth, while the
evil days do not come, nor the years draw nigh, when you shall say, I have
no pleasure in them; 2While the sun, or the light, or the moon,
or the stars, are not darkened, nor the clouds return after the rain:
3In the day when the keepers of the house shall tremble, and the
strong men shall bow themselves, and the grinders cease because they are
few, and those who look out of the windows are darkened, 4And
the doors shall be shut in the streets, when the sound of the grinding is
low, and he shall rise up at the voice of the bird, and all the daughters
of music shall be brought low; 5Also when they shall be
afraid of that which is high, and fears shall be in the way,
and the almond tree shall flourish, and the grasshopper shall be a burden,
and desire shall fail: because man goes to his long home, and the mourners
go about the streets: 6Or ever the silver cord is loosed, or the
golden bowl is broken, or the pitcher is broken at the fountain, or the wheel
broken at the cistern. 7Then shall the dust return to the earth
as it was: and the spirit shall return to God who gave it.
8Vanity of vanities, says the preacher; all is vanity.
9And moreover, because the preacher was wise, he still taught
the people knowledge; yes, he gave good heed, and sought out, and
set in order many proverbs. 10The preacher sought to find out
acceptable words: and that which was written was upright,
even words of truth. 11The words of the wise are
as goads, and as nails fastened by the masters of assemblies,
which are given from one shepherd. 12And further, by these,
my son, be admonished: of making many books there is no end; and much
study is a weariness of the flesh.
13Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God, and
keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man.
14For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret
thing, whether it is good, or whether it is evil.
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