Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 B.C.E.) defeated the Egyptians, rebuilt Babylon and its Hanging gardens. The Ishtar Gate which he built as part of the walls of Babylon is in the Pergamum Museum In Berlin.
He renewed the glories of an independent Babylonia for the last time. He invaded Judah, capturing Jerusalem twice (606 and 596 BCE) and then forced to besiege it a third time he destroyed the city and its temple, exiling its population to Babylon in 585 BCE The exile lasted from 606 to 536 BCE. His dynasty was known as the Chaldaean Dynasty. This cylinder commemorates his reconstruction of the temple of the god of the city Marada. For his campaigns against Jerusalem, we must turn instead to the "Babylonian Chronicle," a priestly record of the chief events of each year beginning in 747 B.C. The Chronicle's version of matters is remarkably similar to that preserved in the Bible (2 Kings 24:10-17 etc.).
Nebuchanezzar, within the life time of this writer, was considered a nonentity, or myth, by some biblical critics. He is very much a historical personage in the light of the evidences f the past.
Literature: W.W. Hallo, "Nebukadnezar Comes to Jerusalem," in Jonathan V. Plaut, ed., Through the Sound of Many Voices: Writing Contribute on the Occasion of the 70th Birthday of W. Gunther Plaut (Toronto, Lester and Orpen Dennys, 1882) 40-57.
Place of publication: unpubl.
Museum number: NCBT 2314.