Ante-Nicene Fathers Volume IX


Contents
The Gospel of Peter, The Diatessaron of Tatian, The Apocalypse of Peter, The Visio Pauli, The Apocalypses of the Virgin and Sedrach, The Testament of Abraham, The Acts of Xanthippe and Polyxena, The Narrative of Zosimus, The Apology of Aristides, The Epistles of Clement Complete Text), Origen's Commentary on John, Books I-X, Origen's Commentary on Mathew,

Books I, II, and X-XIV

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO PETER

1 But of the Jews none washed his hands, neither Herod nor any one of his judges. And when they had refused to wash them, Pilate rose up. And then Herod the king commandeth that the Lord be taken,(1) saying to them, What things soever I commanded you to do unto him, do.

2 And there was standing there Joseph the friend of Pilate and of the Lord; and, knowing that they were about to crucify(2) him, he came to Pilate and asked the body of the Lord for burial. And Pilate sent to Herod and asked his body. And Herod said, Brother Pilate, even if no one had asked for him, we purposed to bury him, especially as the sabbath draweth on:(3) for it is written in the law, that the sun set not upon one that hath been put to death.

3 And he delivered him to the people on the day before the unleavened bread, their feast. And they took the Lord and pushed him as they ran, and said, Let us drag away the Son of God, having obtained power over him. And they clothed him with purple, and set him on the seat of judgement, saying, Judge righteously, O king of Israel. And one of them brought a crown of thorns and put it on the head of the Lord. And others stood and spat in his eyes, and others smote his cheeks: others pricked him with a reed; and some scourged him, saying, With this honour let us honour the Son of God.

4 And they brought two malefactors, and they crucified the Lord between them. But he held his peace, as though having no pain. And when they had raised the cross, they wrote the title: This is the king of Israel. And having set his garments before him they parted them among them, and cast lots for them. And one of those malefactors reproached them, saying, We for the evils that we have done have suffered thus, but this man, who hath become the Saviour of men, what wrong hath he done to you? And they, being angered at him, commanded that his legs should not be broken, that he might die in torment.

5 And it was noon, and darkness came over all Judaea: and they were troubled and distressed, lest the sun had set, whilst he was yet alive: [for] it is written for them, that the sun set not on him that hath been put to death. And one of them said, Give him to drink gall with vinegar. And they mixed and gave him to drink, and fulfilled all things, and accomplished their sins against their own head. And many went about with lamps, supposing that it was night, and fell down.(4) And the Lord cried out, saying, My power, my power, thou hast forsaken me. And when he had said it he was taken up. And in that hour the vail of the temple of Jerusalem was rent in twain.(5)

6 And then they drew out the nails from the hands of the Lord, and laid him upon the earth, and the whole earth quaked, and great fear arose. Then the sun shone, and it was found the ninth hour: and the Jews rejoiced, and gave his body to Joseph that he might bury it, since he had seen what good things he had done. And he took the Lord, and washed him, and rolled him in a linen cloth, and brought him into his own tomb, which was called the Garden of Joseph.

7 Then the Jews and the elders and the priests, perceiving what evil they had done to themselves, began to lament and to say, Woe for our sins: the judgement hath drawn nigh, and the end of Jerusalem. And I with my companions was grieved; and being wounded in mind we hid ourselves: for we were being sought for by them as malefactors, and as wishing to set fire to the temple. And upon all these things we fasted and sat mourning and weeping night and day until the sabbath.

8 But the scribes and Pharisees and elders being gathered together one with another, when they heard that all the people murmured and beat their breasts saying, If by his death these most mighty signs have come to pass, see how righteous he is,--the eiders were afraid and came

8

to Pilate, beseeching him and saying, Give us soldiers, that we may guard his sepulchre for three days, lest his disciples come and steal him away, and the people suppose that he is risen from the dead and do us evil. And Pilate gave them Petronius the centurion with soldiers to guard the tomb. And with them came elders and scribes to the sepulchre, and having rolled a great stone together with(1) the centurion and the soldiers, they all together who were there set it at the door of the sepulchre; and they affixed seven seals, and they pitched a tent there and guarded it. And early in the morning as the sabbath. was drawing on, there came a multitude from Jerusalem and the region round about, that they might see the sepulchre that was sealed.

9 And in the night in which the Lord's day was drawing on, as the soldiers kept guard two by two in a watch, there was a great voice in the heaven; and they saw the heavens opened, and two men descend from thence with great light and approach the tomb. And that stone which was put at the door rolled of itself and made way in part; and the tomb was opened, and both the young men entered in.

10 When therefore those soldiers saw it, they awakened the centurion and the elders; for they too were hard by keeping guard. And, as they declared what things they had seen, again they see three men come forth from the tomb, and two of them supporting one, and a cross following them: and of the two the head reached unto the heaven, but the head of him that was led by them overpassed the heavens. And they heard a voice from the heavens, saying, Thou hast preached to them that sleep. And a response was heard from the cross, Yea.

11 They therefore considered one with another whether to go away and shew these things to Pilate. And while they yet thought thereon, the heavens again are seen to open, and a certain man to descend and enter into the sepulchre. When the centurion and they that were with him saw these things, they hastened in the night to Pilate, leaving the tomb which they were watching, and declared all things which they had seen, being greatly distressed and saying, Truly he was the Son of God. Pilate answered and said, I am pure from the blood of the Son of God: but it was ye who determined this. Then they all drew near and besought him and entreated him to command the centurion and the soldiers to say nothing of the things which they had seen: For it is better, say they, for us to be guilty of the greatest sin before God, and not to fall into the hands of the people of the Jews and to be stoned. Pilate therefore commanded the centurion and the soldiers to say nothing.

12 And at dawn upon the Lord's day Mary Magdalen, a disciple of the Lord, fearing because of the Jews, since they were burning with wrath, had not done at the Lord's sepulchre the things which women are wont to do for those that die and for those that are beloved by them--she took her friends with her and came to the sepulchre where he was laid. And they feared lest the Jews should see them, and they said, Although on that day on which he was crucified we could not weep and lament, yet now let us do these things at his sepulchre. But who shall roll away for us the stone that was laid at the door of the sepulchre, that we may enter in and sit by him and do the things that are due? For the stone was great, and we fear lest some one see us. And if we cannot, yet if we but set at the door the things which we bring for a memorial of him, we will weep and lament, until we come unto our home.

13 And they went and found the tomb opened, and coming near they looked in there; and they see there a certain young man sitting in the midst of the tomb, beautiful and clothed in a robe exceeding bright: who said to them, Wherefore are ye come? Whom seek ye? Him that was crucified?(2) He is risen and gone. But if ye believe not, look in and see the place where he lay, that he is not [here]; for he is risen and gone thither, whence he was sent. Then the women feared and fled.

14 Now it was the last day of the unleavened bread, and many were going forth, returning to their homes, as the feast was ended. But we, the twelve disciples of the Lord, wept and were grieved: and each one, being grieved for that which was come to pass, departed to his home. But I Simon Peter and Andrew my brother took our nets and went to the sea; and there was with us Levi the son of Alphaeus, whom the Lord ...

10

MATTHEW XXVII.

24 When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but that rather a tumult was made, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye to it.

25 Then answered all the people, and said, His blood be on us, and on our children.

[cf. v. 57.]

26. Then released he Barabbas unto them: and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified.

27 Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the common hall, and gathered unto him the whole band of soldiers.

28 And they stripped him, and put on him a scarlet robe.

29 And when they had platted a crown of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand: and they bowed the knee before him, and mocked him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews!

30 And they spit upon

MARK XV.

[cf. v. 43.]

[cf. v. 42.]

15 And so Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified.

16 And the soldiers led him away into the hall, called Praetorium; and they call together the whole band.

17 And they clothed him with purple, and platted a crown of thorns, and put it about his head,

18 And began to salute him, Hail, King of the Jews!

19 And they smote him on the head with a reed, and did spit upon him, and bowing their knees worshipped him.

LUKE XXIII.

[2 cf. Lk. xxiii. 7.]

[3 cf. Lk. xxii. 66; Acts iv 27.]

[cf. v. 50.]

[4 cf. Lk. xxiii. 12.]

24 And Pilate gave sentence that it should be as they required.

25 And he released unto them him that for sedition and murder was cast into prison, whom they had desired; but he delivered Jesus to their will.

JOHN XIX.

[1 cf. John passim.]

[cf. v. 38.]

[cf. xix. 31.]

16 Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away.

11

PETER.

1 But of the Jews (1) none washed his hands, neither Herod (2) nor any one of his judges. (3) 2 And when they had refused to wash them, Pilate rose up. And then Herod the king commandeth that the Lord be taken, saying to them, What things soever I commanded you to do unto him, do.

3 And there was come there Joseph the friend of Pilate and of the Lord; and, knowing that they were about to crucify him, he came to Pilate and asked the body of the Lord for burial. 4 And Pilate sent to Herod and asked his body. 5 And Herod said, Brother (4) Pilate, even if no one had asked for him, we purposed to bury him, especially as the sabbath draweth on: for it is written in the law, that the sun set not upon one that hath been put to death. And he delivered him to the people on the day before the unleavened bread, their feast.

6 And they took the Lord and pushed him as they ran, and said, Let us drag away the Son of God, having obtained power over him.

7 And they clothed him with purple, and set him on the seat of judgement, saying, Judge righteously, O King of Israel. (8) And one of them brought a crown of thorns and put it on the head of the Lord. (9) And others stood and spat in his eyes, and others smote his cheeks: others pricked him with a reed; and some scourged him, saying, With this honour let us honour the Son of God.

12

MATTHEW.

him, and took the reed, and smote him on the head.

31 And after that they had mocked him, they took the robe off from him, and put his own raiment on him, and led him away to crucify him.

32 And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name: him they compelled to bear his cross.

33 And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, that

MARK.

20 And when they had mocked him, they took off the purple from him, and put his own clothes on him, and led him out to crucify him.

21 And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear his cross.

22 And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is,

LUKE.

26 And as they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the cross, that he might bear it after Jesus.

27 And there followed him a great company of people, and of women, which also bewailed and lamented him.

28 But Jesus turning unto them said, Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children.

29 For, behold, the days are coming, in the which they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bare, and the paps which never gave suck.

30 Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us.

31 For if they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in the dry?

32 And there were also two other, malefactors, led with him to be put to death.

33 And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary,

JOHN.

17 And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:

13

PETER.

14

MATTHEW.

is to say, a place of a skull,

34 They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof, he would not drink.

35 And they crucified him;

and parted his garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots.

36 And sitting down they watched him there;

37 And set up over his head his accusation written, THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS.

38 Then were there two thieves crucified with him, one on the right hand, and another on the left.

39 And they that

MARK.

being interpreted, The place of a skull.

23 And they gave him to drink wine mingled with myrrh: but he received it not.

24 And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take.

25 And it was the third hour, and they crucified him.

26 And the superscription of his accusation was written over, THE KING OF THE JEWS.

27 And with him they crucify two thieves; the one on his right hand, and the other on his left.

28 And the scripture

LUKE.

there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left.

34 Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots.

35 And the people stood beholding. And the rulers also with them derided him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself, if he be Christ, the chosen of God.

36 And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, and offering him vinegar,

37 And saying, If thou be the King of the Jews, save thyself.

38 And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE jews.

JOHN.

18 Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.

[cf. vv. 23, 24.]

19 And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.

20 This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was

15

PETER.

10 And they brought two malefactors, and they crucified the Lord between them.

But he held his peace, as though having no pain.

11 And when they had raised the cross, they wrote upon it, This is the King of Israel.

12 And having set his garments before him, they parted them among them, and cast lots for them.

16

MATTHEW.

passed by reviled him, wagging their heads,

40 And saying, Thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself. If thou be the Son of God, come down from the cross.

41 Likewise also the chief priests mocking him, with the scribes and elders, said,

42 He saved others; himself he cannot save. If he be the King of Israel, let him now come down from the cross, and we will believe him.

43 He trusted in God; let him deliver him now, if he will have him: for he said, I am the Son of God.

[cf. v. 35.]

44 The thieves also, which were crucified with him, cast the same in his teeth.

MARK.

was fulfilled, which saith, And he was numbered with the transgressors.

29 And they that passed by railed on him, wagging their heads and saying, Ah, thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days,

30 Save thyself, and come down from the cross.

31 Likewise also the chief priests mocking said among themselves with the scribes, He saved others; himself he cannot save.

32 Let Christ the King of Israel descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe.

[cf. v. 24.]

And they that were crucified with him reviled him.

LUKE.

39 And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed on him, saying, If thou be Christ, save thyself and, us.

40 But the other answering rebuked him, saying, Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou

JOHN.

written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin.

21 Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews.

22 Pilate answered, What I have written I have written.

23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.

24 They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did.

17

PETER.

[cf.V. 12.]

13 And one of those malefactors reproached them, saying, We for the evils that we have done have suffered thus, but this man, who hath become the Saviour of men, what wrong hath he done to you?

18

MATTHEW.

45 Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour.

46 And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?

MARK.

33 And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour.

34 And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?

LUKE.

art in the same condemnation?

41 And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss.

42 And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom.

43 And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise.

44 And it was about the sixth hour, and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour.

45 And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst.

JOHN.

25 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.

26 When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son!

27 Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home.

19

PETER.

14 And they, being angered at him, commanded that his legs should not be broken, that he might die in torment.

15 And it was noon, and darkness came over all Judaea:

and they were troubled and distressed, lest the sun had set, whilst he was yet alive: [for] it is written for them, that the sun set not on him that hath been put to death.

20

MATTHEW.

47 Some of them that stood there, when they heard that, said, This man calleth for Elias.

48 And straightway one of them ran, and took a spunge, and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink.

49 The rest said, Let be, let us see whether Elias will come to save him.

50 Jesus, when he had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost.

51 And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom;

and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent;

52 And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose,

53 And came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto many.

MARK.

35 And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elias.

36 And one ran and filled a spunge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let alone; let us see whether Elias will come to take him down.

37 And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost.

38 And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom.

LUKE.

46 And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost.

JOHN.

28 After this, Jesus knowing that all things

were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.

29 Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a spunge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth.

30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.

31 The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

32 Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him.

33 But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs:

21

PETER.

16 And one of them said, Give him to drink gall with vinegar. And they mixed and gave him to drink, 17 and fulfilled all things, and accomplished their sins against their own head.

18 And many went about with lamps, supposing that it was night, and fell down. 19 And the Lord cried out, saying, My power, my power, thou hast forsaken me.

And when he had said it he was taken up.

20 And in that hour the vail of the temple of Jerusalem was rent in twain.

22

MATTHEW.

54 Now when the centurion, and they that were with him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake, and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, Truly this was the Son of God.

55 And many women were there beholding afar off, which followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering unto him:

56 Among which was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedee's children.

57 When the even was come, there came a rich man of Arimathaea, named Joseph,who also himself was Jesus' disciple:

MARK.

39 And when the centurion, which stood over against him, saw that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost, he said, Truly this man was the Son of God.

40 There were also women looking on afar off: among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome;

41 (Who also, when he was in Galilee, followed him, and ministered unto him;) and many other women which came up with him unto Jerusalem.

42 And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath,

43 Joseph of Arimathaea, an honourable counsellor, which also waited for the kingdom of God, came, and went in boldly unto Pilate

LUKE.

47 Now when the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, Certainly this was a righteous man.

48 And all the people that came together to that sight, beholding the things which were done, smote their breasts, and returned.

49 And all his acquaintance, and the women that followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things.

50 And, behold, there was a man named Joseph, a counsellor; and he was a good man, and a just:

51 (The same had not

JOHN.

34 But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water.

35 And he that saw it bare record, and his record is true: and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe.

36 For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken.

37 And again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced.

38 And after this Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he might

23

PETER.

21 And then they drew out the nails from the hands of the Lord, and laid him upon the earth, and the whole earth quaked, and great fear arose. 22 Then the sun shone, and it was found the ninth hour: 23 and the Jews rejoiced, and

24

MATTHEW.

58 He went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded the body to be delivered.

59 And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth,

60 And laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed.

61 And there was Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary, sitting over against the sepulchre.

MARK.

and craved the body of Jesus.

44 And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead: and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether he had been any while dead.

45 And when he knew it of the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph.

46 And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre.

47 And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses beheld where he was laid.

LUKE.

consented to the counsel and deed of them; ) he was of Arimathaea, a city of the Jews: who also himself waited for the kingdom of God.

52 This man went unto Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus.

53 And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid.

54 And that day was the preparation, and the sabbath drew on.

55 And the women also,which came with him from Galilee, followed after, and beheld the sepulchre, and how his body was laid.

56 And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the sabbath day according to the commandment.

JOHN.

take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus.

39 And there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight.

40 Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury.

41 Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid.

42 There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews' preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.

25

PETER.

gave his body to Joseph that he might bury it,

since he had seen what good things he had done.

24 And he took the Lord, and washed him, and wrapped him in a linen cloth, and brought him into his own tomb,

which was called the Garden of Joseph.

25 Then the Jews and the elders and the priests, perceiving what evil they had done to themselves, began to lament and to say, Woe for our sins: the judgement hath drawn nigh, and the end of Jerusalem.

26 And I with my companions was grieved; and being wounded in mind we hid ourselves: for we were being sought for by them as malefactors, and as wishing to set fire to the temple.

26

MATTHEW.

[1 cf. Mt. ix. 15.]

62 NOW the next day, that followed the day of the preparation, the chief priests and Pharisees

came together unto Pilate,

63 Saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, while he was yet alive, After three days I will rise again.

64 Command therefore that the sepulchre be made sure until the third day, lest his disciples come by night, and steal him away, and say unto the people, He is risen from the dead: so the last error shall be worse than the first.

65 Pilate said unto them, Ye have a watch: go your way, make it as sure as ye can.

66 So they went, and made the sepulchre sure, sealing the stone, and setting a watch.

MARK.

[1 cf. Mk. ii. 20.]

[2 cf. Mk. xvi. 10.]

LUKE.

JOHN.

27

PETER.

27 And upon all these things we fasted 1 and sat mourning 2 and weeping 2 night and day until the sabbath.

28 But the scribes and Pharisees and elders being gathered together one with another, when they heard that all the people murmured and beat their breasts, saying, If by his death these most mighty signs have come to pass, see how just he is,--29 the elders were afraid and

came to Pilate, beseeching him and saying, 30 Give us soldiers, that we may guard his sepulchre for three days, lest his disciples come and steal him away, and the people suppose that he is risen from the dead and do us evil.

31 And Pilate gave them Petronius the centurion with soldiers to guard the tomb. And with them came the elders and scribes to the sepulchre,

32 And having rolled a great stone together with the centurion and the soldiers, they all together who were there set it at the door of the sepulchre;

33 And they affixed seven seals, and they pitched a tent there and guarded it.

34 And early in the morning as the sabbath was drawing on, there came a multitude from Jerusalem and the region round about, that they might see the sepulchre that was sealed.

35 And in the night in which the Lord's day was drawing on, as the soldiers kept guard two by two in a watch, there was a great voice in the heaven; 36 and they saw the heavens opened, and two men descend from thence with great light and approach the tomb. 37 And that stone which was put at the door rolled of itself and made way in part; and the tomb was opened, and both the young men entered in.

38 When therefore those soldiers saw it, they awakened the centurion and the elders,--for they too were hard by keeping guard; 39 and, as they declared what things they had seen, again they see three men coming forth from the tomb, and two of them supporting one, and a cross following them. 40 And of the two the head reached unto the heaven, but the head of him that was led by them overpassed the heavens. 41 And they heard a voice from the heavens, saying, Hast thou preached to them that sleep? 42 And a response was heard from the cross, Yea.

43 They therefore considered one with another whether to go away and shew these things to Pilate. 44 And while they yet thought thereon, the heavens again are seen to open, and a certain man to descend and enter into the sepulchre. 45 When the centurion and they that were with him saw these things, they hastened in the night to Pilate, leaving the tomb which they were

28

MATTHEW.

[cf. Mt. xxvii. 24.]

CHAPTER XXVIII.

1 In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.

2 And, behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat upon it.

3 His countenance was like lightning, and his raiment white as

snow:

MARK.

CHAPTER XVI.

1 And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.

2 And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.

3 And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre?

4 And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great.

5 And entering into the sepulchre,

they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted.

LUKE.

CHAPTER XXIV.

1 Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.

2 And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre.

3 And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus.

4 And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood by them in shining garments:

5 And as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth,

JOHN.

CHAPTER XX.

1 The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre,

and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre.

29

PETER.

watching, and declared all things which they had seen, being greatly distressed and saying, Truly he was the Son of God. 46 Pilate answered and said, I am pure from the blood of the Son of God: but ye determined this.

47 Then they all drew near and besought him and entreated him to command the centurion and the soldiers to say nothing of the things which they had seen: 48 For it is better, say they, for us to incur the greatest sin before God, and not to fall into the bands of the people of the Jews and to be stoned. 49 Pilate therefore commanded the centurion and the soldiers to say nothing.

50 And at dawn upon the Lord's day, Mary Magdalen, a disciple of the Lord, fearing because of the Jews, since they were burning with wrath, had not done at the Lord's sepulchre the things which the women are wont to do for those that die and for those that are beloved by them--51 she took her friends with her and came to the sepulchre where he was laid.

52 And they feared lest the Jews should see them, and they said, Although on the day on which he was crucified we could not weep and lament, yet now let us do these things at his sepulchre.

53 But who shall roll away for us the stone that was laid at the door of the sepulchre, that we may enter in and sit by him and do the things that are due? 54 For the stone was great, and we fear lest some one see us. And if we cannot, yet if we but set at the door the things which we bring for a memorial of him, we will weep and lament, until we come unto our home.

55 And they went away and found the tomb opened,

and coming near they looked in there;

and they see there a certain young man sitting in the midst of the tomb, beautiful and clothed in a robe exceeding bright;

30

MATTHEW.

4 And for fear of him the keepers did shake, and became as dead

5 And the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified.

6 He is not here: for he is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay.

7 And go quickly, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead; and, behold, he goeth before you into Galilee; there shall ye see him: lo, I have told you.

8 And they departed quickly from the sepulchre with fear and great joy; and did run to bring his disciples word.

MARK.

6 And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him.

7 But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you.

8 And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid.

[Levi, etc.; cf. Mk. ii.

LUKE.

they said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the dead?

6 He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee,

7 Saying, The Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.

8 And they remembered his words,

9 And returned from the sepulchre, and told all these things unto the eleven, and to all the rest.

JOHN.

31

PETER.

who said to them, 56 Wherefore are ye come? Whom seek ye? Him that was crucified? He is risen and gone. But if ye believe not, look in and see the place where he lay, that he is not [here]; for he is risen and gone away thither, whence he was sent.

57 Then the women feared and fled.

58 Now it was the last day of the unleavened bread, and many were going forth, returning to their homes, as the feast was ended. 59 But we, the twelve disciples of the Lord, mourned and were grieved: and each one, being grieved for that which was come to pass, departed to his home. 60 But I, Simon Peter and Andrew my brother, took our nets and went to the sea; and there was with us Levi the son of Alphaeus, whom the Lord ...

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INTRODUCTION

THE aim of the following introductory paragraphs is neither to furnish a detailed restatement of facts already known, nor to offer an independent contribution to the discussion of the problems that arise, although in other circumstances such an attempt might be made with advantage. All that is needed and practicable here is to describe briefly, if possible, the nature of the connection between the English treatise forming the next part of this volume and the ancient work known as the Diatessaron of Tatian; and then to indicate in a few words some of the more important or interesting features of the work itself, and some of the historical and other problems that are in one way or another connected with it.

1 The Text Translated.--What is offered to the reader is a translation into English of an Arabic text, published at Rome in 1888, in a volume entitled in Arabic Diatessaron, which Titianus Compiled from the Four Gospels, with the alternative Latin title, Tatiani Evangeliorum Harmonioe, Arabice. The Roman volume consists of two parts--the text, covering a little over 209 very clearly printed Arabic pages, and a Latin half, comprising a scholarly introduction (pp. v.-xv.), a Latin translation (pp. 1-99), and a table showing the order in which the passages taken from the gospels occur in the text. The editor is P. Agostino Ciasca, a well-known Orientalist, "scriptor" at the Vatican Library.

2 Former Translations.--In his Introduction (p. xiv. f.) Ciasca explains that in his translation he aimed at preserving quantum, salva fidelitate, integrum fuit, indolem stylumque Clementinoe Vulgatoe. This Latin version was in its turn translated into English by the Rev. J. Hamlyn Hill, B.D., and published in 1894 in a volume entitled The Earliest Life of Christ, with an interesting introduction and a number of valuable appendices. The MS. of Mr. Hill's translation of the Latin of Ciasca was compared with the Arabic original by Mr. G. Buchanan Gray, M.A., lecturer in Hebrew and the Old Testament in Mansfield College, Oxford.

3 The Present Translation.--The translation offered here is quite independent of either of these two. Ciasca's Latin was seldom consulted, except when it was thought the Arabic might perhaps be obscured by a misprint. After the translation was completed, Hill's English was compared with it to transfer Mr. Hill's valuable system of references to the margin of this work, and to lessen the risk of oversights passing the last revision unnoticed. In two or three cases this process led to the adoption of a different construction, and in a few of the more awkward passages a word was borrowed as being less harsh than that which had originally been written. Speaking generally, the present version appears to differ from Mr. Hill's in adhering more closely to the original.(1)

4 The Arabic Text.--Only two Arabic MSS. are known to exist. Ciasca tells us (p. xiv.) that he took as the basis of his text that MS. which is more careful in its orthography, the Cod. Vat. Arab. No. 14. He, however, printed at the foot of the page the variants of the other MS., and supplied from it two lacunae in the Cod. Vat.(2) substituted its readings for those of the Cod. Vat. where he thought them preferable, and followed its testimony in omitting two important passages.(3) Here and there Ciasca has emended the text, but he does not profess to have produced a critical edition.(4)

5 The Arabic MSS.--Unfortunately, the present writer has not had an opportunity of examining these two MSS.; but they have been described at some length by Ciasca; Codex XIV., in Pitra's Analecta Sacra, iv., 465 if, and the other codex in the volume with which we are dealing, p. vi. ff. I. The former, which we shall call the Vatican MS. (in Ciasca's foot-notes it is called A), was brought to the Vatican from the East by Joseph S. Assemani(5) about A.D. 1719. It was described by Stephen E. Assemani,(6) Rosenmuller, and Akerblad,(7) and then at length by

36

Ciasca, to whose account the reader must be referred for the details. It consists of 123 folios, of which the first seven are somewhat spoiled, and of which two are missing,(1) and is supposed by Ciasca, from the character of the writing, and from the presence of certain Coptic letters(2) by the first hand, to have been written in Egypt. S. Assemani assigned it to the twelfth century, and Ciasca accepts his verdict, while Akerblad says the thirteenth or fourteenth century. The text of the MS. is pretty fully vocalised, but there are few diacritical points. There are marginal notes, some of them by a later hand,(3) which Ciasca classifies as (1) emendations, (2) restorations, (3) explanations. II. The second MS., which we shall call the Borgian (in Ciasca's foot-notes it is called B), was brought to the Borgian Museum from Egypt in August, 1886. It has at the end the following inscription in Arabic: "A present from Halim Dos Ghali, the Copt, the Catholic, to the Apostolic See, in the year of Christ 1886."(4) Antonius Morcos, Visitor Apostolic of the Catholic Copts, when, in the beginning of 1886, he was shown and informed about the Vatican MS., told of this other one and was the means of its being sent to Rome. The Borgian MS., which Ciasca refers to the fourteenth century, consists of 355 folios. Folios 1--85(5) contain an anonymous preface on the gospels, briefly described by Ciasca, who, however, does not say whether it appears to have been originally written in Arabic or to have been translated into that language. With folios 96b, 97a, which are reproduced in phototype in Ciasca's edition, begins the Introductory Note given in full at the beginning of the present translation. The text of the Diatessaron ends on folio 353a, but is followed by certain appendices, for which see below, 55, 17, note. This MS. is complete, and has, as we shall see,(6) in some respects a better text, though it is worse in its orthography than the Vatican MS.

6 Condition of the Arabic Text.--Ciasca's text does not profess to be critically determined, for which purpose a more careful study of each of the MSS. and an estimate of their respective texts would be indispensable. Although the Borgian MS. is supposed by Ciasca to be a century or two later than the Vatican MS. it is clearly not a copy of the latter, for not only does it sometimes offer more original readings, but, as we shall see, its text in some points coincides more exactly in scope with the original work. The list of various readings supplied by Ciasca,(7) which is equal to about a fifth or a quarter of the text itself, ought to yield, on being analysed, some canons of criticism. The foot-notes of the present edition are enough to show that a number of the peculiar features of Ciasca's text do not belong to the original Arabic MS.; and further study would dispose of still more. On the other hand, there are unfortunately some indications(8) that the common ancestor of both MSS., though perhaps less than two centuries removed from the original, was not the original itself, and therefore emendation may be necessary even where both MSS. agree. From first to last it has to be borne in mind that a great deal of work was done at Arabic versions of the gospels,(9) and the text of the copy from which our two MSS. are descended may already have suffered from contact with other versions; while the special activity of the thirteenth century may have left its mark in some places on the text of the Borgian MS., supposing it to be chronologically the later.

7 Origin of the Arabic Text.--If some of the uncouthness of the Arabic text is due to corruption in the course of transmission, much is also due to its being not an original work, but a translation. That it is, in the main, a translation from Syriac is too obvious to need proof.(10) The Introductory Notice and Subscription to the Borgian MS., moreover, expressly state that the work was translated by one Abu'l Faraj 'Abdulla ibn-at-Tayyib,(11) an "excellent and learned priest," and the inferiority of parts of the translation,(12) and entire absence of any confirmatory evidence,(13) hardly suffice to refute this assertion. Still, the Borgian MS. is a late witness, and although it most probably preserves a genuine tradition as to the author of our work, its statement need not therefore necessarily be correct in every point.

8 The Arabic Editor and his Method.--Ibn-at-Tayyib (d. 1043) is a well-known man, a Nestorian monk and scholar, secretary to Elias I., Patriarch of Nisibis (for references to sources see, e.g., Ciasca's Introduction, p. xi. f. and Steinschneider's long note in his Polemische und apologetische Lit. in Arabische Sprache, pp. 52-55). As we are here concerned with him

37

simply as a link in the chain connecting our present work with its original source, the only point of interest for us is the method he followed in producing it. Did he prepare an independent translation or did he make use of existing Arabic versions, his own or others? Until this question, which space forbids us to discuss here, has been more thoroughly investigated,(1) it must suffice to say that in view of the features in the present text that have not yet been shown to exist in any other Arabic version, it is still at least a tenable hypothesis that Ibn-at-Tayyib's MS. constituted to a considerable extent a real translation rather than a sort of Arabic parallel to the Codex Fuldensis (see below, 12).

9 The Syriac Text Translated--The eleventh-century MS. of Ibn-at-Tayyib, could we reach it, would bring us face to face with the more interesting question of the nature of his Syriac original. The Subscription to the Borgian MS. states, probably copying the statement from its exemplar, that this was a Syriac MS. in the handwriting of 'Isa ibn-'Ali al Motatabbib, pupil of Honain ibn Ishak. This Honain was a famous Arabic physician and medical writer of Bagdad (d. 873), whose school produced quite a number of translations and translators, among whom Ibn-'Ali, supposed to be identical with the Syriac lexicographer of the same name, is known to have had a high place. The Syriac MS., therefore, that Ibn-at-Tayyib translated takes us back to about the year 900. But the Subscription to each of our MSS.(2) states that the work ended is the gospel called Diatessaron, compiled from the four gospels by Titianus; while the Introductory Note to the Borgian MS. adds that this Titianus was a Greek. The next step, therefore, is to inquire whether any traces exist of such a Syriac work, or any statements by which we can check the account just given of it.

10 Other Traces of a Syriac Text.--No copy of a Syriac Diatessaron has yet been shown to have survived.(3) A number of quotations(4) from such a work have, however, been found in a Syriac commentary on the New Testament by Isho'dad of Merv (circ. 852), a contemporary of Honain, Ibn-'Ali's teacher.(5) The value of these extracts is apparent, for they take us back one generation earlier than Ibn-at-Tayyib's Syriac exemplar. More important still, they do not entirely agree with the text of our Arabic version. To solve the problem thus raised, we must examine some of the statements about the Diatessaron to be found in ecclesiastical writers.

11 Statements about the Diatessaron.--One of the most widely known is that of Isho'dad himself, who, in his Preface to the Gospel of Mark, says: "Tatian, disciple of Justin, the philosopher and martyr, selected from the four gospels, and combined and composed a gospel, and called it Diatessaron, i.e., the Combined, ... and upon this gospel Mar Ephraem commented."(6) Dionysius Bar Salibi (twelfth century) repeats each of these phrases, adding, "Its commencement was, 'In the beginning was the Word.'"(7) These statements identify the author of the Diatessaron with a man otherwise known, and tell us that the great Syrian father Ephraem (d. 373) wrote a commentary on it. Unfortunately, no Syriac MS. of Ephraem's work is known to have survived;(8) but quotations from it, or allusions to it, are being found in other Syriac writers. One further reference will suffice for the present. Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrrhus, four hundred years before Isho'dad, wrote thus in his book on Heresies (written in 453): "Tatian the Syrian. ... This [writer] also composed the gospel which is called Diatessaron, cutting out the genealogies and whatever other passages show that the Lord was born of the seed of David ac-

38

cording to the flesh."(1) Before examining the testimonials we have now adduced, we must notice certain more remote sources of information.

12 Non-Syriac Texts of the Diatessaron.--Although Ephraem's Syriac commentary on the Diatessaron is for the present lost, there is an Armenian version of it(2) extant in two MSS. dating from about the time of Bar Salibi and our Vat. MS.(3) A Latin translation of this work, published in 1876 by Moesinger,(4) formed the main basis of Zahn's attempt(5) to reconstruct the Diatessaron. Appendix X in Hill's Diatessaron (pp. 334-377) contains an English translation of the texts commented on by Ephraem, made from Moesinger's Latin, but collated with the Armenian by Professor J. Armitage Robinson, of Cambridge. A comparison of this document with our Arabic text shows a remarkable agreement in the order and contents, but just as remarkable a lack of agreement in the kind of text presented. The same phenomenon is met with when we compare our Arabic text with a document that carries us back three hundred years before the time of Isho'dad, and therefore more than six hundred years before the Armenian MSS.--the Codex Fuldensis of the Vulgate.(6) This MS. contains an arrangement of the gospel matter that its discoverer and publisher, Bishop Victor of Capua (d. 554), rightly concluded must represent the Diatessaron of Tatian, but for the text of which was apparently substituted that of the Vulgate.(7) We are now ready to weigh the testimony we have gathered.(8)

13 Accretions to the Diatessaron.--The statements we are to consider are: (1) Bar Salibi's, that Tatian's Diatessaron began with "In the beginning was the Word";(9) (2) Theodoret's, that Tatian cut out the genealogies; and (3) the same writer's, that Tatian also cut out "whatever other passages show that the Lord was born of the seed of David according to the flesh." Of these statements 1 conflicts with the Arabic text, which begins with Mark, and the Codex Fuldensis, which begins with Luke, but agrees with the Ephraem source; the same is true of 2; while 3 conflicts with all three texts. Our limits do not admit of our discussing these points in detail. It must suffice to say (1) that, although a more careful examination at first-hand of the introductory notices in the two Arabic MSS. seems needed before one can venture to propound a complete theory, a comparison of the two texts, and a consideration of the descriptions given by Ciasca and Lagarde,(10) make it almost certain that the genuine Arabic text of Ibn-at-Tayyib began with John i. 1. Similarly the first four verses of Luke (on which see also below, 1, 6, note) were probably not in the original text of the MS. that Victor found, for they are not mentioned in the (old) table of contents. We seem thus to detect a process of gradual accretion of material drawn from the ordinary gospel text. (2) The genealogies illustrate the same process. In the Vatican MS. they form part of the text.(11) But in the Borgian MS., although they precede the Subscription, and therefore may have been already in the ninth-century Syriac MS. used by Ibn-at-Tayyib, they are still placed by themselves, after a blank space, at the end of the volume, with a title of their own.(12) Here, therefore, we actually see stages of the process of accretion. (3) It is therefore possible that the same account must also be given of 3, although in this case we have no direct proof.

14 Passages Lost from the Diatessaron.--If the Diatessaron has thus been growing so as to represent the ordinary text of the canonical gospels more completely, we have also evidence that suggests that it has been at some time or times purged of certain features that are lacking in these canonical gospels. For one case of this kind see below, 4, 36, note.

15 Preservation of the Text of the Diatessaron.--We have observed already that the Latin, Armenian, and Arabic Diatessarons correspond pretty closely in subject-matter and arrangement, but differ markedly in text. The Codex Fuldensis is really a MS. of the Vulgate, although the text that Victor found was probably somewhat different. The Armenian text differs materially from the ordinary Syriac version of the New Testament (the Peshitta), showing a marked connection with another type of Syriac text represented now by the Curetonian and Sinaitic (Lewis) MSS. The Arabic text, on the other hand, almost systematically represents the Peshitta. The explanation of the condition of text in the Codex Fuldensis is obvious. On the other hand, the relationship of the Armenian and Arabic texts to the original Diatessaron must be determined by weighing

39

very multifarious evidence that cannot be even cited here (see above 6 ff.). The two texts depend, as we have seen, on late MSS.; but all the earlier references and quotations go to show that the Armenian text(1) stands much more closely related to the original than does the Arabic.

16 Checkered History of the Diatessaron.--What use the Arabic edition of Ibn-at-Tayyib was put to when made we do not know. 'Abd Isho' (d. 1318) speaks in the highest terms of Tatian's work, saying, "... With all diligence he attended to the utmost degree to the right order of those things which were said and done by the Saviour; of his own he did not add a single saying."(2) But the leaden of the Syrian church had not always thought so. Theodoret (loc. cit.) some nine hundred years earlier had written thus: "... Even those that follow the apostolic doctrines, not perceiving the mischief of the composition," used "the book too simply as an abridgment." A few years earlier Rabbula, Bishop of Edessa (d. 435), had said:(3) "Let the presbyters and deacons give heed that in all the churches there be provided and read a copy of the Distinct Gospel," i.e., not the harmonized or mixed gospel. But obviously these men were trying to suppress traditional practice due to very different views. Theodoret (loc. cit.) found more than two hundred copies of the work "held in respect in the churches"; and the Doctrine of Addai (Edessa, third to fourth century) seems simply to identify the Diatessaron and the New Testament.(4) Outside of the Syriac-speaking churches we find no signs of any such use of the Diatessaron. It would seem, therefore, that at a quite early stage the Diatessaron was very widely if not universally read in the Syriac churches, and commented on by scholars as the gospel; that in time it fell under the condemnation of some at least of the church leaders, who made violent efforts to suppress it; that it could not be suppressed; that a commentary on it was (perhaps in the fifth century(5)) translated into Armenian; that it was still discussed by commentators, and new Syriac MSS. of it made in the ninth century, and thought worth the labor of reproduction in Arabic in the beginning of the eleventh century; that MSS. of the Armenian volume continued to be made down to the very end of the twelfth century, and of the Arabic edition down to the fourteenth century; but that this long life was secured at the expense of a more or less rapid assimilation of the text to that of the great Syriac Bible which from the fourth century onwards became more and more exclusively used--the Peshitta.

17 The Author of the Diatessaron.--The Diatessaron is such an impersonal work that we do not need to know very much about its compiler.(6) It will suffice here to say that he tells us himself that he was born "in the land of the Assyrians," and brought up a heathen. After travelling in search of knowledge, he settled at Rome, where he became a pupil of Justin Martyr, professed Christianity, and wrote in Greek his Address to the Greeks,(7) translated in vol. iii. of the Ante-Nicene Christian Library. He was too independent in his attitude to maintain a permanent popularity, and after Justin's death left Rome and returned to Mesopotamia. It was probably here that he issued in Syriac his most important work, the Diatessaron, which won such a warm place in the heart of the Syrian church. Among the Greek scholars, however, he became more and more regarded as a heretic, Encratite (ascetic), and Gnostic.

18 The Diatessaron as a Harmony.--Not very much need be said on this subject, as every reader can collect the facts for himself. In its present form the Harmony draws from all the four canonical gospels, and from very little else. Opinions differ as to whether it originally indicated the gospel from which any given piece was drawn, and some uncertainty must remain in special cases as to what gospel actually has been drawn upon. Professor G. F. Moore, in a very interesting article on the Diatessaron,(8) having counted the references in the Arabic MSS., states that the Arabic text contains 50 per cent. of Mark, 66 per cent. of Luke, 76.5 per cent. of Matthew, and 96 per cent. of John. The summation of his figures gives the following result: out of a total of 3780 verses in the four gospels, the Diatessaron quotes 2769 and omits 1011. As to the order in which the whole is arranged, Moore thinks that Matthew has chiefly been followed; while Zahn regards the Fourth Gospel as normative. For a specimen of the way in which words and phrases from the different gospels are woven together, we may refer to 52, 35 ff., and the notes thereon. In the Arabic MSS., and probably in the Syriac exemplar, the work is divided into fifty-four almost equal chapters, followed by one short one--a feature that agrees well with what we have learned of the work as being of old the lectionary of the Syrian church.

40

19 Problems Connected with the Diatessaron.--The Diatessaron opens up a very wide field of study A few points may be here enumerated (see also above, 8, and note there). In what language was it written? On the view favoured by an increasing majority of scholars, that it was written in Syriac, was it a translation or simply a compilation? What precisely is its relation to the Syriac versions and the "Western" text generally? Then there is its bearing on the date and formation of the canonical gospels; the phenomenon of its so long supplying the place of those gospels; the analogy it presents to the Pentateuch, according to the critical view of the origin of the latter. These and other issues make the Diatessaron an important and interesting study.

20 The Present Translation.--The work of translation has been found much more tedious than was anticipated, notwithstanding the fact that considerably more than half of it is the work of my wife, which I have simply revised with special attention to the many obscurities dealt with in the foot-notes. We have, however, worked so much together that it is very doubtful whether any one could assign the various parts to their respective sources. My wife also verified the Arabic references to the gospels printed on the margin to the right of the text,(1) and prepared the Index to these references--an extremely laborious and perplexing piece of work. This Index is inserted merely for the practical purpose of enabling the reader to find any given gospel piece in the Diatessaron. When a verse is not found in the Index, an equivalent passage from some of the other gospels should be looked for. On the margin to the left of the text are indicated the pages of the Arabic text and the sections and verses in HilI's version.(2)

The aim has been to make a literal translation. As two freer translations already exist, it seemed best to incline to the side of being overliteral. If, however, features due simply to Arabic idiom have been preserved, this is an oversight. Uniformity could only have been secured by devoting a much longer time to the work than the editor was able to allow. The difficulties are due to the corrupt state of the Arabic text,(3) and to the awkward reproduction(4) or actual misunderstanding(5) of the Syriac original by the author or authors of the Arabic translation. It has been impossible to maintain consistency in dealing with these phenomena. If any rendering seem strange, it will be well to consult the Syriac versions before deciding that it is wrong. A good deal of attention, too, has to be paid to the usage of the Arabic text, which, though it has many points of contact with other Arabic versions of the gospels, e.g., the MS. described by Gildemeister (De evangg. in arab. e simp. Syr., 1865), is as yet for us (see above, 8) a distinct version, possessed of an individuality of its own, one pronounced feature being its very close adherence to its Syriac original. Another revision of the present translation, in the light of a fuller study of these features, would doubtless lead to changes both in the text and in the foot-notes. The latter aim at preventing misunderstanding and giving some examples of the peculiarities of the text, and of the differences between the MSS. To have dealt systematically with the text and various readings would have required much more time and space than was available. The consequence of this incompleteness has been some uncertainty at times what text to translate. As already stated (paragraphs 4 and 6), Ciasca's printed text neither represents any one MS. nor professes to be based in its eclecticism on any systematic critical principles. On the whole Ciasca has here been followed somewhat mechanically in deciding what to exhibit in the text and what to relegate to the foot-notes. As a rule conjectural emendations have not been admitted into the text except where the MS. readings would hardly bear translation. Italics in the text denote words supplied for the sake of English idiom; in the foot-notes, quotations from the MSS. It is to be noted that many linguistic usages said, for shortness, in the foot-notes to be characteristic of the present work, i.e., as compared with ordinary Arabic, are common in Arabic versions. "Syriac versions" means the three (Pesh., Cur., Sin.), or as many of them as contain the passage in question; if the Peshitta alone is quoted, it may be assumed that Cur. and Sin. are missing or diverge.

In conclusion we may say that an effort has been made to preserve even the order of words; but it must be emphasized that it is very doubtful whether it is wise for any one to use the Arabic Diatessaron for critical purposes who is not acquainted with Arabic and Syriac. The tenses, e.g., are much vaguer in Arabic than in Greek and English, and are, moreover, in this work often accommodated to Syriac idiom. The Greek and the Revised Version have been

43

THE TEXT OF THE DIATESSARON

[SECTION I.]

1 1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God is the 2, 3 Word. This was in the beginning with God. Everything was by his hand, and 4 without him not even one existing thing was made. In him was life, and the life 5 is the light of men. And the light shineth in the darkness, and the darkness apprehended it not.

6 There was in the days of Herod the king a priest whose name was Zacharias, of the family of Abijah; and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name 7 was Elizabeth. And they were both righteous before God, walking in all his com- 8 mands, and in the uprightness of God without reproach. And they had no son, for 9 Elizabeth was barren, and they had both advanced in age. And while he discharged 10 Arabic. the duties of priest in the order of his service before God, according to the p. 2 custom of the priesthood it was his turn to burn incense; so he entered the 11 temple of the Lord. And the whole gathering of the people were praying without at the 12 time of the incense. And there appeared unto Zacharias the angel of the Lord, stand- 13 ing at the right of the altar of incense; and Zacharias was troubled when he saw him, 14 and fear fell upon him. But the angel said unto him, Be not agitated,(2) Zacharias, for thy prayer is heard, and thy wife Elizabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shall 15 call his name John; and thou shalt have joy and gladness, and many shall rejoice 16 at his birth. And he shall be great before the Lord, and shall not drink wine nor strong drink, and he shall be filled with the Holy Spirit(3) while he is in his mother's 17 womb. And he shall turn back many of the children of Israel to the Lord their 18 God. And he shall go before him in the spirit, and in the power of Elijah the prophet, to turn back the heart of the fathers to the sons, and those that obey not to the knowledge(4) of the righteous; and to prepare for the Lord a perfect people. 19 And Zacharias said unto the angel, How shall I know this, since I am an old man 20 and my wife is advanced in years? And the angel answered and said unto him, I am Gabriel, that standeth before God; and I was sent to speak unto thee, and give 21 thee tidings of this. Henceforth thou shall be speechless, and shalt not be able to speak until the day in which this shall come to pass, because thou didst not trust 22 this my word, which shall be accomplished in its time. And the people were stand- Arabic, ing awaiting Zacharias, and they were perplexed at his delaying in the temple. 23 p. 3 And when Zacharias went out, he was not able to speak unto them: so they knew that he had seen in the temple a vision; and he made signs unto them, and 24 continued dumb. And when the days of his service were completed, he departed to his dwelling.

25 And after those days Elizabeth his wife conceived; and she hid herself five 26 months, and said, This hath the Lord done unto me in the days when he looked upon me, to remove my reproach from among men.

27 And(5) in the sixth month Gabriel the angel was sent from God to Galilee(6) to a 28 city called Nazareth, to a virgin given in marriage to a man named Joseph, of the 29 house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary. And the angel entered unto her and said unto her, Peace be unto thee, thou who art filled with grace. Our Lord

Jo. 1, 1.

Jo. 1, 2.

Jo. 1, 3.

Jo. 1, 4.

Jo. 1, 5.

Lk. 1, 5.1

Lk. 1, 6.

Lk. 1, 7.

Lk. 1, 8.

Lk. 1, 9.

Lk. 1, 10.

Lk. 1, 11.

Lk. 1, 12.

Lk. 1, 13.

Lk. 1, 14.

Lk. 1, 15.

Lk. 1, 16.

Lk. 1, 17.

Lk. 1, 18.

Lk. 1, 19.

Lk. 1, 20.

Lk. 1, 21.

Lk. 1, 22.

Lk. 1, 23.

Lk. 1, 24.

Lk. 1, 25.

Lk. 1, 26.

Lk. 1, 27.

Lk. 1, 28.

44

1 30 is with thee, thou blessed amongst women. And she, when she beheld, was agitated 31 at his word, and pondered what this salutation could be. And the angel said unto 32 her, Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found favour with God. Thou shall now con- 33 ceive, and bear a son, and call his name Jesus. This shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give him the throne of 34 David his father: and he shall rule over the house of Jacob for ever; and to his 35 kingdom there shall be no end. Mary said unto the angel, How shall this be to 36 me when no man hath known me? The angel answered and said unto her, The Arabic. Holy Spirit will come, and the power of the Most High shall rest upon thee, p. 4 and therefore shall he that is born of thee be pure, and shall be called the Son 37 of God. And lo, Elizabeth thy kinswoman, she also hath conceived a son in her old 38 age; and this is the sixth month with her, her that is called barren. For nothing is 39 difficult for God. Mary said, Lo, I am the handmaid of the Lord; let it be unto me according unto thy word. And the angel departed from her.

40 And then Mary arose in those days and went in haste into the hill country,(1) to a(2) 41 city of Judah; and entered into the house of Zacharias, and asked for the health of 42 Elizabeth. And when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in 43 her womb. And Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit; and cried with a loud voice and said unto Mary, Blessed art thou amongst women, and blessed is the

44 fruit that is in thy womb. Whence have I this privilege, that the mother of my 45 Lord should come unto me? When the sound of thy salutation reached my ears, 46 with great joy rejoiced(3) the babe in my womb. And blessed is she who believed 47 that what was spoken to her from the Lord would be fulfilled.And Mary said,

My soul doth magnify the Lord,

48 And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour,

49 Who hath looked upon the low estate of his handmaiden:

Lo, henceforth, all generations(4) shall pronounce blessing on me.

50 For(5) he hath done great things for me, who is mighty,

And holy is his name.

51 And his mercy embraceth them who fear him,

Throughout the ages and the times.

52 Arabic. He wrought the victory with his arm,

p. 5 And scattered them that prided themselves in their opinions.

53 He overthrew them that acted haughtily from their thrones,

And raised the lowly.

54 He satisfied with good things the hungry,

And left the rich without anything.

55 He helped Israel his servant,

And remembered his mercy

56 (According as he spake with our fathers)

Unto Abraham and unto his seed for ever.

57 And Mary abode with Elizabeth about three months, and returned unto her house.

58, 59 And Elizabeth's time of delivery was come; and she brought forth a son. And her neighbours and kinsfolk heard that God had multiplied his mercy towards her; 60 and they rejoiced with her. And when(6) it was the eighth day, they came to circumcise the child, and called him Zacharias, calling him by the name of his father. 61 And his mother answered and said unto them, Not so; but he shall be called John. 62 And they said unto her, There is no man of thy kindred that is called by this name. 63, 64 And they made signs to his father, saying, How dost thou wish to name him? And he asked for a tablet, and wrote and said, His name is John. And every one won-65 dered. And immediately his mouth was opened, and his tongue, and he spake and 66 praised God. And fear fell on all their neighbours: and this was spoken of(7) in all

Lk. 1, 29.

Lk. 1, 30.

Lk. 1, 31.

Lk. 1, 32.

Lk. 1, 33.

Lk. 1, 34.

Lk. 1, 35.

Lk. 1, 36.

Lk. 1, 37.

Lk. 1, 38.

Lk. 1, 39.

Lk. 1, 40.

Lk. 1, 41.

Lk. 1, 42.

Lk. 1, 43.

Lk. 1, 44.

Lk. 1, 45.

Lk. 1, 46.

Lk. 1, 47.

Lk. 1, 48.

Lk. 1, 49.

Lk. 1, 50.

Lk. 1, 51.

Lk. 1, 52.

Lk. 1, 53.

Lk. 1, 54.

Lk. 1, 55.

Lk. 1, 56.

Lk. 1, 57.

Lk. 1, 58.

Lk. 1, 59.

Lk. 1, 60.

Lk. 1, 61.

Lk. 1, 62.

Lk. 1, 63.

Lk. 1, 64.

Lk. 1, 65.

45

1 67 the mountains of Judah. And all who heard pondered in their hearts and said, What shall this child be? And the hand of the Lord was with him.

68 And Zacharias his father was filled with the Holy Spirit, and prophesied and said,

69 Blessed is the Lord, the God of Israel,

Who hath cared for his people, and wrought for it salvation;

70 And hath raised for us the horn of salvation

Arabic, In the house of David his servant

71 p. 6 (As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets from eternity),

72 That he might save us from our enemies,

And from the hand of all them that hate us.

73 And he hath performed his mercy towards our fathers,

And remembered his holy covenants,

74 And the oath which he sware unto Abraham our father,

75 That he would give us deliverance from the hand of our enemies,

And without fear we shall(1) serve before him

76 All our days with equity and righteousness.

77 And as for thee, O child, prophet of the Most High shalt thou be called.

Thou shalt go forth before the face of the Lord to prepare his way,

78 To give the knowledge of salvation(2) unto his people,

For the forgiveness of their sins,

79 Through the mercy of(3) the compassion of our God,

With which he careth for(4) us, to appear(5) from on high

80 To give light to them that sit in darkness and under the shadow of death,

And to set straight our feet in the way of peace.

81 And the child grew and became strong in the spirit, and abode in the desert until the time of his appearing unto the children of Israel.

SECTION II.

2 1 Arabic, Now(6) the birth of Jesus the Messiah was on this wise: In the time when p. 7 his mother was given in marriage to Joseph, before they came together, 2 she was found with child of the Holy Spirit. And Joseph her husband was a just man and did not wish to expose her, and he purposed to put her away secretly. 3 But when he thought of this, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, and said unto him, Joseph, son of David, fear not to take Mary thy wife, for that 4 which is begotten(7) in her is of the Holy Spirit. She shall bear a son, and thou shalt 5 call his name Jesus, and he shall save s his people from their sins.And all this was that the saying from the Lord by the prophet might be fulfilled:

6 Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and bear a son,

And they shall call his name Immanuel,

7 which is, being interpreted, With us is our God. And when Joseph arose from his 8 sleep, he did as the angel of the Lord commanded him, and took his wife; and knew her not until she brought forth her firstborn son.

9 And in those days there went forth a decree from Augustus Caesar that all the

LK. 1, 66.

Lk. 1, 67.

Lk. 1, 68.

Lk. 1, 69.

Lk. 1, 70.

Lk. 1, 71.

Lk. 1, 72.

Lk. 1, 73.

Lk. 1, 74.

Lk. 1, 75.

Lk. 1, 76.

Lk. 1, 77.

Lk. 1, 78.

Lk. 1, 79.

Lk. 1, 80.

Mt. 1, 18.

Mt. 1, 19.

Mt. 1, 20.

Mt. 1, 21.

Mt. 1, 22.

Mr. 1, 23.

Mt. 1, 24.

Mt. 1, 25a.

Lk. 2, 1.

46

2 10 people of his dominion(1) should be enrolled. This first enrolment was(2) while Qui- 11, 12 rinius was governor of Syria. And every man went to be enrolled in his city. And Joseph went up also from Nazareth, a city of Galilee, to Judaea, to the city of David 13 which is called Bethlehem (for he was of the house of David and of his tribe), with 14 Arabic. Mary his betrothed, she being with child, to be enrolled there. And while 15 p. 8 she was there the days for her being delivered were accomplished. And she brought forth her firstborn son; and she wrapped him in swaddling cloths and laid him in a manger, because there was no place for them where they were staying.

16 And there were in that region shepherds abiding, keeping their flock in the watch 17 of the night. And behold, the angel of God came unto them, and the glory of the 18 Lord shone upon them; and they were greatly terrified. And the angel said unto them, Be not terrified; for I bring you tidings of great joy which shall be to the 19 whole world; there is born to you this day a Saviour, which is the Lord the Mes- 20 siah, in the city of David. And this is a sign for you: ye shall find a babe wrapped 21 in swaddling cloths and laid in a manger. And there appeared with the angels suddenly many heavenly forces praising(3) God and saying,

22 Praise be to God in the highest,

And on the earth peace, and good hope to men.

23 And when the angels departed from them to heaven, the shepherds spake to one another and said, We will go to Bethlehem and see this word which hath been, as 24 the Lord made known unto us. And they came with haste, and found Mary and 25 Joseph, and the babe laid in a manger. And when they saw, they reported the word 26 which was spoken to them about the child. And all that heard wondered at the 27 description which the shepherds described(4) to them. But Mary kept these(5) sayings 28 and discriminated(6) them in her heart. And those shepherds returned, magnifying and praising God for all that they had seen and heard, according as it was described unto them.

29 Arabic. And when eight days were fulfilled that the child should be circumcised, p. 9 his name was called Jesus, being that by which he was called by the angel before his conception in the womb.

30 And when the days of their purification according to the law of Moses were 31 completed, they took him up to Jerusalem to present him before the Lord (as it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male opening the womb shall be called the 32 holy thing of the Lord), and to give a sacrificial victim as it is said in the law of 33 the Lord, A pair of doves or two young pigeons. And there was in Jerusalem a man whose name was Simeon; and this man was upright and pious, and expecting 34 the consolation of Israel; and the Holy Spirit was upon him. And it had been said unto him by the Holy Spirit, that he should not see death till he had seen with 35 his eyes the Messiah(7) of the Lord. And this man came by the Spirit to the temple; and at the time when his parents brought in the child Jesus, that they might 36 present for him a sacrifice, as it is written in the law, he bare him in his arms and praised God and said,

37 Now loosest thou the bonds of thy servant, O Lord, in peace,(8) According to thy saying;

38 For mine eye hath witnessed thy mercy,

39 Which thou hast made ready because of the whole world;

40 A light for the unveiling(9) of the nations,

And a glory to thy people Israel.

41 And Joseph and his mother were marvelling at the things which were being said 42 concerning him. And Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother, Behold, he is set for the overthrow and rising of many in Israel; and for a sign of conten- 43 tion; and a spear 10 shall pierce(11) through thine own soul; that the thoughts of the

Lk. 2, 2.

Lk. 2, 3.

Lk. 2, 4.

Lk. 2, 5.

Lk. 2, 6.

Lk. 2, 7.

Lk. 2, 8.

Lk. 2, 9.

Lk. 2, 10.

Lk. 2, 11.

Lk. 2, 12.

Lk. 2, 13.

Lk. 2, 14.

Lk. 2, 15.

Lk. 2, 16.

Lk. 2, 17.

Lk. 2, 18.

Lk. 2, 19.

Lk. 2, 20.

Lk. 2, 21.

Lk. 2, 22.

Lk. 2, 23.

Lk. 2, 24.

Lk. 2, 25.

Lk. 2, 26.

Lk. 2, 27.

Lk. 2, 28.

Lk. 2, 29.

Lk. 2, 30.

Lk. 2, 31.

Lk. 2, 32.

Lk. 2, 33.

Lk. 2, 34.

Lk. 2, 35.

47

44 Arabic, hearts of many may be revealed. And Anna the prophetess, the daughter p. 10 of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher, was also advanced in years (and she dwelt 45 with her husband seven years from her virginity, and she remained a widow about eighty-four years); and she left not the temple, and served night and day with 46 fasting and prayer. And she also rose in that hour and thanked the Lord, and she 47 spake of him with every one who was expecting the deliverance of Jerusalem. And when they had accomplished everything according to what is in the law of the Lord, they returned to Galilee, to Nazareth their city.

SECTION III.

3 1, 2 And after that,(1) the Magi came from the east to Jerusalem, and said, Where is the King of the Jews which was born? We have seen his star in the east, and have 3 come to worship him. And Herod the king heard, and he was troubled, and all 4 Jerusalem with him. And he gathered all the chief priests and the scribes of the 5 people, and asked them in what place(2) the Messiah should be born. They said, In Bethlehem of Judaea: thus it is written in the prophet,

6 Thou also, Bethlehem of Judah,

Art not contemptible among the kings of Judah:

From thee shall go forth a king,

And he shall be a shepherd to my people Israel.

7 Then Herod called the Magi secretly, and inquired of them the time at which 8 the star appeared to them. And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said unto them, Go and search about the child diligently; and when ye have found him, come and 9 make known to me, that I also may go and worship him. And they, when they Arabic, heard the king, departed; and lo, the star which they had seen in the east p. 11 went before them, until it came and stood above the place where the child 10, 11 was. And when they beheld the star, they rejoiced with very great joy. And they entered the house and beheld the child with Mary his mother, and fell down worshipping him, and opened their saddle-bags and offered to him offerings, gold and 12 myrrh and frankincense. And they saw in a dream a that they should not return to Herod, and they travelled by another way in going to their country.

13 And when they had departed, the angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph, and said unto him, Rise, take the child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I speak to thee; for Herod is determined to seek the child 14 to slay him. And Joseph arose and took the child and his mother in the night, and 15 fled into Egypt, and remained in it until the time of the death of Herod: that that might be fulfilled which was said by the Lord in the prophet, which said, From 16 Egypt did I call my son. And Herod then, when he saw that he was mocked of the Magi, was very angry, and sent and killed all the male children which were in Bethlehem and all its borders, from two years old and under, according to the time 17 which he had inquired from the Magi.Then was fulfilled the saying in Jeremiah the prophet, which said,

18 A voice was heard in Ramah,

Weeping and much lamentation;

Rachel weeping(4) for her children,

And not willing to be consoled for their loss.

19 But when Herod the king died, the angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to 20 Joseph in Egypt, and said unto him, Rise and take the child and his mother, and Arabic. go into the land of Israel; for they have died who sought the child's life. 21 p. 12 And Joseph rose and took the child and his mother, and came to the land 22 of lsrael. But when he heard that Archelaus had become king over Judaea instead of Herod his father, he feared to go thither; and he saw in a dream that he should

Lk. 2, 36.

Lk. 2, 37.

Lk. 2, 38.

Lk. 2, 39.

Mt. 2, 1b.

Mt. 2, 2.

Mt. 2, 3.

Mt. 2, 4.

Mt. 2, 5.

Mt. 2, 6.

Mt. 2, 7.

Mt. 2, 8.

Mt. 2, 9.

Mt. 2, 10.

Mt. 2, 11.

Mr. 2, 12.

Mt. 2, 13.

Mt. 2, 14.

Mt. 2, 15.

Mt. 2, 16.

Mt. 2, 17.

Mt. 2, 18.

Mt. 2, 19.

Mt. 2, 20.

Mt. 2, 21.

Mt. 2, 22.

48

3 23 go into the land of Galilee, and that he should abide in a city called Nazareth: that the saying in the prophet might be fulfilled, that he should be called a Nazarene.

24 And the child grew, and became strong in spirit, becoming filled with wisdom; and the grace of God was upon him.

25 And his kinsfolk(1) used to go every year to Jerusalem at the feast of the pass- 26 over. And when he was twelve years old, they went up according to their custom, 27 to the feast. And when the days were accomplished, they returned; and the child 28 Jesus remained in Jerusalem, and Joseph and his mother knew not: and they supposed that he was with the children of their company. And when they had gone one day's journey, they sought him beside their people and those who knew them, 29 and they found him not; so they returned to Jerusalem and sought him again. 30 And after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teach- 31 ers, hearing them and asking them questions; and all who heard him wondered at 32 his wisdom and his words. And when they saw him they wondered, and his mother said unto him, My son, why hast thou dealt with us thus? behold, I and thy father 33 have been seeking for thee with much anxiety. And he said unto them, Why were 34 ye seeking me? know(2) ye not that I must be in the house of my Father? And they 35 understood not the word which he spake unto them. And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth; and he was obedient to them: and his mother used to keep all these sayings in her heart.

36 Arabic. And Jesus grew in his stature and wisdom, and in grace with God p. 13 and men.

37 And in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, when Pontius Pilate was governor in Judaea, and one of the four rulers, Herod, in Galilee; and Philip his brother, one of the four rulers, in Ituraea and in the district of Trachonitis; and 38 Lysanias, one of the four rulers, in Abilene; in the chief-priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the command(3) of God went forth to John the son of Zacharias in the 39 desert. And he came into all the region which is about Jordan, proclaiming the 40 baptism of repentance unto(4) the forgiveness of sins. And he was preaching in the 41 wilderness of Judaea, and saying, Repent ye; the kingdom of heaven is come near. 42 This is he that was spoken of in Isaiah the prophet,

The voice which crieth in the desert,

43 Prepare ye the way of the Lord,

And make straight in the plain, paths for our God.

44 All the valleys shall become filled,

And all the mountains and hills shall become low;

And the rough shall become plain, And the difficult place, easy;

45 And all flesh shall see the salvation(5) of God.

46 This man came to bear witness, that he might bear witness to the light, that 47 every man might believe through his mediation. He was not the light, bat that he 48 might bear witness to the light, which was the light of truth, that giveth light to 49 every man coming into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made 50 by him, and the world knew him not. He came unto his own, and his own received 51 him not. And those who received him, to them gave he the power(6) that they might 52 be sons of God,--those which believe in his name: which were born, not of blood,

53 nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of a man, but of God. And the Word became flesh, and took up his abode among us; and we saw his glory as the glory 54 of the only Son from the Father, which is full of grace and equity.(7) John bare wit- Arabic, ness of him, and cried, and said, This is he that I said cometh after me and 55 p. 14 was before me, because he was before me.(8) And of his fulness received 56 we all grace for grace. For the law was given through the mediation of Moses, but

truth and grace were(9) through Jesus Christ.

Mt. 2, 23.

Lk. 2, 40.

Lk. 2, 41.

Lk. 2, 42.

Lk. 2, 43.

Lk. 2, 44.

Lk. 2, 45.

Lk. 2, 46.

Lk. 2, 47.

Lk. 2, 48.

Lk. 2, 49.

Lk. 2, 50.

Lk. 2, 51.

Lk. 2, 52.

Lk. 3, 1.

Lk. 3, 2.

Lk. 3, 3.

Mt. 3, 1b.

Mt. 3, 2.

Mt. 3, 3a.

Lk. 3, 4b.

Lk. 3, 5.

Lk. 3, 6.

Jo. 1, 7.

Jo. 1, 8.

Jo. 1, 9.

Jo. 1, 10.

Jo. 1, 11.

Jo. 1, 12.

Jo. 1, 13.

Jo. 1, 14.

Jo. 1, 15.

Jo. 1, 16.

Jo. 1, 17.

49

SECTION IV.

4 1 No man hath seen God at any time; the only Son, God,(1) which is in the bosom of his Father, he hath told of him.

2 And this is the witness of John when the Jews sent to him from Jerusalem priests 3 and Levites to ask him, Who art thou? And he acknowledged, and denied not; 4 and he confessed that he was not the Messiah. And they asked him again, What then? Art thou Elijah? And he said, I am not he. Art thou a prophet? He 5 said, No. They said unto him, Then who art thou? that we may answer them that 6 sent us. What sayest thou of thyself? And he said, I am the voice that crieth in 7 the desert, Repair ye the way of the Lord, as said Isaiah the prophet. And they 8 that were sent were from(2) the Pharisees. And they asked him and said unto him, Why baptizest thou now, when thou art not the Messiah, nor Elijah, nor a prophet? 9 John answered and said unto them, I baptize with(3) water: among you is standing 10 one whom ye know not: this is he who I said cometh after me and was before 11 me, the latchets of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose. And that was in Bethany beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing.

12 Now John's raiment was camel's hair, and he was girded with skins, and his food 13 Arabic, was of locusts and honey of the wilderness.(4) Then went out unto him the p. 15 people of Jerusalem, and all Judaea, and all the region which is about the Jordan; and they were baptized of him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins. But when he saw many of the Pharisees(5) and Sadducees(6) coming to be baptized, he said unto them, Ye children of vipers, who hath led you to flee from the wrath to come? 16, 17 Do now the fruits which are worthy of repentance; and think and say not within yourselves, We have a father, even Abraham; for I say unto you, that God is able to 18 raise up of these stones children unto Abraham. Behold, the axe hath been laid at the roots of the trees, and so every tree that beareth not good fruit shall be taken and 19 cast into the fire. And the multitudes were asking him and saying, What shall we do? 20 He answered and said unto them, He that hath two tunics shall(7) give to him that 21 hath not; and he that hath food shall(7) do likewise. And the publicans also came 22 to be baptized, and they said unto him, Teacher, what shall we do? He said unto 23 them, Seek not more than what ye are commanded to seek. And the servants(8) of the guard asked him and said, And we also, what shall we do? He said unto them, Do not violence to any man, nor wrong him; and let your allowances satisfy you.

24 And when the people were conjecturing about John, and all of them thinking 25 in their hearts whether he were haply(9) the Messiah, John answered and said unto them, I baptize you with water; there cometh one after me who is stronger than I, the latchets of whose shoes I am not worthy to loosen; he will baptize you with the 26 Holy Spirit and fire: who taketh the fan in his hand to cleanse his threshing-floors, Arabic, and the wheat he gathereth into his garners, while the straw he shall burn p. 16 in fire which can(10) not be put out.

27 And other things he taught and preached among the people.

28 Then came Jesus from Galilee to the Jordan to John, to be baptized of him. 29 And Jesus was about thirty years old, and it was supposed that he was the son of 30 Joseph.(11) And John saw Jesus coming unto him, and said, This is the Lamb of 31 God, that taketh on itself the burden of the sins of the world! This is he concerning whom I said, There cometh after me a man who was before me, because he was

Jo. 1, 18.

Jo. 1, 19.

Jo. 1, 20.

Jo. 1, 21.

Jo. 1, 22.

Jo. 1, 23.

Jo. 1, 24.

Jo. 1, 25.

Jo. 1, 26.

Jo. 1, 27.

Jo. 1, 28.

Mt. 3, 4.

Mt. 3, 5.

Mt. 3, 6.

Mt. 3, 7.

Mt. 3, 8.

Mt. 3, 9.

Mt. 3, 10.

Lk. 3, 10.

Lk. 3, 11.

Lk. 3, 12.

Lk. 3, 13.

Lk. 3, 14.

Lk. 3, 15.

Lk. 3, 16.

Lk. 3, 17.

Lk. 3, 18,

Mt. 3, 13.

Lk. 3, 23a.

Jo. 1, 29.

Jo. 1, 30.

50

4 32 before me.(1) And I knew him not; but that he should be made manifest to Israel, 33 for this cause came I to baptize with water. And John was hindering him and 34 saying, I have need of being baptized by thee, and comest thou to me? Jesus answered him and said, Suffer this now: thus it is our duty to fulfil all righteous- 35 ness. Then he suffered him. And when all the people were baptized, Jesus also 36 was baptized. And immediately he went up out of the water, and heaven opened 37 Arabic, to him,(2) and the Holy Spirit descended upon him in the similitude of the 38 p. 17 body of a dove; and lo, a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved 39 Son, in whom I am well pleased. And John bare witness and said, I beheld the 40 Spirit descend from heaven like a dove; and it abode upon him. But I knew him not; but he that sent me to baptize with water, he said unto me, Upon whomsoever thou shalt behold the Spirit descending and lighting upon him, the same is he that 41 baptizeth with the Holy Spirit. And I have seen and borne witness that this is the Son of God.

42, 43 And Jesus returned from the Jordan, filled with the Holy Spirit. And immediately the Spirit took him out into the wilderness, to be tried of the devil;(3) and he 44 was with the beasts. And he fasted forty days and forty nights. And he ate noth- 45 ing in those days, and at the end of them he hungered. And the tempter came and said unto him, If thou art the Son of God, speak, and these stones shah become 46 bread. He answered and said, It is written, Not by bread alone shall man live, but 47 by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. Then the devil(3) brought 48 him to the holy city, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, If thou art the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written,

He shall give his angels charge concerning thee:

And they shall take thee on their arms,

So that thy foot shall not stumble against a stone.

49 Jesus said unto him, And(4) it is written also, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy 50 God. And the devil(5) took him up to a high mountain, and shewed him all the king- 51 Arabic, doms of the earth, and their glory, in the least time; and the devil(5) said unto p. 18 him, To thee will I give all this dominion, and its glory, which is delivered to 52 me that I may give it to whomsoever I will. If then thou wilt worship before me, all of it shall be thine.

SECTION V.

51 Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou 2 shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him alone shalt thou serve. And when the 3 devil(5) had completed all his temptations, he departed from him for a season. And behold, the angels drew near and ministered unto him.

4,5 And next day John was standing, and two of his disciples; and he saw Jesus as 6 he was walking, and said, Behold, the Lamb of God! And his two disciples heard 7 him saying this,(6) and they followed Jesus. And Jesus turned and saw them coming after him, and said unto them, What seek ye? They said unto him, Our master, 8 where art thou staying? And he said unto them, Come and see. And they came and saw his place, and abode with him that day: and it was about the tenth hour. 9 One of the two which heard from(7) John, and followed Jesus, was Andrew the 10 brother of Simon. And he saw first Simon his brother, and said unto him, We have 11 found the Messiah. And he brought him unto Jesus. And Jesus looked upon him and said, Thou art Simon, son of Jonah: thou shalt be called Cephas.(8)

12 And on the next day Jesus desired to go forth to Galilee, and he found Philip, 13 Arabic, and said unto him, Follow me. Now Philip was of Bethsaida, of the city p. 19 of Andrew and Simon. And Philip found Nathanael, and said unto him, He of whom Moses did write in the law and in the prophets, we have found that 15 he is Jesus the son of Joseph of Nazareth. Nathanael said unto him, Is it possible

Jo. 1, 31.

Mt. 3, 14.

Mt. 3, 15.

Lk. 3, 21b.

Mt. 3, 16b.

Lk. 3, 22a.

Mt. 3, 17.

Jo. 1, 32.

Jo. 1, 33.

Jo. 1, 34.

Lk. 4, 1a.

Mk. 1, 12.

Mk. 1, 13b.

Mt. 4, 2a.

Lk. 4, 2b.

Mt. 4, 2b, 3.

Mt. 4, 4.

Mt. 4, 5.

Mt. 4, 6.

Mt. 4, 7.

Lk. 4, 5.

Lk. 4, 6.

Lk. 4, 7.

Mt. 4, 10.

Lk. 4, 13.

Mt. 4, 11b.

Jo. 1, 35.

Jo. 1, 36.

Jo. 1, 37.

Jo. 1, 38.

Jo. 1, 39.

Jo. 1, 40.

Jo. 1, 41a.

Jo. 1, 42a.

Jo. 1, 43.

Jo. 1, 44.

Jo. 1, 45.

Jo. 1, 46.

51

5 that there can be any good thing from Nazareth? Philip said unto him, Come and 16 see. And Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and said of him, This is indeed a(1) 17 son of Israel in whom is no guile. And Nathanael said unto him, Whence knowest thou me? Jesus said unto him, Before Philip called thee, while thou wast under the 18 fig tree, I saw thee. Nathanael answered and said unto him, My Master, thou art 19 the Son of God; thou art the King of Israel. Jesus said unto him, Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig tree, hast thou believed? thou shalt see what is 20 greater than this. And he said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Henceforth ye shall see the heavens opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man.

21 And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee.

22 And on the third day there was a feast in Cana,(2) a(1) city of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there: and Jesus also and his disciples were invited to the feast. And they lacked wine: and his mother said unto Jesus, They have no wine. And Jesus said unto her, What have I to do with thee, woman? hath not mine hour come?(3) And his mother said unto the servants, What he saith unto you, do. 27 And there were there six vessels of stone, placed for the Jews' purification, such as

Arabic, would contain two or three jars. And Jesus said unto them, Fill the vessels 29 p. 20 with water. And they filled them to the top. He said unto them, Draw 30 out now, and present to the ruler of the feast. And they did so. And when the ruler of the company tasted that water which had become wine, and knew not whence it was(but the servants knew, because they filled up the water), the ruler of the company called 31 the bridegroom, and said unto him, Every man presenteth first the good wine, and on intoxication he bringeth what is poor; but thou hast kept the good wine until 32 now. And this is the first sign(4) which Jesus did in Cans of Galilee, and manifested 33 his glory; and his disciples believed on him. And his fame spread in all the coun- 34 try which was around them. And he taught in their synagogues, and was glorified 35 by(5) every man. And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, and entered, according to his custom, into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood 36 up to read. And he was given the book of Isaiah the prophet.And Jesus opened the book and found the place where it was written,

37 The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,

And for this anointed he me, to preach good tidings to the poor;

And he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted,

And to proclaim forgiveness to the evil-doers,(6) and sight to the blind,

And to bring the broken into forgiveness,(7)

38 And to proclaim an acceptable year of the Lord.

39 And he rolled up the book and gave it to the servant, and went and sat down: 40 and the eyes of all that were in the synagogue were observing him. And he began to say unto them, To-day hath this scripture been fulfilled which ye have heard with 41 your ears. And they all bare him witness, and wondered at the words of grace which were proceeding from his mouth.

42 Arabic, And from that time began Jesus to proclaim the gospel of the kingdom 43 p. 21 of God, and to say, Repent ye, and believe in the gospel. The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of heaven hath come near.

44 And while he was walking on the shore of the sea of Galilee, he saw two brethren, Simon who was called Cephas, and Andrew his brother, casting their nets into 45 the sea; for they were fishers. And Jesus said unto them, Follow me, and I will 46 make you fishers of men. And they immediately left their nets there and followed 47 him. And when he went on from thence, he saw other two brothers, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in the ship with Zebedee their father, mending 48 their nets; and Jesus called them. And they immediately forsook the ship and their father Zebedee, and followed him.

Jo. 1, 47.

Jo. 1, 48.

Jo. 1, 49.

Jo. 1, 50.

Jo. 1, 51.

Lk. 4, 14a.

Jo. 2, 1.

Jo. 2, 2.

Jo. 2, 3.

Jo. 2, 4.

Jo. 2, 5.

Jo. 2, 6.

Jo. 2, 7.

Jo. 2, 8.

Jo. 2, 9.

Jo. 2, 10.

Jo. 2, 11.

Lk. 4, 14b.

Lk. 4, 15.

Lk. 4, 16.

Lk. 4, 17.

Lk. 4, 18.

Lk. 4, 19.

Lk. 4, 20.

Lk. 4, 21.

Lk. 4, 22a.

Mt. 4, 17a.

Mk. 1, 15.

Mt. 4, 18.

Mt. 4, 19.

Mt. 4, 20.

Mt. 4, 21.

Mt. 4, 22.

52

5 49 And when the multitude gathered unto him to hear the word of God, while he 50 was standing on the shore of the sea of Gennesaret, he saw two boats standing beside the sea, while(1) the two fishers which were gone out of them were washing their 51 nets. And one of them belonged to Simon Cephas. And Jesus went up and sat down in it, and commanded that they should move away a little from the land into 52 the water. And he sat down and taught the multitudes from the boat. And when he had left off his speaking, he said unto Simon, Put out into the deep, and cast your 53 net for a draught. And Simon answered and said unto him, My Master, we toiled 54 all night and caught nothing; now(2) at thy word I will cast the net. And when they did this, there were enclosed(3) a great many fishes; and their net was on the 55 point of breaking. And they beckoned to their comrades that were in the other boat, to come and help them. And when they came, they filled both boats, so that they were on the point of sinking.

SECTION VI.

61 Arabic, But when Simon Cephas saw this he fell before the feet of Jesus, and p. 22 said unto him, My Lord, I beseech of thee to depart from me, for I am 2 a sinful man. And amazement took possession of him, and of all who were with him, 3 because of the draught of the fishes which they had taken. And thus also were James and John the sons of Zebedee overtaken,(4) who were Simon's partners. And Jesus said 4 unto Simon, Fear not; henceforth thou shalt be a fisher of men unto life. And they brought the boats to the land; and they left everything, and followed him.

5 And after that came Jesus and his disciples into the land of Judaea; and he went 6 about there with them, and baptized. And John also was baptizing in AEnon, which is beside Salim, because there was much water there: and they came, and were bap- 7, 8 tized. And John was not yet come into prison. And there was an inquiry between 9 one of John's disciples and one of the Jews about purifying. And they(5) came unto John, and said unto him, Our master, he that was with thee beyond Jordan, to whom 10 thou hast borne witness, behold, he also baptizeth, and many come to him. John answered and said unto them,(6) A man can receive nothing of himself, except it be 11 given him(7) from heaven. Ye are they that bear witness unto me that I said, I am 12 not the Messiah, but I am one sent(8) before him. And he that hath a bride is a bridegroom: and the friend of the bridegroom is he that standeth and listeneth to him, and rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice. Lo now,(9) behold, my 13, 14 Arabic, joy becometh complete.(10) And he must increase and I decrease. For(11) he p. 23 that is come from above is higher than everything; and he that is of the earth, of the earth he is, and of the earth he speaketh; and he that came down from heaven is 15 higher than all. And he beareth witness of what he hath seen and heard: and no man 16 receiveth his witness. And he that hath received his witness hath asserted(12) that he is 17 truly God.(13) And he whom God hath sent speaketh the words(14) of God: God gave 18 not the Spirit by measure. The Father loveth the Son, and hath put everything in 19 his hands. Whosoever believeth in the Son hath eternal(15) life; but whosoever obeyeth not the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God cometh(16) upon him.

20 And Jesus learned(17) that the Pharisees had heard that he had received many dis- 21 ciples, and that he was baptizing more than John (not that Jesus was himself bap- 22 tizing, but his disciples); and so he left Judaea.

23 And Herod the governor, because he used to be rebuked by John because of

Lk. 5, 1.

Lk. 5, 2.

Lk. 5, 3.

Lk. 5, 4.

Lk. 5, 5.

Lk. 5, 6.

Lk. 5, 7.

Lk. 5, 8.

Lk. 5, 9.

Lk. 5, 10.

Lk. 5, 11.

Jo. 3, 22.

Jo. 3, 23.

Jo. 3, 24.

Jo. 3, 25.

Jo. 3, 26.

Jo. 3, 27.

Jo. 3, 28.

Jo. 3, 29.

Jo. 3, 30.

Jo. 3, 31.

Jo. 3, 32.

Jo. 3, 33.

Jo. 3, 34.

Jo. 3, 35.

Jo. 3, 36.

Jo. 4, 1.

Jo. 4, 2.

Jo. 4, 3a.

Lk. 3, 19.

53

6 Herodias the wife of Philip his brother, and for all the sins which he was commit- 24 ting, added to all that also this, that he shut up John in prison.

25 And when Jesus heard that John was delivered up, he went away to Galilee. 26 And he entered again into Cans, where he had made the water wine. And there 27 was at Capernaum a king's servant, whose son was sick. And this man heard that Jesus was come from Judaea to Galilee; and he went to him, and besought of him that he would come down and heal his son; for he had come near unto death. 28, 29 Jesus said unto him, Except ye see signs and wonders, ye do(1) not believe. The Arabic, king's servant said unto him, My Lord, come down, that the child die not. 30 p. 24 Jesus said unto him, Go; for thy son is alive. And that man believed the 31 word which Jesus spake, and went. And when he went down, his servants met him 32 and told him, and(2) said unto him, Thy son is alive. And he asked them at what time he recovered. They said unto him, Yesterday at the seventh hour the fever left 33 him. And his father knew that that was at that hour in which Jesus said unto him, 34 Thy son is alive. And he believed, he and the whole people of his house. And this 35 is the second sign(3) which Jesus did when he returned from Judaea to Galilee. And he was preaching in the synagogues of Galilee.

36 And he left Nazareth, and came and dwelt in Capernaum by the sea shore, in the 37 borders of Zebulun and Naphtali: that it might be fulfilled which was said in Isaiah the prophet, who said,

38 The land of Zebulun, the land of Naphtali,

The way of the sea, the passage of the Jordan,

Galilee of the nations:

39 The people sitting in darkness Saw a great light,

And those sitting in the region and in the shadow of death,

There appeared to them a light.

40 And he taught them on the sabbaths. And they wondered because of his doc- 41 trine:(4) for his word was as if it were authoritative. And there was in the synagogue 42 a man with an unclean devil, and he cried out with a loud voice, and said, Let me alone; what have I to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come for our 43 destruction? I know thee who thou art, thou Holy One of God. And Jesus rebuked him, and said, Stop up thy mouth, and come out of him. And the demon threw him 44 in the midst and came out of him, having done him no harm. And great amaze- Arabic, ment took hold upon every man. And they talked one with another, and p. 25 said, What is this word that orders the unclean spirits with power and 45 authority, and they come out? And the news of him spread abroad in all the region which was around them.

46 And when Jesus went out of the synagogue, he saw a man sitting among the publicans,(5) named Matthew: and he said unto him, Come after me. And he rose, and followed him.

47, 48 And Jesus came to the house of Simon and Andrew with James and John. And Simon's wife's mother was oppressed with a great fever, and they besought him for 49 her. And he stood over her and rebuked her fever, and it left her, and immediately 50 she rose and ministered to them. And at even they brought to him many that had 51 demons: and he cast out their devils with the(6) word. And all that had sick, their diseases being divers and malignant, brought them unto him. And he laid his hand 52 on them one by one(7) and healed them: that that might be fulfilled which was said 53 in the prophet Isaiah, who said, He taketh our pains and beareth our diseases. And 54 all the city was gathered together unto the door of Jesus. And he cast out devils also from many, as they were crying out and saying, Thou art the Messiah, the Son of God; and he rebuked them. And he suffered not the demons to speak, because they knew him that he was the Lord the Messiah.

Lk. 3, 20.

Mt, 4, 12.

Jo. 4, 46.

Jo. 4, 47.

Jo. 4, 48.

Jo. 4, 49.

Jo. 4, 50.

Jo. 4, 51.

Jo. 4, 52.

Jo. 4, 53.

Jo. 4, 54.

Lk. 4, 44.

Mt. 4, 13.

Mt. 4, 14.

Mt. 4, 15.

Mt. 4, 16.

Lk. 4, 31b.

Lk. 4, 32.

Lk. 4, 33.

Lk. 4, 34.

Lk. 4, 35.

Lk. 4, 36.

Lk. 4, 37.

Lk. 4, 38.

Mt. 9, 9b.

Mk. 1, 19b.

Lk. 4, 38c.

Lk. 4, 39.

Mt. 8, 16a.

Lk. 4, 40b.

Mt. 8, 17.

Mk. 1, 33.

Lk. 4, 41.

54

SECTION VII.

7 Arabic, And in the morning of that day he went out very early, and went to a p. 26 desert place, and was there praying. And Simon and those that were with him sought him. And when they found him, they said unto him, All the people seek for thee. He said unto them, Let us go into the adjacent villages and towns, that I may preach there also; for to this end did I come. And the multitudes were seeking him, and came till they reached him; and they took hold of him, that he should not go away from them. But Jesus said unto them, I must preach of the kingdom of God in other cities also: for because of this gospel was I sent. And Jesus was going about all the cities and the villages, and teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing all the diseases and all the sicknesses, 8 and casting out the devils. And his fame became known that(1) he was teaching in 9 every place and being glorified by every man. And when he passed by, he saw Levi the son of Alphaeus sitting among the tax-gatherers;(2) and he said unto him, Follow 10 me: and he rose and followed him. And the news of him was heard of in all the land of Syria: and they brought unto him all those whom grievous ills had befallen through divers diseases, and those that were enduring torment, and those that were possessed, and lunatics,(3) and paralytics; and he healed them.

11, 12 And after some days Jesus entered into Capernaum again. And when they heard that he was in the house,(4) many gathered, so that it could not hold them, even about 13 Arabic, the door; and he made known to them the word of God. And there were p. 27 there some of the Pharisees and the teachers of the law, sitting, come from all the villages of Galilee, and Judaea, and Jerusalem; and the power of the Lord was 14 present to heal them. And some men brought a bed with a man on it who was para- 15 lytic. And they sought to bring him in and lay him before him. And when they found no way to bring him in because of the multitude of people, they went up to the roof, and let him down with his bed from the roofing,(5) into the midst before Jesus. 16 And when Jesus saw their faith, he said unto the paralytic, My son, thy sins are for- 17 given thee. And the scribes and Pharisees began to think within their hearts, Why doth this man blaspheme?(6) Who is it that is able to forgive sins, but God alone? 18 And Jesus knew by the spirit that they were thinking this within themselves, and he 19 said unto them, Why do ye think this within your heart? Which is better,(7) that it should be said to the paralytic, Thy sins are forgiven thee, or that it should be said 20 to him, Arise, and take thy bed, and walk? That ye may know that the Son of man 21 is empowered on earth to forgive sins (and he said to the paralytic), I say unto thee, 22 Arise, take thy bed, and go to thine house. And he rose forthwith, and took his bed, and went out in the presence of all. And he went to his house praising God. 23 And when those multitudes saw, they feared; and amazement took possession of 24 them, and they praised God, who had given such power to men. And they said, We have seen marvellous things to-day, of which we have never before seen the like.

25 Arabic, And after that, Jesus went out, and saw a publican, named Levi, sitting 26 p. 28 among the publicans:(8) and he said unto him, Follow me. And he left everything, and rose, and followed him. And Levi made him a great feast in his house. And there was a great multitude of the publicans and others sitting with him. 28 And the scribes and Pharisees murmured, and said unto his disciples, Why do ye eat 29 and drink with the publicans and sinners? Jesus answered and said unto them, The physician seeketh not those who are well, but those that are afflicted with grievous 30, 31 sickness.(9) I came not to call the righteous, but the sinners, to repentance. And they said unto him, Why do the disciples of John fast always, and pray, and the 32 Pharisees also, but thy disciples eat and drink? He said unto them, Ye cannot make 33 the sons of the marriage feast(10) fast, while the bridegroom is with them. Days will

Mk. 1, 35.

Mk. 1, 36.

Mk. 1, 37.

Mk. 1, 38.

Lk. 4, 42.

Lk. 4, 43.

Mt. 9, 35.

Mk. 1, 39.

Lk. 4, 14b.

Lk. 4, 15.

Mk. 2, 14.

Mt. 4, 24.

Mk. 2, 1.

Mk. 2, 2.

Lk. 5, 17b.

Lk. 5, 18.

Lk. 5, 19.

Lk. 5, 20.

Lk. 5, 21.

Mk. 2, 8.

Mk. 2, 9.

Mk. 2, 10.

Mk. 2, 11.

Mk. 2, 12a.

Lk. 5, 25b.

Mt. 9, 8a.

Lk. 5, 26a.

Mt. 9, 8b.

Lk. 5, 26c.

Mk. 2, 12c.

Lk. 5, 27.

Lk. 5, 28.

Lk. 5, 29.

Lk. 5, 30.

Lk. 5, 31.

Lk. 5, 32.

Lk. 5, 33.

Lk. 5, 34.

Lk. 5, 35.

55

7 come, when the bridegroom is taken away from them; then will they fast in those 34 days. And he spake unto them a parable: No man inserteth a new patch and seweth it in a worn garment, lest the newness of the new take from the worn, and 35 there occur a great rent. And no man putteth fresh wine into old skins, lest the wine burst the skins, and the skins be destroyed, and the wine spilled; but they put 36 the fresh wine in the new skins, and both are preserved. And no man drinketh old wine and straightway desireth fresh; for he saith, The old is better.

37 And while Jesus was walking on the sabbath day among the sown fields, his dis- Arabic, ciples hungered. And they were rubbing the ears with their hands, and 38 p. 29 eating. But some of the Pharisees, when they saw them, said unto him, See, 39 why(1) do thy disciples on the sabbath day that which is not lawful? But Jesus said unto them, Have ye not read in olden time what David did, when he had need and 40 hungered, he and those that were with him? how he entered the house of God, when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the bread of the table of the Lord, which it was not lawful that any should eat, save the priests, and gave to them that were with him also? 41 And he said unto them, The sabbath was created because of man, and man was not 42 created because of the sabbath. Or have ye not read in the law, that the priests in 43 the temple profane the sabbath, and yet they are blameless? I say unto you now, 44 that here is what(2) is greater than the temple. If ye had known this.(3) I love mercy, 45 not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned(4) those on whom is no blame. The 46 Lord of the sabbath is the Son of man. And his relatives heard, and went out to take him, and said, He hath gone out of his mind.

47 And on the next(5) sabbath day he entered(6) into the synagogue and was teach- 48 ing. And there was there a man whose right hand was withered. And the scribes and the Pharisees were watching him, whether he would heal on the sabbath day, 49 that they might find the means of accusing him. But he knew their thoughts, and said unto the man whose hand was withered, Rise and come near into the midst of 50 the synagogue. And when he came and stood, Jesus said unto them, I ask you, which is lawful to be done on the sabbath day, good or evil? shall lives be saved or 51 Arabic, destroyed? But they were silent. Regarding(7) them with anger, being p. 30 grieved because of the hardness of their hearts. And he said unto the man, Stretch out thy hand. And he stretched it out: and his hand became straight. 52 Then he said unto them, What man of you shall have one sheep, and if it fall into a 53 well on the sabbath day, will not take it and lift it out? And how much is man better than a sheep! Wherefore it is lawful on the sabbath to do good.

SECTION VIII.

8 1 And the Pharisees went out, and consulted together concerning him, that they 2 might destroy him. And Jesus perceived, and removed thence: and great multitudes 3 followed him; and he healed all of them: and he forbade them that they should 4 not make him known:(8) that the saying in Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, which said,

5 Behold, my servant(9) with whom I am pleased;

My beloved in whom my soul hath delighted:(10)

My spirit have I put upon him,

And he shall proclaim to the nations judgement.

6 He shall not dispute, nor cry out;

And no man shall hear his voice in the marketplace.

7 And a bruised reed shall he not break,

And a smoking lamp(11) shall he not extinguish,

Lk. 5, 36a.

Mk. 2, 21.

Mk. 2, 22.

Lk. 5, 38, 39.

Mt. 12, 1.

Mt. 12, 2a.

Mk. 2, 24.

Mk. 2, 26.

Mk. 2, 27.

Mt. 12, 5.

Mt. 12, 6.

Mt. 12, 7.

Mt. 12, 8.

Mk. 3, 21.

Lk. 6, 6.

Lk. 6, 7.

Lk. 6, 8.

Lk. 6, 9.

Mk. 3, 4b.

Mk. 3, 5.

Mt. 12, 14.

Mt. 12, 15.

Mt. 12, 16.

Mt. 12, 17.

Mt. 12, 18.

Mt. 12, 19.

Mt. 12, 20.

56

8 Until he shall bring forth judgement unto victory.

8 And the nations shall rejoice in his name.(1)

9 And in those days Jesus went out to the mountain that he might pray, and he 10 spent the night(2) there in prayer to God. And when the morning was come, he called the disciples. And he went towards the sea: and there followed him much people 11 from Galilee that he might pray,(3) and from Judaea, and from Jerusalem, and from Idumaea, and from beyond Jordan, and from Tyre, and from Sidon, and from De- 12 capolis; and great multitudes came unto him, which had heard what he did. And he spake to his disciples to bring him the boat because of the multitudes, that they 13 might not throng him. And he healed many, so that they were almost falling on Arabic, him(4) on account of their seeking to get near him. And(5) those that had 14 p. 31 plagues and unclean spirits, as soon as they beheld him, would fall, and 15 cry out, and say, Thou art the Son of God. And he rebuked them much, that they 16 should not make him known. And those that were under the constraint of(6) un- 17 clean spirits were healed. And all of the crowd were seeking to come near(7) him; because power went out from him, and he healed them all.

18, 19 And when Jesus saw the multitudes, he went up to the mountain. And he called his disciples, and chose from them twelve; and they are those whom he named 20 apostles: Simon, whom he named Cephas, and Andrew his brother, and James and 21 John, and Philip and Bartholomew, and Matthew and Thomas, and James the son 22 of Alphaeus, and Simon which was called the Zealot, and Judas the son of James, 23 and Judas the Iscariot, being he that had betrayed him.(8) And Jesus went down with them and stood in the plain, and the company of his disciples, and the great 24 multitude of people. And these twelve he chose to be with him, and that he might 25 send them to preach, and to have power to heal the sick and to cast out devils.

26 Then he lifted up his eyes unto them, and opened his mouth, and taught them, and said,

27 Blessed are the poor in spirit: for the kingdom of heaven is theirs.

28 Blessed are the sorrowful: for they shall be comforted.

29 Blessed are the humble: for they shall inherit the earth.

30 Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be satisfied.

31 Blessed are the merciful: for on them shall be mercy.

32 Arabic, Blessed are the pure in their hearts: for they shall see God.

33 p. 32 Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the sons of God.

34 Blessed are they that were persecuted(9) for righteousness' sake: for the kingdom of heaven is theirs.

35 Blessed are ye when men shall hate you, and separate you from them, and persecute you, and reproach you, and shall speak against you with all evil talk, for my 36 sake, falsely. Then rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets before you.

37 But woe unto you rich! for ye hive received your consolation.

38 Woe unto you that are satisfied! ye shall hunger.

Woe unto you that laugh now! ye shall weep and be sad.

39 Woe unto you when men praise you! for so did their fathers use to do to the false prophets.

40 Unto you do I say, ye which hear, Ye are the salt of the earth: if then the salt become tasteless, wherewith shall it be salted? For any purpose it is of no use, but 41 is thrown outside, and men tread upon it. Ye are the light of the world. It is 42 impossible that a city built on a mountain should be hid. Neither do they light a

Mt 12, 21.

Lk. 6, 12.

Lk. 6, 13a.

Mk. 3, 7.

Mk. 3, 8.

Mk. 3, 9.

Mk. 3, 10.

Mk. 3, 11.

Mk. 3, 12.

Lk. 6, 18.

Lk. 6, 19.

Mt. 5, 1a.

Lk. 6, 13b.

Lk. 6, 14.

Lk. 6, 15.

Lk. 6, 16.

Lk. 6, 17a.

Mk. 3, 14.

Lk. 6, 20.

Mt. 5, 2.

Mt. 5, 3.

Mt. 5, 4.

Mt. 5, 5.

Mt. 5, 6.

Mt. 5, 7.

Mt. 5, 8.

Mt. 5, 9.

Mt. 5, 10.

Lk. 6, 22a.

Mt. 5, 11b.

Mt. 5, 12.

Lk. 6, 24.

Lk. 6, 25.

Lk. 5, 26.

Lk. 6, 27.

Mt. 5, 13.

Mt. 5, 14.

Mt. 5, 15.

57

8 lamp and place it under a bushel, but on the lamp-stand, and it giveth light to all 43 who are in the house. So shall(1) your light shine before men, that they may see 44 your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven. There is nothing 45 secret that shall not be revealed, or hidden that shall not be known. Whoever hath ears that hear, let him hear.

46 Think not that I came to destroy the law or the prophets; I came not to destroy, 47 but to complete. Verily I say unto you, Until heaven and earth shall pass, there Arabic, shall not pass one point or one letter of the law, until all of it shall be 48 p. 33 accomplished. Every one who shall violate now one of these small commandments, and shall teach men so, shall be called lacking in the kingdom of heaven: every one that shall do and teach shall(2) be called great in the kingdom 49 of heaven. I say unto you now, unless your righteousness abound more than that of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall not enter the kingdom of heaven.

50 Ye have heard that it was said to the ancients, Do not kill; and every one that 51 killeth is worthy of the judgement. But I say unto you that every one who is angry with his brother without a cause is worthy of the judgement; and every one that saith to his brother, Thou foul one, is condemned(3) by the synagogue; and whoso- 52 ever saith to him, Thou fool, is worthy of the fire of Gehenna. If thou art now offering thy gift at the altar, and rememberest there that thy brother hath conceived 53 against thee any grudge, leave thy gift at the altar, and go first and satisfy thy 54 brother, and then return and offer thy gift. Join(4) thine adversary quickly, and while thou art still with him in the way, give a ransom and free thyself from him; 55 test thine adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the tax- 56 collector, and thou fall into prison. And verily I say unto thee, Thou shall not go

out thence until thou payest the last farthing.

57, 58 Ye have heard that it was said, Do not commit adultery: but I now say unto you, that every one that looketh at a woman lusting after her hath forthwith already 59 Arabic, committed adultery with her in his heart. If thy right eye injure thee, put p. 34 it out and cast it from thee; for it is preferable for thee that one of thy 60 members should perish, and not thy whole body go into the fire of hell. And if thy right hand injure thee, cut it off and cast it from thee; and it is better for thee that 61 one of thy members should perish, and not thy whole body fall into Gehenna. It was said that he that putteth away his wife should give her a writing of divorcement: 62 but I say unto you, that every one that putteth away his wife, except for the cause of adultery, hath made it lawful for(5) her to commit adultery: and whosoever taketh one that is put away committeth adultery.

SECTION IX.

9 1 Ye have heard also that it was said unto the ancients, Lie not, but perform unto 2 God in thy oaths: but I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven, for it 3 is God's throne; nor by the earth, for it is a footstool under his feet; nor yet by 4 Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great(6) King. Neither shalt thou swear by thy 5 head, for thou canst not make in it one lock of hair black or white. But your word shall be either Yea or Nay, and what is in excess of this is of the evil one.

6, 7 Ye have heard that it was said, Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth: but I say unto you, Stand not in opposition to the evil;(7) but whosoever smiteth thee on thy right 8 cheek,(8) turn to him also the other. And he that would sue thee, and take thy tunic, 9 leave to him also thy wrapper. And whosoever compelleth thee one mite, go with 10 Arabic, him twain. And he that asketh thee, give unto him: and he that would p. 35 borrow of thee, prevent him not. And prosecute(9) not him that taketh thy 11 substance. And as ye desire that men should do to you, so do ye also to them.

12, 13 Ye have heard that it was said, Love thy neighbour and hate thine enemy: but I say unto you, Love your enemies, and pray for those that curse you, and deal well

Mt. 5, 16.

Mk. 4, 22.

Mk. 4, 23.

Mt. 5, 17.

Mt. 5, 18.

Mt. 5, 19.

Mt. 5, 20.

Mt. 5, 21.

Mt. 5, 22.

Mt. 5, 23.

Mt. 5, 24.

Mt. 5, 25a.

Lk. 12, 58a.

Mt. 5, 25c.

Mt. 5, 26.

Mt. 5, 27.

Mt. 5, 28.

Mt. 5, 29.

Mt. 5, 30.

Mt. 5, 31.

Mt. 5, 32.

Mt. 5, 33.

Mt. 5, 34.

Mt. 5, 35.

Mt. 5, 36.

Mt. 5, 37.

Mt. 5, 38.

Mt. 5, 39.

Mt. 5, 40.

Mt. 5. 41.

Mt. 5, 42.

Lk. 6, 30b.

Lk. 6, 31.

Mt. 5, 43.

Mt. 5, 44.

58

9 with those that hate you, and pray for those who take you with violence and per- 14 secute you; that ye may be sons of your heavenly Father, who maketh his sun to rise on the good and the evil, and sendeth down his rain on the righteous and the 15 unrighteous. If ye love them that love you, what reward shall ye have? for the pub- 16 licans and sinners also love those that love them. And if ye do a kindness to those 17 who treat you well, where is your superiority? for sinners also do likewise. And if ye lend to him of whom ye hope for a reward,(1) where is your superiority? for the 18 sinners also lend to sinners, seeking recompense from(2) them. But love your enemies, and do good to them, and lend, and cut not off the hope of any man; that your reward may be great, and ye may be the children of the Highest: for he is lenient 19 towards the wicked and the ungrateful. Be ye merciful, even as your Father also is 20 merciful. And if ye inquire for the good of your brethren only, what more have 21 ye done than others? is not this the conduct of the publicans also? Be ye now(3) perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.

22 Consider your alms; do them not before men to let them see you: and if it be not 23 so,(4) ye have no reward before your Father which is in the heavens. When then thou givest an alms now, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as do the people of hypocrisy, Arabic, in the synagogues and the marketplaces, that men may praise them. And 24 p. 36 verily say I unto you, They have received their reward. But thou, when 25 thou doest alms, let thy left hand not know what thy right hand doeth; that thine alms may be concealed: and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly.

26 And whenever thou prayest, be not as the hypocrites, who love to stand in the synagogues and in the corners of the marketplaces for prayers, that men may be- 27 hold them. And verily say I unto you, They have received their reward. But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and fasten thy door, and pray to thy Father in secret, and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly. 28 And whenever ye pray, be not babblers, as the heathen; for they think that by the 29 abundance of their words they shall be heard. Then be not ye now like unto them: 30 for your Father knoweth your request before ye ask him. One of his disciples said 31 unto him, Our Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples. Jesus said unto 32 them, Thus now pray ye now:(5) Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy 33, 34 name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done,(6) as in heaven, so on earth. Give us the 35 food of to-day. And forgive, us our trespasses, as we forgave those that trespassed 36 against us. And bring us not into temptations, but deliver us from the evil one. For 37 thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever and ever.(7) If ye forgive Arabic, men their wrong-doing,(8) your Father which is in heaven will forgive you. 38 p. 37 But if ye forgive not men, neither will your Father pardon your wrong-doing.

39 When ye fast, do not frown, as the hypocrites; for they make their faces austere, that they may be seen of(9) men that they are fasting. Verily I say unto you, They 40 have received their reward. But when thou fastest, wash thy face and anoint thy 41 head; that thou make not an appearance to men of fasting, but to thy Father which is in secret: and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee.

42 Be not agitated, little flock; for your Father hath delighted to give you the king- 43 dom. Sell your possessions, and give in alms; take to yourselves purses that wax 44 not old. Lay not up treasure on earth, where moth and worm corrupt, and where 45 thieves break through and steal: but lay up for yourselves treasure in heaven, where 46 moth and worm do not corrupt, nor thieves break through nor steal: for where your 47 treasure is, there also will your heart be. The lamp of the body is the eye: if then(10) 48 thine eye now be sound, thy whole body also shall be light. But if thine eye be evil, all thy body shall be dark. And if the light which is in thee is darkness, how 49 great is(11) thy darkness! Be watchful that the light which is in thee be not darkness. 50 Because that, if thy whole body is light, and have no part dark, it shall all be light, as the lamp giveth light to thee with its flame.

Mt. 5, 45.

Mt. 5, 46.

Lk. 6, 32b.

Lk. 6, 33.

Lk. 6, 34.

Lk. 6, 35.

Lk. 6, 36.

Mt. 5, 47.

Mt. 5, 48.

Mt. 6, 1.

Mt. 6, 2.

Mt. 6, 3.

Mt. 6, 4.

Mt. 6, 5.

Mt. 6,6.

Mt. 6, 7.

Mt. 6, 8.

Lk. 11, 1b.

Lk. 11, 2a.

Mt. 6, 9.

Mt. 6, 10.

Mt. 6, 11.

Mt. 6, 12.

Mt. 6, 13.

Mt. 6, 14.

Mt. 6, 15.

Mt. 6, 16.

Mt. 6, 17.

Mt. 6, 18.

Lk.12, 32.

Lk.12, 33a.

Mt. 6, 19.

Mt. 6, 20.

Mt. 6, 21.

Mt. 6, 22.

Mt. 6, 23.

Lk. 11, 35.

Lk. 11, 36.

59

SECTION X.

10 1 Arabic, NO man can serve two masters; and that because it is necessary that he p. 38 hate one of them and love the other, and honour one of them and despise the 2 other. Ye cannot serve God and possessions. And because of this I say unto you, Be not anxious for yourselves,(1) what ye shall eat and what ye shall drink; neither for your bodies, what ye shall put on. Is not the life better than the food, and the body 3 than the raiment? Consider the birds of the heaven, which sow not, nor reap, nor store in barns; and yet your Father which is in heaven feedeth them. Are not ye 4 better than they? Who of you when he trieth is able to add to his stature one 5 cubit? If then ye are not able for a small thing, why are ye anxious about the 6, 7 rest? Consider the wild lily, how it grows, although it toils not, nor spins; and I say unto you that Solomon in the greatness of his glory was not clothed like one of 8 them. And if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to-day is, and to-morrow 9 is cast(2) into the oven, how much more shall be unto you, O ye of little faith! Be not anxious, so as to say, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, With 10 what shall we be clothed? Neither let your minds be perplexed in this: all these things the nations of the world seek; and your Father which is in heaven knoweth 11 your need of all these things. Seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteous- 12 Arabic. ness; and all these shall come to you as something additional for you. Be p. 39 not anxious for the morrow; for the morrow shall be anxious for what belongs to it. Sufficient unto the day is its evil.

13 Judge not, that ye be not judged: condemn(3) not, that ye be not condemned: 14 forgive, and it shall be forgiven you: release, and ye shall be released: give, that ye may be given unto; with good measure, abundant, full, they shall thrust(4) into your 15 bosoms. With what measure ye measure it shall be measured to you. See to it what ye hear: with what measure ye measure it shall be measured to you; and ye 16 shall be given more. I say unto those that hear, He that hath shall be given unto; and he that hath not, that which he regards(5) as his shall be taken from him. And he spake unto them a parable, Can a blind man haply guide a blind man? 18 shall(6) they not both fall into a hollow? A disciple is not better than his master; 19 every perfect man shall be as his master. Why lookest thou at the mote which is in the eye of thy brother, but considerest not the column that is in thine own eye? 20 Or how canst thou say to thy brother, Brother, I will take out the mote from thine eye; and the column which is in thine eye thou seest not? Thou hypocrite, take out first the column from thine eye; and then shalt thou see to take out the mote from the eye of thy brother.

21 Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast your pearls before the swine, lest they trample them with their feet, and return and wound you. 22 And he said unto them, Who of you, that hath a friend, goeth to him at mid- 23 night, and saith unto him, My friend, lend me three loaves; for a friend hath come 24 to me from a journey, and I have nothing to offer to him: and that friend shall Arabic, answer him from within, and say unto him, Trouble me not; for the door p. 40 is shut, and my children are with me in bed, and I cannot rise and give thee? 25 And verily I say unto you, If he will not give him because of friendship, yet because 26 of his importunity he will rise and give him what he seeketh. And I also say unto you, Ask, and ye shall be given unto; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be 27 opened unto you. Every one that asketh receiveth, and he that seeketh findeth, and 28 he that knocketh, it shall be opened to him. What father of you, shall his son ask for bread--will he, think you, give him a stone?(7) and if he ask of him a fish, will he, 29 think you, instead of the fish give him a serpent? and if he ask him for an egg, will

MT. 6, 24.

Mt. 6, 25.

Mt. 6, 26.

Mt. 6, 27.

Lk. 12, 26.

Mt. 6, 28.

Mt. 6, 29.

Mt. 6, 30.

Mt. 6, 31.

Lk. 12, 29b.

Mt. 6, 32.

Mt. 6, 33.

Mt. 6, 34.

Mt.7, 1.

Lk.6, 37b.

Lk.6, 38.

Mk. 4, 24b.

Mk. 4, 25.

Lk. 6, 39.

Lk. 6, 40.

Lk. 6, 41.

Lk. 6, 42.

Mt. 7, 6.

Lk. 11, 5.

Lk. 11, 6.

Lk. 11, 7.

Lk. 11, 8.

Lk. 11, 9.

Lk. 11, 10.

Lk. 11, 11.

Lk. 11, 12.

60

10 30 he, think you, extend to him a scorpion? If ye then, although being evil, know the gifts which are good, and give them to your children, how much more shall your 31 Father which is in heaven give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him? Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: this is the law and the prophets.

32 Enter(1) ye by the narrow gate; for the wide gate and the broad way lead to de- 33 struction, and many they be which go therein. How narrow is the gate and straitened the way leading to life! and few be they that find it.

34 Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's(2) clothing, while within 35 they are ravening wolves. But by their fruits ye shall know them. For every tree is known by its fruit. For figs are not gathered(3) of thorns, neither are grapes plucked of 36 briers. Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit, but the evil tree bringeth 37 Arabic, forth evil fruit. The good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can the 38 p. 41 evil tree bring forth good fruit. The good man from the good treasures that are in his heart bringeth forth good things; and the evil man from the evil treasures that are in his heart bringeth forth evil things: and from the overflowings of the 39 heart the lips speak. Every tree that beareth not good fruit is cut down and cast 40, 41 into the fire. Therefore by their fruits ye shall know them. Not all that say unto me, My Lord, my Lord, shall enter the kingdom of the heavens; but he that doeth 42 the will of my Father which is in heaven. Many shall say unto me in that day, My Lord, my Lord, did we not prophesy in thy name, and in thy name cast out 43 devils, and in thy name do many powers? Then shall I say unto them, I never 44 knew you: depart from me, ye servants of iniquity. Every man that cometh unto 45 me, and heareth my sayings, and doeth them, I will shew you to what he is like: he is like the wise man which built a house, and digged and went deep, and laid the 46 foundations on a rock: and the rain came down, and the rivers overflowed, and the winds blew, and shook that house, and it fell not: for its foundation was laid on 47 rocks. And every one that heareth these my words, and doeth them not, is like 48 the foolish man which built his house on sand, without foundation: and the rain descended, and the rivers overflowed, and the winds blew, and smote upon that house, and it fell: and the fall of it was great.

Lk. 11, 23.

Mt. 7, 12.

Mt. 7, 13.

Mt. 7, 14.

Mt. 7, 15.

Mt. 7, 16a.

Lk. 6, 44.

Mt. 7, 17.

Mt. 7, 18.

Lk. 6, 45.

Mt. 7, 19.

Mt. 7, 20.

Mt. 7, 21.

Mt. 7, 22.

Mt. 7, 23.

Lk. 6, 47.

Lk. 6, 48.

Mt. 7, 25.

Mt. 7, 26.

Mt. 7, 27.

SECTION XI.

11 1 Arabic, And when Jesus finished these sayings, the multitudes were astonished 2 p. 42 at his teaching; and that because he was teaching them as one having authority, not as their scribes and the Pharisees.

3 And when he descended from the mountain, great multitudes followed him.

4 And when Jesus entered Capernaum, the servant of one of the chiefs was in an 5 evil case, and he was precious to him, and he was at the point of death. And he 6 heard of Jesus, and came to him with the elders of the Jews; and he besought him, and said, My Lord, my boy is laid in the house paralysed,(4) and he is suffering griev- 7 ous torment. And the elders urgently requested of him, and said, He is worthy that 8 this should be done unto him: for he loveth our people, and he also built the syna- 9, 10 gogue for us. Jesus said unto him, I will come and heal him. That chief answered and said, My Lord, I am not worthy that my roof should shade thee; but it sufficeth 11 that thou speak a word, and my lad shall be healed. And I also am a man in obedience to authority, having under my hand soldiers:(5) and I say to this one, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant that he do this, 12 and he doeth it. And when Jesus heard that, he marvelled at him,(6) and turned and said unto the multitude that were coming with him, Verily I say unto you, I have 13 not found in Israel the like of this faith. I say unto you, that many shall come from Arabic, the east and the west, and shall recline with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob 14 p. 43 in the kingdom of heaven: but the children of the kingdom shall be cast

Mt. 7, 28.

Mt. 7, 29.

Mt. 8, 1.

Mt. 8, 5a.

Lk. 7, 2.

Lk. 7, 3.

Mt. 8, 5b.

Mt. 8, 6.

Lk. 7, 4b.

Lk. 7, 5.

Mt. 8, 7.

Mt. 8, 8.

Lk. 7, 8.

Lk. 7, 9a.

Mt. 8, 10b.

Mt. 8, 11.

Mt. 8, 12.

61

11 15 forth into the outer darkness: and there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. And Jesus said to that chief, Go thy way; as thou hast believed, so shall it be unto thee. 16 And his lad was healed in that hour. And that chief returned to the house and found that sick servant healed.

17 And the day after, he was going to a city called Nain, and his disciples with him, 18 and a great multitude. And when he was come near the gate of the city, he saw a crowd(1) accompanying one that was dead, the only son of his mother; and his mother was a widow: and there was with her a great multitude of the people of the 19 city. And when Jesus saw her, he had compassion on her, and said unto her, Weep 20 not. And he went and advanced to the bier, and the bearers of it stood still; and 21 he said, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise. And that dead man sat up and began 22 to speak; and he gave him to his mother. And fear came on all the people: and they praised God, and said, There hath risen among us a great prophet: and, God 23 hath had regard to his people. And this news concerning him spread in all Judaea, and in all the region which was about them.

24 And when Jesus saw great multitudes surrounding him, he commanded them to 25 depart to the other side. And while they were going in the way, there came one of the scribes and said unto him, My Master, I will follow thee whithersoever thou 26 goest. Jesus said unto him, The foxes have holes, and the birds of the heaven have 27 nests; but the Son of man hath not a place in which to lay his head. And he said unto another, Follow me. And he said unto him, My Lord, suffer me first to go and 28 bury my father. Jesus said unto him, Leave the dead to bury their dead; but thou, 29 follow me and preach the kingdom of God. And another said unto him, I will fol- Arabic, low thee, my Lord; but first suffer me to go and salute my household and 30 p. 44 come. Jesus said unto him, There is no one who putteth his hand to the plough(2) and looketh behind him, and yet is fit for the kingdom of God.

31 And he said to them on that day in the evening, Let us go over to the other side 32 of the lake; and he left(3) the multitudes. And Jesus went up and sat in the ship, 33 he and his disciples, and there were with them other ships. And there occurred on the sea a great tempest(4) of whirlwind and wind, and the ship was on the point of 34 sinking from the greatness(5) of the waves. But Jesus was sleeping on a cushion in the stern of the ship; and his disciples came and awoke him, and said unto him, Our 35 Lord, save us; lo, we perish. And he rose, and rebuked the winds and the turbulence of the water, and said to the sea, Be still, for thou art rebuked; and the wind 36 was still, and there was a great calm. And he said unto them, Why are ye thus 37 afraid? and why have ye no faith? And they feared greatly.(6) And they marvelled, and said one to another, Who, think you, is this, who commandeth also the wind and the waves and the sea, and they obey him?

38 And they departed and came to the country of the Gadarenes, which is on the 39 other side, opposite the land of Galilee. And when he went out of the ship to the land, there met him from among the tombs a man who had a devil for a long time, 40 and wore no clothes, neither dwelt in a house, but among the tombs. And no man was Arabic, able to bind him with chains, because an y time that he was bound with chains 41 p. 45 and fetters he cut the chains and loosened the fetters; and he was snatched(7) 42 away of the devil into the desert, and no man was able to quiet him; and at all times, in the night and in the day, he would be among the tombs and in the mountains; and no man was able to pass by that way; and he would cry out and wound himself 43 with stones. And when he saw Jesus at a distance, he hastened and worshipped 44 him, and cried with a loud voice and said, What have we to do with thee, Jesus, 45 Son of the most high God? I adjure thee by God, torment me not. And Jesus commanded the unclean spirit to come out of the man: and he had suffered(8) a long 46 time since the time when he came into captivity to it. And Jesus asked him, What is thy name? He said unto him, Legion; for there had entered into him many 47 devils. And they besought him that he would not command them to depart into 48 the depths. And there was there a herd of many swine, feeding in the mountain,

Mt. 8, 13.

Lk. 7, 10.

Lk. 7, 11.

Lk. 7, 12.

Lk. 7, 13.

Lk. 7, 14.

Lk. 7, 15.

Lk. 7, 16.

Lk. 7, 17.

Mt. 8, 18.

Lk. 9, 57a.

Mt. 8, 19.

Mt. 8, 20.

Lk. 9, 59.

Lk. 9, 60.

Lk. 9, 61.

Lk. 9, 62.

Mk. 4, 35.

Lk. 8, 22d.

Mk. 4, 36a.

Lk. 8, 22b.

Mk. 4, 36c.

Mt. 8, 24a.

Lk. 8, 23c.

Mk. 4, 38a.

Mt. 8, 25.

Lk. 8, 24b.

Mk. 4, 39b.

Mk. 4, 40.

Lk. 8, 25b.

Lk. 8, 26.

Lk. 8, 27a.

Mk. 5, 3b.

Mk. 5, 4a.

Lk. 8, 29c.

Mk. 5, 4b, 5a.

Mt. 8, 28b.

Mk. 5, 5b.

Mk. 5, 6.

Mk. 5, 7a.

Lk. 8, 28b.

Mk. 5, 7c.

Lk. 8, 29a.

Lk. 8, 30.

Lk. 8, 31.

Lk. 8, 32.

62

11 and those devils besought him to give them leave to enter the swine; and he gave 49 them leave. And the devils went out of the man and entered into the swine. And that herd hastened to the summit and fell down into the midst of the sea, about two 50 thousand, and they were choked in the water. And when the keepers saw what 51 happened, they fled, and told those in the cities and villages. And the people went out to see what had happened; and they came to Jesus, and found the man whose Arabic, devils had gone out, clothed, modest,(1) seated at the feet of Jesus; and they 52 p. 46 feared. And they reported what they saw, and how the man was healed who had a devil, and concerning those swine also.

Lk. 8, 33.

Mk. 5, 13b.

Lk. 8, 34.

Lk. 8, 35.

Lk. 8, 36.

Mk. 5, 16b.

SECTION XII.

12 1 And all the multitude of the Gadarenes entreated him to depart from them, because that great fear took hold upon them.

2, 3 But Jesus went up into the ship, and crossed, and came to his city. And that man from whom the devils went out entreated that he might stay with him; but 4 Jesus sent him away, and said unto him, Return to thy house, and make known what 5 God hath done for thee. And he went, and began to publish in Decapolis(2) what Jesus had done for him; and they all marvelled.

6 And when Jesus had crossed in the ship to that side, a great multitude received 7 him; and they were all looking for him. And a man named Jairus, the chief of the 8 synagogue, fell before the feet of Jesus, and besought him much, and said unto him, I have an only daughter, and she is come nigh unto death; but come and lay thy 9 hand upon her, and she shall live. And Jesus rose, and his disciples, and they fol- 10 lowed him. And there joined him a great multitude, and they pressed him.

11, 12 And a woman, which had a flow of blood for twelve years, had suffered much of many physicians, and spent all that she had, and was not benefited at all, but her 13 trouble increased further. And when she heard of Jesus, she came in the thronging of 14 Arabic, the crowd behind him, and touched a his garments; and she thought within 15 p. 47 herself, If I could reach to touch his garments, I should live. And immediately the fountain of her blood was dried; and she felt in her body that she was healed 16 of her plague. And Jesus straightway knew within himself that power had gone out of him; and he turned to the crowd, and said, Who approached unto my garments? 17 And on their denying, all of them, Simon Cephas and those with him said unto him, Our Master, the multitudes throng thee and press thee, and sayest thou, Who ap- 18 proached unto me? And he said, Some one approached unto me; and I knew that 19 power went forth from me. And that woman, when she saw that she was not hid 20 from him, came fearing and agitated (for she knew what had happened to her), and fell down and worshipped him, and told, in the presence of all the people, for what 21 reason she touched him, and how she was healed immediately. And Jesus said unto her, Be of good courage, daughter; thy faith hath made thee alive; depart in peace, and be whole from thy plague.

22 And while he was yet speaking, there came a man from the house of the chief of the synagogue, and said unto him, Thy daughter hath died; so trouble not the 23 teacher. But Jesus heard, and said unto the father of the maid, Fear not: but be- 24 lieve only, and she shall live. And he suffered no man to go with him, except 25 Simon Cephas, and James, and John the brother of James. And they reached the house of the chief of the synagogue; and he saw them agitated, weeping and wail- 26 ing. And he entered, and said unto them, Why are ye agitated and weeping? the 27 Arabic, maid hath not died, but she is sleeping. And they laughed at him, for 28 p. 48 they knew that she had died. And he put every man forth without, and took the father of the maid, and her mother, and Simon, and James, and John, and 29 entered into the place where the maid was laid. And he took hold of the hand of the maid, and said unto her, Maid, arise. And her spirit returned, and straightway 30 she arose and walked: and she was about twelve years of age. And he commanded 31 that there should be given to her something to eat. And her father wondered greatly:

Lk. 8, 37a.

Mt. 9, 1.

Lk. 8, 38.

Lk. 8, 39a.

Mk. 5, 20.

Mk. 5, 21a.

Lk. 8, 40b.

Lk. 8, 41a.

Mk. 5, 23a.

Mt. 9, 18b.

Mt. 9, 19.

Mk. 5, 24b.

Mk. 5, 25.

Mk. 5, 26.

Mk. 5, 27.

Mk. 5, 28.

Mk. 5. 29.

Mk. 5, 30.

Lk. 8, 45b.

Lk. 8, 46.

Lk. 8, 47a.

Mk. 5, 33b.

Lk. 8, 47c.

Lk. 8, 48.

Mk. 5, 34b

Lk. 8, 49.

Lk. 8, 50.

Mk. 5, 37.

Mk. 5, 38.

Mk. 5, 39.

Lk. 8, 53.

Mk. 5, 40b.

Mk. 5, 41.

Lk. 8, 55a.

Mk. 5, 42b.

Lk. 8, 55b.

Lk. 8, 56.

63

12 32 and he warned them that they should tell no man what had happened. And this report spread in all that land.

33 And when Jesus crossed over from there, there joined him two blind men, cry- 34 ing out, and saying, Have mercy on us, thou son of David. And when he came to the house, those two blind men came to him: and Jesus said unto them, Believe ye 35 that I am able to do this? They said unto him, Yea, our Lord. Then he touched(1) 36 their eyes, and said, As ye have believed, it shall be unto you. And immediately their eyes were opened. And Jesus forbade them, and said, See that no man know. 37 But they went out and published the news in all that land.

38 And when Jesus went out, they brought to him a dumb man having a devil. 39 And on the going out of the devil that dumb man spake. And the multitudes marvelled, and said, It was never so seen in Israel

40 And Jesus was going about in all the cities and in the villages, and teaching in their synagogues, and proclaiming the good news of the kingdom, and healing every disease 41 Arabic, and sickness; and many followed him. And when Jesus saw the multitudes, p. 49 he had compassion on them, for they were wearied and scattered,(2) as sheep 42 that have no shepherd. And he called his twelve disciples, and gave them power and 43 much authority over all devils and diseases; and sent them two and two, that they 44 might proclaim the kingdom of God, and to heal the sick. And he charged them, and said, Walk not in the way of the heathen, nor enter into the cities of the Sa- 45, 46 maritans.(3) Go especially unto the sheep that are lost of the sons of Israel. And 47 when ye go, proclaim and say, The kingdom of heaven is come near. And heal the sick, and cleanse the lepers, and cast out the devils: freely ye have received, freely 48, 49 give. Get you not gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses; and take nothing for the way, except a staff only; nor bag, nor bread; neither shall ye have two tunics, 50 nor shoes, nor staff, but be shod with sandals; for the labourer is worthy of his food. 51 And whatever city or village ye enter, inquire who is worthy in it, and there be until 52, 53 ye go out. And when ye enter into the house, ask for the peace of the house: and if the house is worthy, your peace shall come upon it; but if it is not worthy, your 54 peace shall return unto you. And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear your sayings, when ye go out from that house, or from that village, shake off the dust 55 Arabic, that is under your feet against them for a testimony. And verily I say p. 50 unto you, To the land of Sodom and Gomorrah there shall be rest in the day of judgement, rather than to that city.

Mt. 9, 26.

Mt. 9, 27.

Mt. 9, 28.

Mt. 9, 29.

Mt. 9, 30.

Mt. 9, 31.

Mt. 9, 32.

Mt. 9, 33.

Mt. 9, 35.

Mt. 9, 36.

Mt. 10, 1a.

Lk. 9, 1b.

Lk. 9, 2.

Mt. 10, 5.

Mt. 10, 6.

Mt. 10, 7.

Mt. 10, 8.

Mt. 10, 9f.

Mk. 6, 8b.

Lk. 9, 3.

Mt. 10, 10c.

Mk. 6, 9a.

Mt. 10, 10d.

Mt. 10, 11.

Mt. 10, 12.

Mt. 10, 13.

Mt. 10, 14a.

Mk. 6, 11b.

Mt. 10, 15.

SECTION XIII.

13 1 I am sending you as lambs among wolves: be ye now wise as serpents, and harmless(4) as doves. Beware of men: they shall deliver you to the councils of the magistrates, and scourge you in their synagogues; and shall bring you before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony against them and against the nations. And when they deliver you up, be not s anxious, nor consider beforehand, what ye shall say; but ye shall be given(6) in that hour what ye ought to speak. Ye do not speak, but the Spirit of your Father speaketh in you. The brother shall deliver up his brother to death, and the father his son; and the sons shall rise against their parents, and put them to death. And ye shall be hated of every man because of my name; but he that endureth unto the end of the matter shall be saved.(7) When they expel you from this city, flee to another. Verily I say unto you, Ye shall not finish all the cities of the people of Israel, until the Son of man come.

9, 10 A disciple is not superior to his lord, nor a servant to his master. For it is enough then for the disciple that he be as his lord, and the servant as his master. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebul, how much more the people

Mt. 10, 16.

Mt. 10, 17.

Mt. 10, 18.

Mt. 10, 19.

Mt. 10, 20.

Mt. 10, 21.

Mt. 10, 22.

Mt. 10, 23.

Mt. 10, 24.

Mt. 10, 25.

64

13 11 of his house! Fear them not therefore:(1) for there is nothing covered, that shall 12 Arabic, not be revealed; nor hid, that shall not be disclosed and published. What p. 51 I say unto you in the darkness, speak ye in the light; and what ye have told 13 secretly in the ears in closets, let it be proclaimed on the housetops. I say unto you now, my beloved, Be not agitated at(2) those who kill the body, but have no power to 14 kill the soul. I will inform you whom ye shall fear: him(3) which is able to destroy 15 soul and body in hell. Yea, I say unto you, Be afraid of him especially. Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing in a bond?(4) and one of them shall not fall on the 16 ground without your Father. But what concerns you: even the hair of your heads 17, 18 also is numbered. Fear not therefore; ye are better than many sparrows. Every man who confesseth me now before men, I also will confess him before my Father 19 which is in heaven; but whosoever denieth me before men, I also will deny him before my Father which is in heaven.

20 Think ye that I am come to cast peace into the earth? I came not to cast peace, 21 but to cast dissension. Henceforth there shall be five in one house, three of them 22 disagreeing with two, and the two with the three. The father shall become hostile to his son, and the son to his father; and the mother to her daughter, and the daughter to her mother; and the mother in law to her daughter in law, and the daughter 23 in law to her mother in law: and a man's enemies shall be the people of his house. 24 Whosoever loveth father or mother better than me is not worthy of me; and whoso- Arabic, ever loveth son or daughter more than his love of me is not worthy of me. 25 p. 52 And every one that doth not take his cross and follow me is not worthy of 26 me. Whosoever findeth his life(5) shall lose it; and whosoever loseth his life(5) for my sake shah find it.

27 And whosoever receiveth you receiveth me; and whosoever receiveth me re- 28 ceiveth him that sent me. And whosoever receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet shall take(6) a prophet's reward; and whosoever shall receive a righteous man 29 in the name of a righteous man shall take(6) a righteous man's reward. And every one that shall give to drink to one of these least ones a drink of water only, in the name of a disciple, verily I say unto you, he shall not lose his reward.

30 And when Jesus finished charging his twelve disciples, he removed thence to 31 teach and preach in their cities. And while they were going in the way they entered into a certain village; and a woman named Martha entertained him in her house. 32 And she had a sister named Mary, and she came and sat at the feet of our Lord, 33 and heard his sayings. But Martha was disquieted by much serving; and she came and said unto him, My Lord, givest thou no heed that my sister left me alone to 34 serve? speak to her that she help me. Jesus answered and said unto her, Martha, 35 Martha, thou art solicitous and impatient(7) on account of many things: but what is sought is one thing. But Mary hath chosen for herself a good portion, and that which shall not be taken from her.

36 And the apostles went forth, and preached to the people that they might repent. 37 And they cast out many devils, and anointed many sick with oil, and healed them. 38, 39 And the disciples of John told him s of all these things. And when John heard in Arabic, the prison of the doings of the Messiah, he called two of his disciples, and p. 53 sent them to Jesus, and said, Art thou he that cometh, or look we for 40 another? And they came to Jesus, and said unto him, John the Baptist hath sent 41 us unto thee, and said. Art thou he that cometh, or look we for another? And in that hour he cured many of diseases, and of plagues of an evil spirit; and he gave sight 42 to many blind. Jesus answered and said unto them, Go and tell John everything ye have seen and heard: the blind see, and the lame walk, and the lepers are cleansed, and the blind(9) hear, and the dead rise, and the poor have the gospel preached to 43 them. And blessed is he who doubteth not in me.

Mt. 10, 26.

Mt. 10, 27a.

Lk. 12, 3b.

Lk. 12, 4a.

Lk. 10, 28b.

Lk. 12, 5.

Mt. 10, 29.

Mt. 10, 30.

Mt. 10, 31.

Mt. 10, 32.

Mt. 10, 33.

Lk. 12, 51.

Lk. 12, 52.

Lk. 12, 53.

Mt. 10, 36.

Mt. 10, 37.

Mt. 10, 38.

Mt. 10, 39.

Mt. 10, 40.

Mt. 10, 41.

Mt. 10, 42a.

Mk. 9, 41b.

Mt. 11, 1.

Lk. 10, 38.

Lk. 10, 39.

Lk. 10, 40.

Lk. 10, 41.

Lk. 10, 42.

Mk. 6, 12.

Mk. 6, 13.

Lk. 7, 18.

Mt. 11, 2a.

Lk. 7, 19.

Lk. 7, 20.

Lk. 7, 21.

Lk. 7, 23.

65

44 And when John's disciples departed, Jesus began to say to the multitudes concerning John, What went ye out into the wilderness to see? a reed shaken with the 45 winds? And if not, then what went ye out to see? a man clothed in soft raiment? Behold, they that are in magnificent garments and in voluptuousness are in the abode 46 of kings. And if not, then what went ye out to see? a prophet? Yea, I say unto 47 you, and more than a prophet. This is he of whom it is written,

I am sending my messenger before thy face

To prepare the way before thee.

Lk. 7, 24.

Lk. 7, 25.

Lk. 7, 26.

Lk. 7, 27.

SECTION XIV.

14 1 Verily I say unto you, There hath not arisen among those whom women have borne a greater than John the Baptist; but he that is little now in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he.

2 Arabic, And all the people which heard, and the publicans, justified: God, for 3 p. 54 they had been baptized with the baptism of John. But the Pharisees and the scribes wronged(2) the purpose of God in themselves, in that they were not baptized of 4 him. And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven is 5 snatched away by violence. The law and the prophets were until John; and after that, the kingdom of God is preached, and all press to enter it: and they that exert them- 6, 7 selves snatch it away. All the prophets and the law until John prophesied. And if ye 8 will, then receive it, that he is Elijah, which is to come. Whosoever hath ears that hear 9 let him hear. Easier is the perishing of heaven and earth, than the passing away of 10 one point of the law. To whom then shall I liken the people of this generation,(3) and 11 to whom are they like? They are like the children sitting in the market, which call to their companions, and say, We sang to you, and ye danced not; we wailed to you, 12 and ye wept not. John the Baptist came neither eating bread nor drinking wine; 13 and ye said, He hath demons: and the Son of man came eating and drinking; and ye said, Behold, a gluttonous man, and a drinker of wine, and an associate of pub- 14, 15 licans and sinners! And wisdom was justified of all her children. And when he said that, they came to the house. And there gathered unto him again multitudes, 16 so that they found not bread to eat. And while he was casting out a devil which was dumb, when he cast out that devil, that dumb man spake. And the multitudes 17 Arabic. marvelled. And the Pharisees, when they heard, said, This man doth not cast p. 55 out the devils, except by Beelzebul the chief of the demons, which is in him. 18, 19 And others requested of him a sign from heaven, to tempt him. And Jesus knew their thoughts, and said unto them in parables, Every kingdom that withstandeth itself shall become desolate; and every house or city that disagreeth with itself shall not 20 stand: and if a devil cast out a devil, he withstandeth himself; neither shall he be 21 able to stand, but his end shall be. Then how now shall his kingdom stand? for ye 22 said that I cast out devils by Beelzebul. And if I by Beelzebul cast out the devils, then your children, by what do they cast them out? And for this cause they shall 23 be judges against you. But if I by the Spirit of God cast out devils, then the king- 24 dom of God is come near unto you. Or how can a man enter into the house of a valiant man, and seize his garments,(5) if he do not beforehand secure himself(6) from 25 that valiant man? and then will he cut off(7) his house. But when the valiant man is 26 armed, guarding his house, his possessions are in peace. But if one come who is more valiant than he, he overcometh him, and taketh his whole armour, on which 27 he relieth, and divideth his spoil. Whosoever is not with me is against me; and 28 whosoever gathereth not with me scattereth abroad. For this reason I say unto you, Arabic. that all sins and blasphemies with which men blaspheme shall be forgiven 29 p. 56 them: but whosoever shall blaspheme against the Holy Spirit, there is no 30 forgiveness for him for ever, but he is deserving of eternal punishment: because they

Mt. 11, 11.

Lk. 7, 29.

Lk. 7, 30.

Mt. 11, 12a.

Lk. 16, 16.

Mt. 11, 12b.

Mt. 11, 13.

Mt. 11, 14.

Mt. 11, 15.

Lk. 16, 17.

Lk. 7, 31b.

Lk. 7, 32.

Lk. 7, 33.

Lk. 7, 34.

Lk. 7, 35.

Mk. 3, 20.(4)

Lk. 11, 14.

Mt. 12, 24.

Lk. 11, 16.

Mt. 12, 25.

Mt. 12, 26a.

Mk. 3, 26b.

Mt. 12, 26b.

Lk. 11, 18b.

Mt. 12, 27.

Mt. 12, 28.

Mt. 12, 29.

Lk. 11, 21.

Lk. 11, 22.

Lk. 11, 23.

Mk. 3, 28.

Mk. 3, 29.

Mk. 3, 30.

66

14 31 said that he had an unclean spirit. And he said also, Every one that speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in the world to 32 come. Either ye must make a good tree(1) and its fruit good; or ye must make an evil 33 tree(2) and its fruit evil: for the tree is known by its fruit. Ye children of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things? from the overflowings of the heart the mouth 34 speaketh. The good man from the good treasures which are in his heart bringeth forth good things; and the wicked man from the evil treasures which are in his 35 heart bringeth forth evils. I say unto you, that every idle word which men shall 36 speak, they shall give an answer for in the day of judgement: for by thy sayings thou shalt be justified, and by thy sayings thou shalt be judged.

37 And he said to the multitudes, When ye see the clouds appear from the west, 38 straightway ye say that there cometh rain; and so it cometh to pass. And when 39 the south wind bloweth, ye say that there will be heat; and it cometh to pass. And when the evening is come, ye say, It will be fair weather, for the heaven has become 40 red. And in the morning ye say, To-day there will be severe weather, for the redness Arabic. Of the heaven is paling. Ye hypocrites, ye know to examine the face of the P. 57 heaven and the earth; but the signs of this time ye know not to discern. Then they brought to him one possessed of a demon, dumb and blind; and he 42 healed him, so that the dumb and blind began to speak and see. And all the multitudes wondered, and said, Is this, think you, the son of David?

43 And the apostles returned unto Jesus, and told him everything that they had 44 done and wrought.(4) And he said unto them, Come, let us go into the desert alone, and rest yea little. And many were going and returning, and they had not leisure, not even to eat bread.

45 And after that, there came to him one of the Pharisees, and besought him that he would eat bread with him. And he entered into the house of that Pharisee, and 46 reclined. And there was in that city a woman that was a sinner; and when she knew that he was sitting in the house of that Pharisee, she took a box of sweet oint- 47 ment, and stood behind him, towards his feet, weeping, and began to wet his feet with her tears, and to wipe them with the hair of her head, and to kiss his feet, and 48 anoint them with the sweet ointment. And when that s Pharisee saw it, who invited him, he thought within himself, and said, This man, if he were a prophet, would know who she is and what is her history: for the woman which touched him was a sinner.

Mt. 12, 32.

Mt. 12, 33.

Mt. 12, 34.

Lk. 6, 45a.

Mt. 12, 36.

Mt. 12, 37.

Lk. 12, 54.

Lk. 12, 55.

Mt. 16, 2b.

Mt. 16, 3.

Mt. 16, 4.(3)

Mt. 12, 22.

Mt. 12, 23.

Mk. 6, 30.

Mk. 6, 31.

Lk. 7, 36.

Lk. 7, 37.

Lk. 7, 38.

Lk. 7, 39.

SECTION XV.

15 1 Jesus answered and said unto him, Simon, I have something to say unto thee. And 2 he said unto him, Say on, my Master. Jesus said unto him, There were two debtors Arabic, to one creditor; and one of them owed five hundred pence, and the other 3 p. 58 owed fifty pence. And because they had not wherewith to pay, he forgave 4 them both. Which of them ought to love him more? Simon answered and said, I suppose, he to whom he forgave most. Jesus said unto him, Thou hast judged rightly. 5 And he turned to that woman, and said to Simon, Dost thou see this woman? I entered into thy dwelling, and thou gavest me not water to wash my feet: but this 6 woman hath bathed(6) my feet with her tears, and dried them with her hair. And thou kissedst me not: but this woman, since she(7) entered, hath not ceased to kiss my 7 feet. And thou anointedst not my head with oil:(8) but this woman hath anointed 8 my feet with sweet ointment.(8) And for this, I say unto thee, Her many sins are forgiven her, because she loved much; for he to whom little is forgiven loveth little. 10 And he said unto that woman, Thy sins are forgiven thee. And those that were in- 11 vited began to say within themselves, Who is this that forgiveth sins also? And Jesus said to that woman, Thy faith hath saved thee; go in peace.

Lk. 7, 40.

Lk. 7, 41.

Lk. 7, 42.

Lk. 7, 43.

Lk. 7, 44.

Lk. 7, 45.

Lk. 7, 46.

Lk. 7, 47.

Lk. 7, 48.

Lk. 7, 49.

Lk. 7. 50.

67

15 12 And many believed in him when they saw the signs which he was doing. 14 But Jesus did not trust(1) himself to them, for he knew every man, and he needed not any man to testify to him concerning every man; for he knew what was in man.

15 And after that, Jesus set apart from his disciples other seventy, and sent them two and two before his face to every region and city whither he was purposing to 16 go. And he said unto them, The harvest is abundant, and the labourers are few: 17 entreat now the Lord of the harvest, that he send forth labourers into his harvest. Go 18 Arabic, ye: and lo, I am sending you as lambs among wolves. Take not with you 19 p. 59 purses, nor a wallet, nor shoes; neither salute any man in the way. And 20 whatsoever house ye enter, first salute that house: and if there be there a son of peace, 21 let your peace rest upon him; but if there be not, your peace shall return to you. And be ye in that house eating and drinking what they have:(2) for the labourer is worthy of 22 his hire. And remove not from house to house. And into whatsoever city ye enter, 23 and they receive you, eat what is presented to you: and heal the sick that are 24 therein, and say unto them, The kingdom of God is come near unto you. But whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you not, go out into the market, and say, 25 Even the dust that clave to our feet from your city, we shake off against you; but 26 know(3) this,(4) that the kingdom of God is come near unto you. I say unto you, that for Sodom there shall be quiet in the day of judgement, but there shall not be for 27 that city. Then began Jesus to rebuke the cities in which there had been many 28 mighty works,(5) and they repented not. And he said, Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! if there had been in Tyre and Sidon the signs which were in 29 thee, it may be that they would have repented in sackcloth and ashes. Howbeit I say unto you, that for Tyre and Sidon there shall be rest in the day of judgement, 30 more than for you. And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted unto heaven, shalt sink down unto Hades; for if there had been in Sodom the wonders(6) which were 31 in thee, it would have remained until this day. And now I say unto thee, that for the land of Sodom there shall be quiet in the day of judgement, more than for thee.

32 Arabic. And he said again unto his apostles, Whosoever heareth you heareth p. 60 me; and whosoever heareth me heareth him that sent me: and whosoever wrongeth(7) you wrongeth me; and whosoever wrongeth me wrongeth him that sent me.

33 And those seventy returned with great joy, and said unto him, Our Lord, even 34 the devils also are subject unto us in thy name. He said unto them, I beheld 35 Satan(8) fallen like lightning from heaven. Behold, I am giving you authority to tread upon serpents and scorpions, and the whole race(9) of the enemy; and nothing shall 36 hurt you. Only ye must not rejoice that the devils are subject unto you; but be glad that your names are written in heaven.

37 And in that hour Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit, and said, I acknowledge thee, my Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou didst hide these things from the wise and understanding, and didst reveal them unto children: yea, my Father; so 38 was thy will. And he turned to his disciples,(10) and said unto them, Everything hath been delivered to me of my Father: and no man knoweth who the Son is, save the Father; and who the Father is, save the Son, and to whomsoever the Son willeth 39 to reveal him. Come unto me, all of you, ye that are wearied and bearers of bur- 40 dens, and I will give you rest. Bear my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for(11) I 41 am gentle and lowly in my heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls. For my yoke is pleasant, and my burden is light.

42 And while great multitudes were going with him, he turned, and said unto them, 43 Whosoever cometh unto me, and hateth not his father, and his mother, and his brethren, and his sisters, and his wife, and his children, and himself(12) also, cannot 44 Arabic, be a disciple to me. And whosoever doth not take his cross, and follow 45 p. 61 me, cannot be a disciple to me. Which of you desireth to build a tower,

Jo. 2, 23b.

Jo. 2, 24.

Jo. 2, 25.

Lk. 10, 1.

Lk. 10, 2.

Lk. 10, 3.

Lk. 10, 4.

Lk. 10, 5.

Lk. 10, 6.

Lk. 10, 7.

Lk. 10, 8.

Lk. 10, 9.

Lk. 10, 10.

Lk. 10, 11.

Lk. 10, 12.

Mt. 11, 20.

Mt. 11, 21.

Mt. 11, 22.

Mt. 11, 23.

Mt. 11, 24.

Lk. 10, 16.

Lk. 10, 17.

Lk. 10, 18.

Lk. 10, 19.

Lk. 10, 20.

Lk. 10, 21.

Lk. 10, 22.

Mt. 11, 28.

Mt. 11, 29.

Mt. 11, 30.

Lk. 14, 25.

Lk. 14, 26.

Lk. 14, 27.

Lk. 14, 28.

68

15 and doth not sit down first and reckon his expenses and whether he hath enough to 46 complete it?(1) lest when he hath laid the foundations, and is not able to finish, all that 47 behold him(2) laugh at him, and say, This man began to build, and was not able to 48 finish. Or what king goeth to the battle to fight with another king,(3) and doth not consider first whether he is able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh to him 49 with twenty thousand? And if he is not able, he sendeth unto him while he is afar 50 off, and seeketh peace. So shall(4) every man of you consider, that desireth to be a disciple to me; for if he renounceth not all that he hath, he cannot be a disciple to me.

Lk. 14, 29.

Lk. 14, 30.

Lk. 14, 31.

Lk. 24, 32.

Lk. 14, 33.

SECTION XVI.

16 1 Then answered certain of the scribes and Pharisees, that they might tempt him, 2 and said, Teacher, we desire to see a sign from thee. He answered and said, This evil and adulterous generation(5) seeketh a sign; and it shall not be given a sign, 3 except the sign of Jonah the prophet. And as Jonah was a sign to the inhabitants 4 of Nineveh, so shall the Son of man also be to this generation. And as Jonah was in the belly of the great fish three days and three nights, so shall the Son of man 5 be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights. The queen of the south shall rise in the judgement with the people of this generation, and condemn(6) them: for she came from the ends of the earth that she might hear the wisdom of Solomon; 6 Arabic, and behold, here is a better than Solomon. The men of Nineveh shall stand p. 62 in the judgement with this generation, and condemn it: for they repented at 7 the preaching of Jonah; and behold, here is a greater than Jonah. The unclean spirit, when he goeth out of the man, departeth, and goeth about through places wherein are no waters, that he may find rest for himself; and when he findeth it not, he 8 saith, I will return to my house whence I came out. And if he come and find it 9 adorned and set in order, then he goeth, and associateth with himself seven other spirits worse than himself; and they enter and dwell in it: and the end of that man 10 shall be worse than his beginning. Thus shall it be unto this evil generation.

11 And while he was saying that, a woman from the multitude lifted up her voice, and said unto him, Blessed is the womb that bare thee, and the breasts that nursed 12 thee. But he said unto her, Blessed is he that heareth the word of God, and keepeth it.

13 And while he was speaking unto the multitude, there came unto him his mother 14 and his brethren, and sought to speak with him; and they were not able, because of 15 the multitude; and they stood without and sent, calling him unto them. A man said unto him, Behold, thy mother and thy brethren are standing without, and seek to 16 speak with thee. But he answered unto him that spake unto him, Who is my 17 mother? and who are my brethren? And he beckoned with his hand, stretching it out towards his disciples, and said, Behold, my mother! and behold, my brethren! 18 And every man that shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven is my brother, and my sister, and my mother.

19 And after that, Jesus was going about in the cities and in the villages, and pro- Arabic, claiming and preaching the kingdom of God, and his; twelve with him, 20 p. 63 and the women which had been healed of diseases and of evil spirits, Mary 21 that was called Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven devils, and Joanna the wife of Chuza Herod's steward, and Susanna, and many others, who were ministering to them of their substance.

22 And after that, Jesus went out of the house, and sat on the sea shore. And there 23 gathered unto him great multitudes. And when the press of the people was great upon him, he went up and sat in the boat; and all the multitude was standing on the 24 shore of the sea. And he spake to them much in parables, and said, The sower 25 went forth to sow: and when he sowed, some fell on the beaten highway; and it was 26 trodden upon, and the birds ate it. And other fell on the rocks: and some, where

Mt. 12, 38.

Mt. 12, 39.

Lk. 11, 30.

Mt. 12, 40.

Lk. 11, 31.

Mt. 12, 41.

Lk. 11, 24.

Lk. 11, 25.

Lk. 11, 26.

Mt. 12, 45b.

Lk. 11, 27.

Lk. 11, 28.

Mr. 12, 46a.

Lk. 8, 19a.

Mt. 12, 46c.

Lk. 8, 19b.

Mk. 3, 31.

Mt. 12, 47.

Mr. 12, 48.

Mt. 23, 49.

Mt. 12, 50.

Lk. 8, 1.

Lk. 8, 2.

Lk. 8, 3.

Mt. 13, 1.

Mt. 13, 2.

Mt. 13, 3.

Mt. 13, 4a.

Lk. 8, 5b.

Mt. 13, 5.

69

16 there was not much earth; and straightway it sprang up, because it had no depth in 27 the earth: and when the sun rose, it withered; and because it had no root, it dried 28 up. And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprang up with it, and choked it; 29 and it yielded no fruit. And other fell into excellent and good(1) ground; and it came up, and grew, and brought forth fruit, some thirty, and some sixty, and some 30 a hundred. And when he said that, he cried, He that hath ears that hear, let him 31 hear. And when they were alone, his disciples came, and asked him, and said unto 32 him, What is this parable? and why spakest thou unto them in parables? He Arabic, answered and said unto them, Unto you is given the knowledge of the p. 64 secrets of the kingdom of God; but it is not given unto them that are 33 without. He that hath shall be given unto, and there shall be added; and he that 34 hath not, that which he hath shah be taken from him also. For this cause therefore I speak unto them in parables; because they see, and see not; and hear, and hear 35 not, nor understand. And in them is being fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah, who said,

Hearing they shall hear, and shall not understand;

And seeing they shall see, and shall not perceive:

36 The heart of this people is waxed gross,

And their hearing with their ears is become heavy,

And they have closed their eyes;

Lest they should see with their eyes,

And hear with their ears,

And understand with their hearts,

And should return,

And I should heal them.

37, 38 But ye, blessed are your eyes, which see; and your ears, which hear. Blessed 39 are the eyes which see what ye see. Verily I say unto you, Many of the prophets and the righteous longed to see what ye see, and saw not; and to hear what ye 40 hear, and heard not. When ye know not this parable, how shall ye know all para- 41, 42 bles? Hear ye the parable of the sower. The sower which sowed, sowed the word 43 of God. Every one who heareth the word of the kingdom, and understandeth it not, the evil one cometh and snatcheth away the word that hath been sown in his 44 heart: and this is that which was sown on the middle of the highway. But that which was sown on the rocks is he that heareth the word, and straightway receiveth 45, 46 Arabic, it with joy; only, it hath no root in his soul, but his belief in it is for a p. 65 time; and whenever there is distress or persecution because of a(4) word, he 47 stumbleth(5) quickly. And that which was sown among the thorns is he that heareth the word; and the care of this world, and the error of riches, and the rest of the 48 other lusts enter, and choke the word, and it becometh without fruit. And that which was sown in good ground is he that heareth my word in a pure and good heart, and understandeth it, and holdeth to it, and bringeth forth fruit with patience, and produceth either a hundredfold or sixtyfold or thirty.

49 And he said, So is the kingdom of God, like a man who casteth seed into the 50 earth, and sleepeth and riseth by night and day, and the seed groweth and cometh 51 up, whence(6) he knoweth not. And the earth bringeth it to the fruit; and first it 52 will be blade, and after it ear, and at last perfect wheat in the ear: and whenever the fruit ripeneth,(7) he bringeth immediately the sickle, for the harvest hath come.

Mt. 13, 6.

Lk.8, 7.

Mk.4, 7b.

Lk.8, 8a.

Mk.4, 8b.

Lk.8, 8c.

Mk.4, 10.(2)

Mk.4, 11.(3)

Mt. 13, 12.

Mt. 13, 13.

Mt. 13, 14.

Mt. 13, 15.

Mt 13, 16.

Lk. 10, 23b.

Mt. 13, 17.

Mk. 4, 13b.

Mt. 13, 18.

Mk. 4, 14.

Mt. 13, 19.

Mt. 13, 20.

Mt. 13, 21a.

Lk. 8, 13b.

Mt. 13, 21c.

Mt. 13, 22a.

Mk. 4, 19b.

Lk. 8, 15.

Mt. 13, 23b.

Mk. 4, 26.

Mk. 4, 27.

Mk. 4, 28.

Mk. 4, 29.

SECTION XVII.

17 1 And he set forth to them another parable, and said, The kingdom of heaven is like a man who sowed good seed in his field; but when men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went away. And when the blade sprang up and brought forth fruit, there were noticed the tares also. And the servants of the master of the house came, and said unto him, Our lord, didst thou not sow good

Mt. 13, 24.

Mt. 13, 25.

Mt. 13, 26.

Mt. 13, 27.

70

17 5 Arabic. seed in thy field? whence are there tares in it? He said unto them, An p. 66 enemy hath done this. His servants said unto him, Wilt thou that we go 6 and separate it? He said unto them, Perhaps,(1) when ye separate the tares, ye would 7 root up with them wheat also. Leave them to grow both together until the harvest: and in the time of the harvest I will say unto the reapers, Separate the tares first, and bind them in bundles to be burned with fire; and gather the wheat into my barns.

8, 9 And he set forth to them another parable, and said, To what is the kingdom of 10 God like? and to what shall I liken it? and in what parable shall I set it forth? It 11 is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and planted in his field: and of the number of the things that are sown in the earth it is smaller than all of the things 12 which are sown, which are upon the earth; but when it is grown, it is greater than all the herbs, and produceth large branches, so that the birds of heaven make their nests in its branches.

13, 14 And he set forth to them another parable: To what shall I liken the kingdom of 15 God? It is like the leaven which a woman took, and kneaded into three measures of flour, until the whole of it was leavened.

16 And Jesus spake all that to the multitudes by way of parables, according as they 17 were able to hear. And without parables spake he not unto them; that the saying of the Lord through the prophet might be fulfilled:

I will open my mouth in parables;

And I will utter secrets which were before the foundations(3) of the world.

18 But he explained to his disciples privately everything.

19 Then Jesus left(4) the multitudes, and came to the house. And his disciples came Arabic. unto him, and said unto him, Explain unto us that parable about the tares 20 p. 67 and the field. He answered and said unto them, He that sowed good seed is 21 the Son of man; and the field is the world; and the good seed are the children of the 22 kingdom; and the tares are the children of the evil one; and the enemy that sowed them(5) is Satan; and the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels. 23 And as the tares are separated and burned in the fire, so shall it be in the end of 24 this world. The Son of man shall send his angels, and separate from his kingdom 25 all things that injure, and all the doers of iniquity, and they shall cast them into the 26 furnace of fire: and there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Then the righteous shall shine as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Whosoever hath ears that hear, let him hear.

27 And again the kingdom of heaven is like treasure hid in a field: that which a man found and hid; and, for his pleasure in it, went and sold all that he had, and bought that field.

28 And again the kingdom of heaven is like a man that is a merchant seeking ex- 29 cellent pearls; and when he found one pearl of great price, he went and sold everything that he had, and bought it.

30 And again the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was cast(6) into the sea, and 31 gathered of every kind: and when it was filled, they drew it up on to the shore of the sea, and sat down to select; and the good of them they threw into the vessels, 32 and the bad they threw outside. Thus shall it be in the end of the world: the angels 33 shall go forth, and separate the wicked from among the good, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

34 Jesus said unto them, Have ye understood all these things? They said unto 35 Arabic, him, Yea, our Lord. He said unto them, Therefore every scribe that be- p. 68 cometh a disciple of the kingdom of heaven is like a man that is a householder, who bringeth out of his treasures the new and the old.

36, 37 And when Jesus had finished all these parables, he removed thence, and came to his city; and he taught them in their synagogues, so that they were perplexed. 38 And when the sabbath came, Jesus began to teach in the synagogue; and many of 39 those that heard marvelled, and said, Whence came these things to this man? And many envied him and gave no heed to him, but said, What is this wisdom that is

Mt. 13, 28.

Mt. 13, 29.

Mt. 13, 30.

Mt. 13, 31a.

Lk. 13, 18b.

Mk. 4, 30b.

Lk. 13, 19a.

Mt. 13, 31c.

Mk. 4, 31b.

Mt. 13, 32b.

Mk. 4, 32b.

Mk. 4, 33.(2)

Lk. 13, 20b.

Mt. 13, 33b.

Mt. 13, 34a.

Mk. 4, 33b.

Mt. 13, 34b.

Mt. 13, 35.

Mk. 4, 34b.

Mt. 13, 36.

Mt. 13, 37.

Mt. 13, 38.

Mt. 13, 39.

Mt. 13, 40.

Mt. 13, 41.

Mt. 13, 42.

Mt. 13, 43.

Mt. 13, 44.

Mt. 13, 45.

Mt. 13, 46.

Mt. 13, 47.

Mt. 13, 48.

Mt. 13, 49.

Mt. 13, 50.

Mt. 13, 51.

Mt. 13, 52.

Mt. 13, 53.

Mt. 13, 54.

Mk. 6, 2.

71

17 given to this man, that there should happen at his hands such as these mighty works?(1) 40 Is not this a carpenter, son of a carpenter? and is not his mother called Mary? and 41 his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas? And his sisters, all of them, 42 lo, are they not all with us? Whence hath this man all these things? And they were in doubt concerning him. And Jesus knew their opinion, and said unto them, Will ye haply"(2) say unto me this proverb, Physician, heal first thyself: and all that 43 we have heard that thou didst in Capernaum, do here also in thine own city? And he said, Verily I say unto you, A prophet is not received in his own city, nor among 44 his brethren: for a prophet is not despised, save in his own city, and among his own 45 kin, and in his own house. Verily I say unto you, In the days of Elijah the prophet, there were many widows among the children of Israel, when the heaven held back 46 three years and six months, and there was a great famine in all the land; and Elijah Arabic, was not sent to one of them, save to Zarephath of Sidon, to a woman that was 47 p. 69 a widow. And many lepers were among the children of Israel in the days of Elisha the prophet; but not one of them was cleansed, save Naaman the Nabathaean.(3) 48 And he was not able to do there many mighty works,(4) because of their unbelief; 49 except that he laid his hand upon a few of the sick, and healed them. And he mar- 50 velled at their lack of faith. And when those who were in the synagogue heard, 51 they were all filled with wrath; and they rose up, and brought him forth outside the city, and brought him to the brow of the hill upon which their city was built, that 52 they might cast him from its summit: but he passed through among them and went away.

53 And he went about in the villages which were around Nazareth, and taught in their synagogues.

Mt. 13, 55.

Mt. 13, 56.

Mt. 13, 57.

Lk. 4, 23.

Lk. 4, 24.

Mk. 6, 4b.

Lk. 4, 25.

Lk. 4, 26.

Lk. 4, 27.

Mk. 6, 5.

Mk. 6, 6a.

Lk. 4, 28.

Lk. 4, 29.

Lk. 4, 30.

Mk. 6, 6b.

SECTION XVIII.

18 1 At that time Herod the tetrarch heard of the fame of Jesus, and all the things which came to pass at his hand; and he marvelled, for he had obtained excellent 2 information concerning him.(5) And same men said that John the Baptist was risen 3 from among the dead; and(6) others said that Elijah had appeared; and others, Jere- 4 miah; and others, that a prophet of the old prophets was risen; and others said that he 5 was a prophet like one of the prophets. Herod said to his servants, This is John the Baptist, he whom I beheaded; he is risen from among the dead: therefore mighty 6 Arabic. works result from him. For Herod himself had sent and taken John, and cast p. 70 him into prison, for the sake of Herodias his brother Philip's wife, whom he 7 had taken. And John said to Herod, Thou hast no authority to take the wife of thy 8 brother. And Herodias avoided him and wished to kill him; and she could not. 9 But Herod feared John, for he knew that he was a righteous man and a holy; and 10 he guarded him, and heard him much, and did, and obeyed him with gladness. And he wished to kill him; but he feared the people, for they adhered to him as the 11 prophet. And there was a celebrated day, and Herod had made a feast for his great men on the day of his anniversary,(7) and for the officers and for the chief men 12 of Galilee. And the daughter of Herodias came in and danced in the midst of the company, and pleased Herod and those that sat with him. And the king said to the 13 damsel, Ask of me what thou wilt, and I will give it thee. And he sware unto her, 14 Whatsoever thou shalt ask, I will give it thee, to the half of my kingdom. And she went out, and said unto her mother, What shall I ask him?(8) She said unto her, The 15 head of John the Baptist. And immediately she came in hastily to the king, and said unto him, I desire in this hour that thou give me on a dish the head of John 16 the Baptist. And the king was exceeding sorry; but because of the oath and the 17 guests he did not wish to refuse her. But immediately the king sent an executioner, and commanded that he should bring the head of John: and he went and cut off

Mt. 14, 1.

Lk. 9, 7b.

Mk. 6, 14b.

Lk. 9, 7c.

Lk. 9, 8a.

Mt. 16, 14b.

Lk. 9, 8b.

Mk. 6, 15b.

Mk. 6, 16.

Mt. 14, 2b.

Mk. 6, 17.

Mk. 6, 18.

Mk. 6, 19.

Mk. 6, 20.

Mt. 14, 5.

Mk. 6, 21.

Mk. 6, 22.

Mk. 6, 23.

Mk. 6, 24.

Mk. 6, 25.

Mk. 6, 26.

Mk. 6, 27.

72

18 18 the head of John in the prison, and brought it on a dish, and delivered it to the 19 damsel; and the damsel gave it to her mother. And his disciples heard, and came Arabic, and took his body, and buffed it. And they came and told(1) Jesus what 20 p. 71 had happened. And for this cause Herod said, I beheaded John: who 21 is this, of whom I hear these things. And he desired to see him. And Jesus, when he heard, removed thence in a boat to a waste place alone, to the other side of the sea of the Galilee of Tiberias.(2)

22 And many saw them going, and knew them, and hastened by land(3) from all the cities, and came thither beforehand; for they saw the signs which he was doing on the 23, 24 sick. And Jesus went up into the mountain, and sat there with his disciples. And 25 the feast of the passover of the Jews was near. And Jesus lifted up his eyes, and saw great multitudes coming to him. And he was moved with compassion for them, for 26 they were like sheep that were without a shepherd. And he received them, and spake to them concerning the kingdom of God, and healed those who had need of healing. 27 And when the evening approached,(4) his disciples came to him, and said unto 28 him, The place is desert, and the time is past; send away the multitudes of the people,(5) that they may go to the towns and villages which are around us, and buy for 29 themselves bread; for they have nothing to eat. But he said unto them, They have 30 no need to go away; give ye them what may be eaten. They said unto him, We have not here enough. He said unto Philip, Whence shall we buy bread that these may eat? 31, 32 And he said that proving him; and he knew what he was resolved to do. Philip said Arabic. unto him, Two hundred pennyworth of bread would not suffice them after(6) 33 p. 72 every one of them hath taken a small amount. One of his disciples said unto 34 him (namely, Andrew the brother of Simon Cephas), Here is a lad having five loaves 35 of barley and two fishes: but this amount, what is it for all these? But wilt thou that we go and buy for all the people what may be eaten? for we have no more 36 than these five loaves and the two fishes. And the grass was plentiful in that place. Jesus said unto them, Arrange all the people that they may sit down on the grass, 37 fifty people in a company. And the disciples did so. And all the people sat down 38 by companies, by hundreds and fifties. Then Jesus said unto them, Bring hither 39 those five loaves and the two fishes. And when they brought him that, Jesus took the bread and the fish, and looked to heaven, and blessed, and divided, and gave to 40 his disciples to set before them; and the disciples set for the multitudes the bread 41 and the fish; and they ate, all of them, and were satisfied. And when they were satisfied, he said unto his disciples, Gather the fragments that remain over, that noth- 42 ing be lost. And they gathered, and filled twelve baskets with fragments, being those that remained over from those which ate of the five barley loaves and the two 43 fishes. And those people who ate were five thousand, besides the women and children. 44 Arabic, And straightway he pressed his disciples to go up into the ship, and p. 73 that they should go before him unto the other side to Bethsaida, while he 45 himself should send away the multitudes. And those people who saw the sign which 46 Jesus did, said, Of a truth this is a prophet who hath come into the world. And Jesus knew their purpose to come and take him, and make him a king; and he left them, and went up into the mountain alone for prayer.

47, 48 And when the nightfall was near, his disciples went down unto the sea, and sat(9) in a boat, and came to the side of Capernaum. And the darkness came on, and Jesus 49 had not come to them. And the sea was stirred up against them by reason of a vio- 50 lent wind that blew. And the boat was distant from the land many furlongs, and they were much damaged by the waves, and the wind was against them.

Mk. 6, 28.

Mk. 6, 29.

Mt. 14, 12b.

Lk. 9, 9.

Mt. 14, 13a.

Jo. 6, 1b.

Mk. 6, 33a.

Jo. 6, 2b.

Jo. 6, 3.

Jo. 6, 4.

Jo. 6, 5a.

Mk. 6, 34b.

Lk. 9, 11b.

Mt. 14, 15a.

Mk. 6, 36.

Mt. 14, 16.

Mt. 14, 17a.

Jo. 6, 5b.

Jo. 6, 6.

Jo. 6, 7.

Jo. 6, 8.

Jo. 6, 9.

Lk. 9, 13b.(7)

Jo. 6, 10b.(8)

Mk. 6, 40.

Mt. 14, 18.

Mk. 6, 41a.

Mt. 14, 19b.

Mt. 14, 20a.

Jo. 6, 12.

Jo. 6, 13.

Mt. 14, 21.

Mk. 6, 45.

Jo. 6, 14.

Jo. 6, 15.

Jo. 6, 16.

Jo. 6, 17.

Jo. 6, 18.

Mt. 14, 24.

SECTION XIX.

19 1 And in the fourth watch of the night Jesus came unto them, walking upon the 2 water, after they had rowed(10) with difficulty about twenty-five or thirty furlongs.

Mt. 14, 25.

Jo. 6, 19a, c.

73

19 And when he drew near unto their boat, his disciples saw him walking on the water; and they were troubled, and supposed that it was a false appearance; and they cried out from their fear. But Jesus straightway spoke unto them, and said, Take courage, for it is I; fear not. Then Cephas answered and said unto him, My Lord, if it be thou, bid me to come unto thee on the water. And Jesus said unto him, Come. And Cephas went down out of the boat, and walked on the water to come unto Jesus. But Arabic, when he saw the wind strong, he feared, and was on the point of sink- p. 74 ing; and he lifted up his voice, and said, My Lord, save me. And immediately our Lord stretched out his hand and took hold of him, and said unto him, 9 Thou of little faith, why didst thou doubt? And when Jesus came near, he went up 10 unto them into the boat, he and Simon, and immediately the wind ceased. And those that were in the ship came and worshipped him, and said, Truly thou art the 11 Son of God. And straightway that ship arrived at the land which they made for. 12 And when they came out of the ship to the land, they marvelled greatly and were 13 perplexed in themselves: and they had not understood by means of(1) that bread, because their heart was gross.

14 And when the people of that region knew of the arrival of Jesus, they made haste in all that land, and began to bring those that were diseased,(2) borne in their 15 beds to the place where they heard that he was. And wheresoever the place might be which he entered, of the villages or the cities, they laid the sick in the markets, and sought of him that they might touch(3) were it only the edge of his garment: and all that touched(4) him were healed and lived.(5)

16 And on the day after that, the multitude which was standing on the shore of the sea saw that there was there no other ship save that into which the disciples had 17 gone up, and that Jesus went not up into the ship with his disciples (but there were other ships from Tiberias near(6) the place where they ate the bread when Jesus blessed 18 it): and when that multitude saw that Jesus was not there, nor yet his disciples, they 19 Arabic, went up into those ships, and came to Capernaum, and sought Jesus. And p. 75 when they found him on the other side of the sea, they said unto him, Our 20 Master, when camest thou hither? Jesus answered and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Ye have not sought me because of(7) your seeing the signs, but because of 21 your eating the bread and being satisfied. Serve not the food which perisheth, but the food which abideth in eternal life,(8) which the Son of man will give unto you: him(9) 22 hath God the Father sealed. They said unto him, What shall we do that we may 23 work the work of God? Jesus answered and said unto them, This is the work of 24 God, that ye believe in him whom he hath sent. They said unto him, What sign hast thou done, that we may see, and believe in thee? what hast thou wrought? 25 Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness; as it was written, Bread from heaven 26 gave he them to eat. Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not bread from heaven; but my Father gave(10) you the bread of truth n from 27 heaven. The bread of God is that which came down from heaven and gave the 28, 29 world life. They said unto him, Our Lord, give us at all times this bread. Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: whosoever cometh unto me shall not hun- 30 ger, and whosoever believeth in me shall not thirst for ever. But I said unto you, 31 Ye have seen me, and have not believed. And all that my Father hath given to me cometh unto me; and whosoever cometh unto me I shall not cast him forth with- 32 out. I came down from heaven, not to do my own will, but to do the will of him 33 that sent me; and this is the will of him that sent me, that I should lose nothing of 34 Arabic, that which he gave me, but raise it up in the last day. This is the will of p. 76 my Father, that every one that seeth the Son, and believeth in him, should have eternal life; and I will raise him up in the last day.

35 The Jews therefore murmured against him because of his saying, I am the bread 36 which came down from heaven. And they said, Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? then how saith this man, I came down from 37, 38 heaven? Jesus answered and said unto them, Murmur not one with another. No

Mt. 14, 26.

Mt. 14, 27.

Mt. 14, 28.

Mt. 14, 29.

Mt. 14, 30.

Mt. 14, 31.

Mt. 14, 32.

Mt. 14, 33.

Jo. 6, 21b.

Mk. 6, 54a.

Mk. 6, 51b.

Mk. 6, 52.

Mk. 6, 54.

Mk. 6, 55.

Mk. 6, 56.

Jo. 6, 22a.

Jo. 6, 23.

Jo. 6, 24.

Jo. 6, 25.

Jo. 6, 26.

Jo. 6, 27.

Jo. 6, 28.

Jo. 6, 29.

Jo. 6, 30.

Jo. 6, 31.

Jo. 6, 32.

Jo. 6, 33.

Jo. 6, 34.

Jo. 6, 35.

Jo. 6, 36.

Jo. 6, 37.

Jo. 6, 38.

Jo. 6, 39.

Jo. 6, 40.

Jo. 6, 41.

Jo. 6, 42.

Jo. 6, 43.

Jo. 6, 44.

74

19 man is able to come unto me, except the Father which sent me draw him; and I will 39 raise him up in the last day. It is written in the prophet, They shall all be the taught of God. Every one who heareth from the Father now,(1) and learneth of him, cometh 40 unto me. No man now seeth the Father; but he that is from God, he it is that seeth 41 the Father. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever believeth in me hath eternal 42, 43 life. I am the bread of life. Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and 44 they died. This is the bread which came down from heaven, that a man may eat 45 of it, and not die. I am the bread of life which came down from heaven: and if a man eat of this bread he shall live for ever: and the bread which I shall give is my body, which I give for the life of the world.

46 The Jews therefore quarrelled one with another, and said, How can he give us 47 Arabic, his body that we may eat it? Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto p. 77 you, If ye do not eat the body of the Son of man and drink his blood, ye shall 48 not have life in yourselves. Whosoever eateth of my body and drinketh of my blood 49 hath eternal life; and I will raise him up in the last day. My body truly is meat,(3) and 50 my blood truly is drink.(4) Whosoever eateth my body and drinketh my blood abideth 51 in me, and I in him--as the living Father sent me, and I am alive because of the 52 Father; and whosoever eateth me, he also shall live because of me. This is the bread which came down from heaven: and not according as your fathers ate the 53 manna, and died: whosoever eateth of this bread shall live for ever. This he said in 54 the synagogue, when he was teaching in Capernaum. And many of his disciples, when they heard, said, This word is hard; who is he that can hear it?

Jo. 6, 45.

Jo. 6, 46.

Jo. 6, 47.

Jo.6, 50.

Jo.6, 51.

Jo.6, 51b.(2)

Jo. 6, 52.

Jo. 6, 53.

Jo. 6, 54.

Jo. 6, 55.

Jo. 6, 56.

Jo. 6, 57.

Jo. 6, 58.

Jo. 6, 59.

Jo. 6, 60.

SECTION XX.

20 1 And Jesus knew within himself that his disciples were murmuring because of a that, and he said unto them, Doth this trouble you? What if ye should see the Son 3 of man then ascend to the place where he was of old? It is the spirit that quickeneth, and the body profiteth nothing: the words(5) that I speak unto you are spirit 4 and life. But there are some of you that do not believe. And Jesus knew beforehand who they were who should(6) not believe, and who it was that should betray 5 him. And he said unto them, Therefore I said unto you, No man can come unto me, if that hath not been given him by the Father.

6 Arabic, And because of this word many of his disciples turned back and walked 7 p. 78 not with him. And Jesus said unto the twelve, Do ye haply also wish to 8 go away? Simon Cephas answered and said, My Lord, to whom shall we go? thou 9 hast the words of eternal life. And we have believed and known that thou art the 10 Messiah, the Son of the living God. Jesus said unto them, Did not I choose you, 11 ye company of the twelve, and of you one is a devil? He said that because of Judas the son of Simon Iscariot; for he, being of the twelve, was purposed to(7) betray him.

12 And while he was speaking, one of the Pharisees came asking of him that he 13 would eat with him: and he went in, and reclined to meat. And that Pharisee, when 14 he saw it,(8) marvelled that he had not first cleansed himself before his eating. Jesus said unto him, Now do ye Pharisees wash the outside of the cup and the dish, and ye think that ye are cleansed; but your inside is full of injustice and wickedness.

15, 16 Ye of little mind, did not he that made the outside make the inside? Now give what ye have(9) in alms, and everything shall be clean unto you.

17, 18 And there came to him Pharisees and scribes, come from Jerusalem. And when they saw some of his disciples eating bread while they had not washed their hands, 19 they found fault. For all of the Jews and the Pharisees, if they wash not their 20 hands thoroughly, eat not; for they held(10) to the ordinance(11) of the elders. And they ate not what was bought from the market, except they washed it; and many other things did they keep of what they had received, such as the washing of cups, and 21 measures, and vessels of brass, and couches. And scribes(12) and Pharisees asked him,

Jo. 6, 61.

Jo. 6, 62.

Jo. 6, 63.

Jo. 6, 64.

Jo. 6, 65.

Jo. 6, 66.

Jo. 6, 67.

Jo. 6, 68.

Jo. 6, 69.

Jo. 6, 70.

Jo. 6, 71.

Lk. 11, 37.

Lk. 11, 38.

Lk. 11, 39.

Lk. 11, 40.

Lk. 11, 41.

Mk. 7, 1.

Mk. 7, 2.

Mk. 7, 3.

Mk. 7, 4.

Mk. 7, 5.

75

20 Arabic, Why do thy disciples not walk according to the ordinances of the elders, but 22 p. 79 eat bread without washing their hands? Jesus answered and said unto them, Why do ye also overstep the command of God by reason of your ordinance? 23 God said, Honour thy father and thy mother; and, Whosoever revileth his father and 24 his mother shall surely die. But ye say, If a man say to his father or to his mother, 25 What thou receivest(1) from me is an offering,--and ye(1) suffer him not to do any- 26 thing for his father or his mother; and ye(1) make void and reject the word of God by reason of the ordinance that ye have ordained and commanded, such as the wash- 27 ing of cups and measures, and what resembles that ye do much. And ye forsook 28 the command of God, and held to the ordinance of men. Do(2) ye well to wrong(3) 29 the command of God in order that ye may establish your ordinance? Ye hypocrites, well did Isaiah the prophet prophesy concerning you, and say,

30 This people honoureth me with its(4) lips;

But their heart is very far from me.

31 But in vain do they fear me,

In that they teach the commands of men.

32 And Jesus called all the multitude, and said unto them. Hear me, all of you, and 33 understand: nothing without the man, which then enters him, is able to defile him; 34 but what goeth out of him, that it is which defileth the man. He that hath ears 35 that hear, let him hear. Then his disciples drew near, and said unto him, Knowest 36 thou that the Pharisees which heard this word were angry? He answered and said unto them, Every plant which my Father which is in heaven planted not shall be 37 Arabic, uprooted. Let them alone; for they are blind leading blind. And if the p. 80 blind lead(5) the blind, both of them shall fall into a hollow.

38 And when Jesus entered the house from the multitude, Simon Cephas asked him, 39 and said unto him, My Lord, explain to us that parable. He said unto them, Do ye also thus not understand? Know ye not that everything that entereth into the 40 man from without cannot defile him; because it entereth not into his heart; it entereth into his stomach only, and thence is cast forth in the cleansing which maketh 41 clean all the food?(6) The thing which goeth forth from the mouth of the man pro- 42 ceedeth from his heart, and it is that which defileth the man. From within(7) the 43 heart of men proceed evil thoughts, fornication, adultery, theft, false witness, murder, injustice, wickedness, deceit, stupidity, evil eye, calumny, pride, foolishness: 44 these evils all of them from within proceed from the heart, and they are the things 45 which defile the man: but if a man eat while he washeth not his hands, he is not defiled.

46 And Jesus went out thence, and came to the borders of Tyre and Sidon. And he entered into a certain house, and desired that no man should know it;(8) and 47 he could not be hid. But straightway a Canaanitish woman, whose daughter had an 48, 49 unclean spirit, heard of him. And that woman was a Gentile of Emesa of Syria. And she came out after him, crying out, and saying, Have mercy upon me, my Lord, thou 50 son of David; for my daughter is seized in an evil way by Satan.(9) And he answered Arabic. her not a word. And his disciples came and besought him, and said, Send 51 p. 81 her away: for she crieth after us. He answered and said unto them, I was 52 not sent except to the sheep that are gone astray of the house of Israel. But she came and worshipped him, and said, My Lord, help me, have mercy upon me.

53 Jesus said unto her, It is not seemly that the children's bread should be taken and 54 thrown to the dogs. But she said, Yea, my Lord: the dogs also eat of the crumbs 55 that fall from their masters' tables, and live. Then said Jesus unto her, O woman, 56 great is thy faith: it shall be unto thee as thou hast desired. Go then thy way; and 57 because of this word, the devil is gone out of thy daughter. And her daughter was 58 healed in that hour. And that woman went away to her house, and found her

daughter laid upon the bed, and the devil gone out of her.

Mt. 15, 3.

Mt. 15, 4a.

Mk. 7, 10b.

Mk. 7, 11.

Mk. 7, 12.

Mk. 7, 13.

Mk. 7, 8.

Mk. 7, 9.

Mt. 15, 7.

Mt. 15, 8.

Mt. 15, 9.

Mk. 7, 14.

Mk. 7, 15.

Mk. 7, 16.

Mt. 15, 12.

Mt. 15, 13.

Mt. 15, 14.

Mk. 7, 17a.

Mt. 15, 15.

Mk. 7, 18b.

Mk., 7, 19.

Mt. 15, 18.

Mk. 7, 21.

Mk. 7, 22.

Mk. 7, 23.

Mt. 15, 20b.

Mt. 15, 21a.

Mk. 7, 24b.

Mk. 7, 25a.

Mk. 7, 26a.

Mt. 15, 22b.

Mt. 15, 23.

Mt. 15, 23.

Mt. 15, 25.

Mt. 15, 26.

Mt. 15, 27.

Mt. 15, 28a.

Mk. 7, 29b.

Mt. 15, 28b.

Mk. 7, 30.

76

SECTION XXI.

21 1 And Jesus went out again from the borders of Tyre and Sidon, and came to the 2 sea of Galilee, towards the borders of Decapolis. And they brought unto him one dumb and deaf, and entreated him that he would lay his hand upon him and heal 3 him. And he drew him away from the multitude, and went away alone, and spat 4 upon his fingers, and thrust them into his ears, and touched his tongue; and looked 5 to heaven, and sighed, and said unto him, Be opened. And in that hour his ears 6 were opened, and the bond of his tongue was loosed, and he spake with ease. And Jesus charged them much that they should not tell this to any man: but the more 7 he charged them, the mare they increased in publishing, and marvelled much, and Arabic. said, This man doeth everything well: he made the deaf to hear, and those p. 82 that lacked speech to speak.

8, 9 And while he was passing through the land of Samaria, he came to one of the cities of the Samaritans, called Sychar, beside the field which Jacob gave to Joseph to his son. And there was there a spring of water of Jacob's. And Jesus was fatigued from the exertion of the way, and sat at the spring. And the time was about the sixth hour.(1) And a woman of Samaria came to draw water; and Jesus said unto 12 her, Give me water, that I may drink. And Iris disciples had entered into the city 13 to buy for themselves food. And that Samaritan woman said unto him, How dost thou, being a Jew, ask me to give thee to drink, while I am a Samaritan woman? 14 (And the Jews mingle not with the Samaritans.(2)) Jesus answered and said unto her, If thou knewest the gift of God, and who this is that said unto thee, Give me 15 to drink; thou wouldest ask him, and he would give thee the water of life. That woman said unto him, My Lord, thou hast no bucket, and the well is deep: from 16 whence hast thou the water of life? Can it be that thou art greater than our father Jacob, who gave us this well, and drank from it, and his children, and his sheep? 17 Jesus answered and said unto her, Every one that drinketh of this water shall thirst again: but whosoever drinketh of the water which I shall give him shall not thirst for ever: but the water which I shall give him shall be in him a spring of water springing 19 up unto eternal life. That woman said unto him, My Lord, give me of this water, that 20 I may not thirst again, neither come and draw water from here. Jesus said unto her, 21 Arabic. Go and call thy husband, and come hither. She said unto him, I have no 22 p. 83 husband. Jesus said unto her, Thou saidst well, I have no husband: five husbands hast thou had, and this man whom thou hast now is not thy husband; and 23 in this thou saidst truly. That woman said unto him, My Lord, I perceive thee to 24 be a prophet. Our fathers worshipped in this mountain; and ye say that in Jeru- 25 salem is the place in which worship must be. Jesus said unto her, Woman, believe me, an hour cometh, when neither in this mountain, nor yet in Jerusalem, shall ye wor- 26 ship the Father. Ye worship that which ye know not: but we worship that which 27 we know: for salvation is of the Jews. But an hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and truth: and the Father also 28 seeketh such as these worshippers. For God is a Spirit: and they that worship him 29 must worship him in spirit and in truth. That woman said unto him, I know that 30 the Messiah cometh: and when he is come, he will teach us everything. Jesus said unto her, I that speak unto thee am he.

31 And while he was speaking, his disciples came; and they wondered how he would speak(3) with a woman; but not one of them said unto him, What seekest thou? or, 32 What(4) speakest thou with her? And the woman left her waterpot, and went to the 33 city, and said to the people, Come, and see a man who told me all that ever I did: 34 perhaps then he is the Messiah. And people went out from the city, and came to 35 him. And in the mean while his disciples besought him, and said unto him, Our 36, 37 master, eat. And he said unto them, I have food to eat that ye know not. And the disciples said amongst themselves, Can any one have brought him aught to eat?(5)

Mk. 7, 31.

Mk. 7, 32.

Mk. 7, 33.

Mk. 7, 34.

Mk. 7, 35.

Mk. 7, 36.

Mk. 7, 37.

Jo. 4, 4.

Jo. 4, 5.

Jo. 4, 6.

Jo. 4, 7.

Jo. 4, 8.

Jo. 4, 9.

Jo. 4, 10.

Jo. 4, 11.

Jo. 4, 12.

Jo. 4, 13.

Jo. 4, 14.

Jo. 4, 15.

Jo. 4, 16.

Jo. 4, 17.

Jo. 4, 18.

Jo. 4, 19.

Jo. 4, 20.

Jo. 4, 21.

Jo. 4, 22.

Jo. 4, 23.

Jo. 4, 24.

Jo. 4, 25.

Jo. 4, 26.

Jo. 4, 27.

Jo. 4, 28.

Jo. 4, 29.

Jo. 4, 30.

Jo, 4, 32.

Jo, 4, 33.

77

21 38 Jesus said unto them, My food is to do the will of him that sent me, and to accom- 39 Arabic, plish his work. Said ye not that after four months cometh the harvest? p. 84 behold, I therefore say unto you, Lift up your eyes, and behold the lands, 40 that they have become white, and the harvest is already come.(1) And he that reapeth receiveth his wages, and gathereth the fruit of eternal life;(2) and the sower and 41 the reaper rejoice together. For in this is found the word of truth, One soweth, and 42 another reapeth. And I sent you to reap that in which ye have not laboured: others laboured, and ye have entered on their labour.

43 And from that city many of the Samaritans believed in him because of the words 44 of that woman, who testified and said, He told me all that ever I did. And when those Samaritans came unto him, they besought him to abide with them; and he 45, 46 abode with them two days. And many believed in him because of his word; and they said to that woman, Now not because of thy saying have we believed in him: we have heard and known that this truly is the Messiah, the Saviour of the world.

47, 48 And after two days Jesus went out thence and departed to Galilee. And Jesus 49 testified that a prophet is not honoured in his own city.And when he came to Galilee, the Galilaeans received him.

Jo. 4, 34.

Jo. 4, 35.

Jo. 4, 36.

Jo. 4, 37.

Jo. 4, 38.

Jo. 4, 39.

Jo. 4, 40.

Jo. 4, 42.

Jo. 4, 43.

Jo. 4, 44.

Jo. 4, 45a.

SECTION XXII.

22 1 And when Jesus came to a certain village, there drew near to him a leper, and fell at his feet, and besought him, and said unto him, If thou wilt, thou art able to cleanse me. And Jesus had mercy upon him, and stretched forth his hand, and touched him, and said, I will cleanse(3) thee. And immediately his leprosy departed from him, and he was cleansed. And he sternly charged him, and sent him out, Arabic, and said unto him, See that thou tell not any man: but go and shew thy- p. 85 self to the priests, and offer an offering for thy cleansing as Moses com- 6 manded for their testimony. But he, when he went out, began to publish much, and spread abroad the news, so that Jesus could not enter into any of the cities openly, for the extent to which the report of him spread, but he remained without in a des- 7 ert place. And much people came unto him from one place and another,(4) to hear 8 his word, and that they might be healed of their pains. And he used to withdraw from them into the desert, and pray.

9 And after that, was the feast of the Jews; and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. And there was in Jerusalem a place prepared for bathing,(5) which was called in 11 Hebrew the House of Mercy, having five porches. And there were laid in them much people of the sick, and blind, and lame, and paralysed, waiting for the moving of the water. And the angel from time to time went down into the place of bathing,(5) and moved the water; and the first that went down after the moving of 13 the water, every pain that he had was healed. And a man was there who had a 14 disease for thirty-eight years. And Jesus saw this man laid, and knew(6) that he had 15 been thus a long time; and he said unto him, Wouldest thou be made whole? That diseased one answered and said, Yea, my Lord, I have no man, when the water moveth, to put me into the bathing-place; but when I come, another goeth down before 16, 17 me. Jesus said unto him, Rise, take thy bed, and walk. And immediately that man was healed; and he rose, and carried his bed, and walked.

18 And that day was a sabbath. And when the Jews saw that healed one, they(7) said 19 unto him, It is a sabbath: thou hast no authority to carry thy bed. And he answered and said unto them, He that made me whole, the same said unto me, Take thy bed, 20 Arabic, and walk. They asked him therefore, Who is this man that said unto thee, 21 p. 86 Take thy bed, and walk? But he that was healed knew not who it was; for Jesus had removed from that place to another, because of the press of the great mul- 22 titude which was in that place. And after two days Jesus happened upon him in the temple, and said unto him, Behold, thou art whole: sin not again, lest there come upon

Lk. 5, 12.

Mk. 1, 41.

Mk. 1, 42.

Mk. 1, 43.

Mk. 1, 44.

Mk. 1, 45a.

Lk. 5, 15.

Lk. 5, 16.

Jo. 5, 1.

Jo. 5, 2.

Jo. 5, 3.

Jo. 5, 4.

Jo. 5, 5.

Jo. 5, 6.

Jo. 5, 7.

Jo. 5, 8

Jo, 5, 9.

Jo. 5, 10.

Jo. 5, 11.

Jo. 5, 12.

Jo. 5, 13.

Jo. 5, 14.

78

22 23 thee what is worse than the first. And that man went, and said to the Jews that it 24 was Jesus that had healed him. And because of that the Jews persecuted Jesus and 25 sought to kill him, because he was doing this on the sabbath. And Jesus said unto 26 them, My Father worketh until now, and I also work. And because of this especially the Jews sought to kill him, not because he profaned the sabbath only; but for his saying also that God was his Father, and his making himself equal with God. 27 Jesus answered and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son cannot do anything of himself, but what be seeth the Father do; what the Father doeth, 28 that the Son also doeth like him. The Father loveth his Son, and everything that he doeth he sheweth him: and more than these works will he shew him, that ye 29 may marvel. And as the Father raiseth the dead and giveth them life, so the Son 30 also giveth life to whomsoever he will. And the Father judgeth no man, but hath 31 given all judgement unto the Son; that every man may honour the Son, as he honoureth the Father. And he that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father which 32 sent him. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever heareth my word, and believeth in him that sent me, hath eternal. life, and cometh not into judgement, but passeth from 33 Arabic. death unto life. Verily, verily, I say unto you, An hour shall come, and now p. 87 is also, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God; and those 34 which hear shall live. And as the Father hath life in himself,(1) likewise he gave to 35 the Son also that he might have life in himself,(1) and authority to do judgement also, 36 because(2) he is the Son of man. Marvel not then at that: I mean the coming of the hour when all that are in the tombs shall hear his voice, and shall come forth: 37 those that have done good, to the resurrection of life; and those that have done evil deeds, to the resurrection of judgement.

38 I am not able of myself to do anything; but as I hear, I judge: and my judge- 39 ment is just; I seek not my own will, but the will of him that sent me. I(3) bear wit- 40 ness of myself, and so a my witness is not true. It is another that beareth witness 41 of me; and I know that the witness which he beareth of me is true. Ye have sent 42 unto John, and he hath borne witness of the truth. But not from man do I seek 43 witness; but I say that ye may live.(4) That(5) was a lamp which shineth and 44 giveth light: and ye were pleased to glory now(6) in his light. But I have witness greater than that of John: the works which my Father hath given me to accomplish, 45 those works which I do, bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me. And the Father which sent me, he hath borne witness of me. Ye have neither heard his 46 voice at any time, nor seen his appearance. And his word abideth not in you; because 47 in him whom he hath sent ye do not believe. Search the scriptures, in which ye rejoice(7) 48 that ye have eternal life; and they bear witness of me; and ye do not wish to come to 49. 50 Arabic. me, that ye may have eternal life. I seek not praise of men. But I know 51 p. 88 you, that the love of God is not in you. I am come in the name of my Father, and ye received me not; but if another come in his own name, that one will 52 ye receive. And how can ye believe, while ye receive praise one from another, and 53 praise from God, the One, ye seek not? Can it be that ye think that I will accuse you before the Father? Ye have one that accuseth you, Moses, in whom ye have 54 rejoiced.(7) If ye believed Moses, ye would believe me also; Moses wrote of me. 55 And if ye believed not his writings, how shall ye believe my words?

Jo. 5, 15.

Jo. 5, 16.

Jo. 5, 17.

Jo. 5, 18.

Jo. 5, 19.

Jo. 5, 20.

Jo. 5, 21.

Jo. 5, 22.

Jo. 5, 23.

Jo. 5, 24.

Jo. 5, 25.

Jo. 5, 26.

Jo. 5, 27.

Jo. 5, 28.

Jo. 5, 29.

Jo. 5, 30.

Jo. 5, 31.

Jo. 5, 32.

Jo. 5, 33.

Jo. 5, 34.

Jo. 5, 35.

Jo. 5, 36.

Jo. 5, 37.

Jo. 5, 38.

Jo. 5, 39.

Jo. 5, 41.

Jo. 5, 43.

Jo. 5, 44.

Jo. 5, 45.

Jo. 5, 46.

Jo. 5, 47.

SECTION XXIII.

23 1 And Jesus departed thence, and came to the side of the sea of Galilee, and went up into the mountain, and sat there. And there came unto him great multitudes, having with them lame, and blind, and dumb, and maimed, and many others, and they cast them at the feet of Jesus: for they had seen all the signs which he did in Jerusalem, when they were gathered at the feast. And he healed them all. And

Mt. 15, 29.

Mt. 15, 30a.

Jo. 4, 45b.

Mt. 15, 30b.

Mt. 15, 31.

79

23 those multitudes marvelled when they saw dumb men speak, and maimed men healed, and lame men walk, and blind men see; and they praised the God of Israel.

5 And Jesus called his disciples, and said unto them, I have compassion on this multitude, because of their continuing with me three days, having nothing to eat; and to send them away fasting I am not willing, lest they faint in the way, some of them hay- 6 Arabic, ing come from far. His disciples said unto him, Whence have we in the des- 7 p. 89 ert bread wherewith to satisfy all this multitude? Jesus said unto them, How 8 many loaves have ye? They said unto him, Seven, and a few small fishes. And he 9 commanded the multitudes to sit down upon the ground; and he took those seven loaves and the fish, and blessed, and brake, and gave to his disciples to set before 10 them; and the disciples set before the multitudes. And they all ate, and were satisfied: and they took that which remained over of the fragments, seven basketfuls. 11 And the people that ate were four thousand men, besides the women and children. 12 And when the multitudes departed, he went up into the boat, and came to the borders of Magada.(1)

13 And the Pharisees and Sadducees came to him, and began to seek a discussion with him. And they asked him to shew them a sign from heaven, tempting him. 14 And Jesus sighed within himself, and said, What sign seeketh this evil and adulterous generation? It seeketh a sign, and it shall not be given a sign, except the sign 15 of Jonah the prophet. Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not be given a 16 sign. And he left(2) them, and went up into the boat, and went away to that side.

17 And his disciples forgot to take with them bread, and there was not with them 18 in the boat, not even(3) one loaf. And Jesus charged them, and said, Take heed, and guard yourselves from the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees, and from the 19 leaven of Herod. And they reflected within themselves that they had taken with them 20 no bread. And Jesus knew, and said unto them, Why(4) think ye within yourselves, O

ye of little faith, and are anxious, because ye have no bread? until now do ye not per- 21 ceive, neither understand? is your heart yet hard? And have ye eyes, and yet see not? 22 Arabic, and have ye ears, and yet hear not? and do ye not remember when I brake p. 90 those five loaves for five thousand? and how many baskets full of broken 23 pieces took ye(5) up? They said, Twelve. He said unto them, And the seven also for four thousand: how many baskets full of broken pieces took ye(5) up? They 24 said, Seven. He said unto them, How have ye not understood thai I spake not to you because of(6) the bread, but that ye should beware of the leaven of the Pharisees 25 and Sadducees? Then they understood that he spake, not that they should beware of the leaven of the bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and Sadducees, which he called leaven.

26 And after that, he came to Bethsaida. And they brought to him a certain(7) blind 27 man, and besought him that he would touch him. And he took the hand of that blind man, and led him out without the village, and spat in his eyes, and laid his 28 hand on him,(8) and asked him, What seest thou? And that blind man looked in- 29 tently, and said unto him, I see men as trees walking. And he placed his hand 30 again on his eyes; and they were restored,(9) and he saw everything clearly. And he sent him to his house, and said, Do not enter even into the village, nor tell any man in the village.

31 And Jesus went forth, and his disciples, to the villages of Caesarea Philippi. 32 And while he was going in the way, and his disciples alone,(10) he asked his disciples, 33 and said, What do men say of me that I am, the Son of man?(11) They said unto him, Some say, John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; and others, Jeremiah, or one of the 34, 35 prophets. He said unto them, And ye, what say ye that I am? Simon Cephas an- 36 Arabic. swered and said, Thou art the Messiah, the Son of the living God. Jesus an- p. 91 swered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon son of Jonah: flesh and 37 blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven. And I say unto

Mt. 15, 32.

Mk. 8, 3b.

Mt. 15, 33.

Mt. 15, 34.

Mt. 15, 35.

Mt. 15, 36.

Mt. 15, 37.

Mt. 15, 38.

Mt. 15, 39.

Mt. 16, 1a.

Mk. 8, 11b.

Mk. 8, 12a.

Mk. 8, 12a.

Mk. 8, 12b.

Mk. 8, 13.

Mk. 8, 14.

Mk. 8, 15.

Mt. 16, 7.

Mt. 16, 8.

Mk. 8, 17b.

Mk. 8, 18.

Mk. 8, 19.

Mk. 8, 20.

Mk. 8, 21a.

Mt. 16, 11.

Mt. 16, 12.

Mk. 8, 22.

Mk. 8, 23.

Mk. 8, 24.

Mk. 8, 25.

Mk. 8, 26.

Mk. 8, 27a.

Mt. 16, 13b.

Mt. 16, 14.

Mt. 16, 15.

Mt. 16, 16.

Mt. 16, 17.

Mt. 16, 18.

80

23 thee also, that thou art Cephas,(1) and on this rock will I build my church; and the 38 gates of Hades shall not prevail against it. To thee will I give the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and 39 whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. And he sternly charged his disciples, and warned them that they should not tell any man concern- 40 ing him, that he was the Messiah. And henceforth began Jesus to shew to his dis- 41 ciples that he was determined(2) to go to Jerusalem, and suffer much, and be rejected of the elders, and of the chief priests, and of the scribes, and be killed, and on the 42 third day rise. And he was speaking(3) plainly. And Simon Cephas, as one grieved 43 for him, said, Far be thou, my Lord, from that. And he turned, and looked upon 44 his disciples, and rebuked Simon, and said, Get thee behind me, Satan: for thou art a stumblingblock unto me: for thou thinkest not of what pertains to God, but of what pertains to men.

45 And Jesus called the multitudes with his disciples, and said unto them, Whosoever would come after me, let him deny himself, and take his cross every day, and 46 come after me. And whosoever would save his life shall lose it; and whosoever 47 loseth his life for my sake, and for the sake of my gospel, shall save it. What shall 48 a man profit, if he gain all the world, and destroy(4) his own life,(5) or lose it? or what 49 Arabic, will a man give in ransom for his life?(5) Whosoever shall deny me and my p. 92 sayings in this sinful and adulterous generation, the Son of man also will 50 deny him, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with his holy angels. For the Son of man is about to(6) come in the glory of his Father with his holy angels; and then shall he reward each man according to his works.

Mt. 16, 19.

Mt. 16, 20.

Mt. 16, 21a.

Mk. 8, 31a.

Mk. 8, 32a.

Mt. 16, 22.

Mk. 8, 33a.

Mt. 16, 23b.

Mk. 8, 34a.

Lk. 9, 23b.

Mk. 8, 35.

Lk. 9, 25.

Mk. 8, 37.

Mk. 8, 38.

Mt. 16, 27.

SECTION XXIV.

24 1 And he said unto them, Verily I say unto you, There be here now some standing that shall not taste death, until they see the kingdom of God come(7) with strength, and the Son of man who cometh in his kingdom.

2 And after six days Jesus took Simon Cephas, and James, and John his brother, 3 and brought them up into a high mountain, the three of them only. And while they 4 were praying, Jesus changed, and became after the fashion of another person; and his face shone like the sun, and his raiment was very white like the snow, and as 5 the light of lightning, so that nothing on earth can whiten(8) like it. And there ap- 6 peared unto him Moses and Elijah talking to Jesus. And they thought that the time 7 of his decease which was to be accomplished at Jerusalem was come. And Simon and those that were with him were heavy in the drowsiness of steep; and with effort they roused themselves, and saw his glory, and those two men that were standing with him. 8 Arabic. And when they began to depart from him, Simon said unto Jesus, My 9 p. 93 Master, it is good for us to be here: and if thou wilt, we will make here three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah; not know- 10 ing what he said, because of the fear which took possession of them. And while he 11 was yet saying that, a bright cloud overshadowed them. And when they saw Moses 12 and Elijah that they had entered into that cloud, they feared again. And a voice was heard out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son, whom I have chosen; 13 hear ye therefore him. And when this voice was heard, Jesus was found alone. 14 And the disciples, when they heard the voice, fell on their faces from the fear which 15 took hold of them. And Jesus came and touched them and said, Arise, be not 16 afraid. And they lifted up their eyes, and saw Jesus as he was.

17 And when they went down from the mountain, Jesus charged them, and said unto them, Tell not what ye have seen to any man, until the Son of man rise from 18 among the dead. And they kept the word within themselves, and told no man in

Mk. 9, 1.

Mt. 16, 23b.

Mt. 17, 1.

Lk. 9, 29a.

Mt. 17, 2b.

Lk. 9, 29b.

Mk. 9, 3b.

Mk. 9, 4.

Lk. 9, 31b.

Lk. 9, 32.

Lk. 9, 33a.

Mt. 17, 4b.

Lk. 9, 33a.

Mk. 9, 6b.

Mt. 17, 5a.

Lk. 9, 34b.

Mt. 17, 5b.

Lk. 9, 36a.

Mt. 17, 6.

Mt. 17, 7.

Mt. 17, 8.

Mt. 17, 9.

Mk. 9,10a.

Lk. 9, 36a.

81

24 19 those days what they had seen. And they reflected among themselves, What is this 20 word which he spake unto us, I, when I am risen from among the dead? And his disciples asked him, and said, What is that which the scribes say, then, that Elijah 21 must first come? He said unto them, Elijah cometh first to set in order everything, Arabic, and as it was written of the Son of man, that he should suffer many things, 22 p. 94 and be rejected. But I say unto you, that Elijah is come, and they knew him not, and have done unto him whatsoever they desired, as it was written of him. 23, 24 In like manner the Son of man is to suffer of them. Then understood the disciples that he spake unto them concerning John the Baptist.

25 And on that day whereon they came down from the mountain, there met him a multitude of many people standing with his disciples, and the scribes were discuss- 26 ing with them. And the people, when they saw Jesus, were perplexed,(1) and in the 27 midst of their joy hastened(2) and saluted him. And on that day came certain of the Pharisees, and said unto him, Get thee out, and go hence; for Herod seeketh 28 to kill thee. Jesus said unto them, Go ye and say to this fox, Behold, I am casting out demons, and I heal to-day and to-morrow, and on the third day I am perfected. 29 Nevertheless I must be watchful a to-day and to-morrow, and on the last day I shall depart; for it cannot be that a prophet perish outside of Jerusalem.

30 And after that, there came to him a man from that multitude, and fell upon his knees, and said unto him, I beseech thee, my Lord, look upon my son; he is my 31 only child: and the spirit cometh upon him suddenly. A lunacy(4) hath come upon 32 him, and he meeteth with evils. And when it cometh upon him, it beateth him about;(5) 33 and he foameth, and gnasheth his teeth, and wasteth;(6) and many times it hath thrown him into the water and into the fire to destroy him, and it hardly leaveth him after 34 Arabic. bruising him. And I brought him near to thy disciples, and they could 35 P. 95 not heal him. Jesus answered and said, O faithless and perverse generation, till when shall I be with you? and till when shall I bear with you? bring thy son 36 hither. And he brought him unto him: and when the spirit saw him, immediately 37 it beat him about; and he fell upon the ground, and was raging and foaming. And Jesus asked his father, How long is the time during which he hath been thus? He 38 said unto him, From his youth until now. But, my Lord, help me wherein thou 39 canst, and have mercy upon me. Jesus said unto him, If thou canst believe! All 40 things are possible to him that believeth. And immediately the father of the child 41 cried out, weeping, and said, I believe, my Lord; help my lack of faith. And when Jesus saw the hastening of the people, and their coming at the sound, he rebuked that unclean spirit, and said to it, Thou dumb(7) spirit that speakest not, I command 42 thee,(8) come out of him, and enter not again into him. And that spirit, devil,(9) cried out much, and bruised him, and came out; and that child fell as one dead, and 43 many thought that he had died. But Jesus took him by his hand, and raised him 44 up, and gave him to his father; and that child was healed from that hour. And the people all marvelled at the greatness of God.

45 And when Jesus entered into the house, his disciples came, and asked him 46 privately,(10) and said unto him, Why were we not able to heal him? Jesus said unto Arabic. them, Because of your unbelief. Verily I say unto you, If ye have faith p. 96 as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say to this mountain, Remove hence; 47 and it shall remove; and nothing shall overcome you. But it is impossible to cast out this kind by anything except by fasting and prayer.

48 And when he went forth thence, they passed through Galilee: and he would not 49 that any man should know it.(11) And he taught his disciples, and said unto them, 50 Keep ye these sayings in your ears and your hearts: for the Son of man is to be

Mk. 9, 10b.

Mk. 9, 11a.

Mt. 17, 10b.

Mk. 9, 12.

Mk. 9, 13.

Mt. 17, 12b.

Mt. 17, 13b.

Mk. 9, 14.

Mk. 9, 15.

Lk. 13, 31.

Lk. 13, 32.

Lk. 13, 33.

Lk. 9, 38a.

Mt. 17, 14b.

Lk. 9, 38b.

Lk. 9, 39a.

Mt. 17, 15b.

Mk. 9, 18a.

Mt. 17, 15c.

Lk. 9, 39a.

Mt. 17, 16.

Mt. 17, 17.

Mk. 9, 20.

Mk. 9, 21.

Mk. 9, 22b.

Mk. 9, 23.

Mk. 9, 24.

Mk. 9, 25.

Mk. 9, 26.

Mk. 9, 27a.

Lk. 9, 42b.

Mt. 17, 18a.

Lk. 9, 43a.

Mk. 9, 28.

Mt. 17, 20.

Mk. 9, 29a.

Mk. 9, 30.

Mk. 9, 31a.

Lk. 9, 44a.

Mk. 9, 31b.

82

24 delivered into the hands of men, and they shall kill him; and when he is killed, he 51 shall rise on the third day. But they knew not the word which he spake unto them, for it was concealed from them, that they should not perceive it; and they feared to 52 ask him about this word. And they were exceeding sorrowful.

Lk. 9, 45.

Mt. 17, 23b.

SECTION XXV.

25 1 And in that day this thought presented itself to his disciples, and they said, which 2 haply should be the greatest among them.(1) And when they came to Capernaum, and entered into the house, Jesus said unto them, What were ye considering in the 3 way among yourselves? And they were silent because they had considered that matter.

4 And when Simon went forth without, those that received two dirhams for the tribute came to Cephas, and said unto him, Doth your master not give his two 5 dirhams? He said unto them, Yea. And when Cephas entered the house, Jesus anticipated him, and said unto him, What thinkest thou, Simon? the kings of the earth, from whom do they receive custom and tribute? from their sons, or from 6 Arabic. strangers? Simon said unto him, From strangers. Jesus said unto him, p. 97 Children then are free. Simon said unto him, Yea. Jesus said unto him, 7 Give thou also unto them, like the stranger. But, lest it trouble them, go thou to the sea, and cast a hook; and the first fish that cometh up, open its mouth, and thou shall find a staler: take therefore that, and give for me and thee.

8 And in that hour came the disciples to Jesus, and said unto him, Who, thinkest 9 thou, is greater in the kingdom of heaven? And Jesus knew the thought of their heart, and called a(2) child, and set him in the midst, and took him in his arms, and 10 said unto them, Verily I say unto you, If ye do not return, and become as children, 11 ye shall not enter the kingdom of heaven. Every one that shall receive in my name such as this child hath received me: and whosoever receiveth me receiveth 12 not me, but him that sent me. And he who is little in your company,(3) the same 13 shall be great. But whosoever shall injure one of these little ones that believe in me, it were better for him that a great millstone(4) should be hanged about his neck, and he should be drowned in the depths of the sea.

14 John answered and said, Our Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name; 15 and we prevented him, because he followed not thee with us. Jesus said unto them, Prevent him not; for no man doeth powers in my name, and can hasten to speak evil 16, 17 of me. Every one who is not in opposition to you is with you. Woe unto the world Arabic. because of trials!(5) but woe unto that man by whose hand the trials come 18 p. 98 If thy hand or thy foot injure thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee; for it is better for thee to enter into life being halt or maimed, and not that thou shouldest have two hands or two feet, and fall into the hell of fire that burneth(6) for ever; 19, 20 where their worm dieth not, and their fire is not quenched. And if thine eye seduce(7) 21 thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee; for it is better for thee to enter the kingdom of God with one eye, than that thou shouldest have two eyes, and fall into the 22, 23 fire of Gehenna; where their worm dieth not, and their fire is not quenched. Every 24 one shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt. How good 25 is salt! but if the salt also be tasteless, wherewith shall it be salted? It is fit neither for the land nor for dung, but they cast it out. He that hath ears to hear, let him 26 hear. Have ye salt in yourselves. and be in peace one with another.

27 And he arose from thence, and came to the borders of Judaea beyond Jordan: and there went unto him thither great multitudes, and he healed them; and he taught 28 them also, according to his custom. And the Pharisees came unto him, tempting 29 him, and asking him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife? He said, What 30 did Moses command you? They said, Moses made it allowable for us, saying, Who- 31 soever will, let him write a writing of divorcement, and put away his wife. Jesus

Lk. 9, 46.

Mk. 9, 33.

Mk. 9, 34a.

Mt. 17, 24b.

Mt. 17, 25.

Mt. 17, 26.

Mt. 17, 27.

Mt. 18, 1.

Lk. 9, 47a.

Mk. 9, 367.

Mt. 18, 3.

Lk. 9, 48.

Mk. 9, 37b.

Lk, 9, 48a.

Mt. 18, 6.

Lk. 9, 49.

Mk. 9, 39.

Lk. 9, 50b.

Mt. 18, 7a, c.

Mt. 18, 8.

Mk. 9, 44.

Mt. 18, 9a.

Mk. 9, 47b.

Mk. 9, 48.

Mk. 9, 49.

Mk. 9, 50a.

Lk. 14, 34b.

Lk. 14, 35.

Mk. 9, 50c.

Mk. 10, 1.

Mk. 10, 2.

Mk. 10, 3.

Mk. 10, 4.

Mk. 10, 5a.

83

25 answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, He that made them from the beginning 32 made them male and female, and said, For this reason shall the man leave his father Arabic, and his mother, and cleave to his wife; and they both shall be one body? 33 p. 99 So then they are not twain, but one body; the thing, then, which God hath 34 joined together, let no man put asunder. And those Pharisees said unto him, Why did

Moses consent(1) that a man should give a writing of divorcement and put her away? 35 Jesus said unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts gave you leave 36 to divorce your wives; but in the beginning it was not so. I say unto you, Whosoever putteth away(2) his wife without fornication, and marrieth another, hath exposed 37 her to adultery. And his disciples, when he entered the house, asked him again 38 about that. And he said unto them, Every one who putteth away his wife, and 39 marrieth another, hath exposed her to adultery. And any woman that leaveth her husband, and becometh another's, hath committed adultery. And whosoever mar- 40 rieth her that is divorced hath committed adultery. And his disciples said unto him, If there be between the man and the woman such a case(3) as this, it is not good for 41 a man to marry. He said unto them, Not every man can endure this saying, except 42 him to whom it is given. There are eunuchs which from their mother's womb(4) were born so; and there are eunuchs which through men became eunuchs; and there are eunuchs which made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of heaven. He that is able to be content, let him be content.

43 Then they brought to him children, that he should lay his hand upon them, and 44 pray: and his disciples were rebuking those that were bringing them. And Jesus saw, and it was distressing to him; and he said unto them, Suffer the children to Arabic. come unto me, and prevent them not; for those that are like these have 45 p. 100 the kingdom of God. Verily I say unto you, Whosoever receiveth not the 46 kingdom of God as this child, shall not enter it. And he took them in his arms, and

laid his hand upon them, and blessed them.

Mt. 19, 4.

Mt. 19, 5.

Mt. 19, 6.

Mt. 19, 7.

Mt. 19, 8.

Mt. 19, 9a.

Mk. 10, 10.

Mk. 10, 11.

Mk. 10, 12.

Mt. 19, 9b.

Mt. 19, 10.

Mt. 19, 11.

Mt. 19, 12.

Mt. 19, 13a.

Mk. 10, 13b.

Mk. 10, 14.

Mk. 10, 15.

Mk. 10, 16.

SECTION XXVI.

26 1, 2 And there came unto him publicans and sinners to hear his word. And the scribes and the Pharisees murmured, and said, This man receiveth sinners, and 3 eateth with them. And Jesus, when he beheld their murmuring, spake unto them 4 this parable: What man of you, having an hundred sheep, if one of them were lost, would not leave the ninety-nine in the wilderness, and go and seek the straying one 5 till he found it? Verily I say unto you, When he findeth it, he will rejoice over it 6 more than over the ninety-nine that went not astray; and bear it on his shoulders, and bring it to his house, and call his friends and neighbours, and say unto them, 7 Rejoice with me, since I have found my straying sheep. So your Father which is in heaven willeth(5) not that one of these little ones that have strayed should perish, 8 and he seeketh for them repentance. I say unto you, Thus there shall be rejoicing in heaven over one sinner that repenteth, more than over ninety-nine righteous persons that do not need repentance.

9 And what woman having ten drachmas would lose one of them, and not light a 10 lamp, and sweep the house, and seek it with care till she found it; and when she found it, call her friends and neighbours, and say unto them, Rejoice with me, as I 11 have found my drachma that was lost? I say unto you, Thus there shall be joy Arabic. before the angels of God over the one sinner that repenteth, more than p. 101 over the ninety-nine righteous persons that do not need repentance.

12, 13 And Jesus spoke unto them also another parable: A man had two sons: and the younger son said unto him, My father, give me my portion that belongeth to 14 me of thy goods. And he divided between them his property. And after a few days the younger son gathered everything that belonged to him, and went into a 15 far country, and there squandered his property by living prodigally. And when he

Lk. 15, 1.

Lk. 15, 2.

Lk. 15, 3.

Lk. 15, 4.

Mt. 18, 13.

Lk. 15, 5b.

Lk. 15, 6.

Mt. 18, 14.

L. 15, 7.

Lk. 15, 8.

Lk. 15, 9.

Lk. 15, 10.

Lk. 15, 11.

Lk. 15, 12.

Lk. 15, 13.

Lk. 15, 14.

84

26 had exhausted everything he had, there occurred a great dearth in that country. 16 And when he was in want, he went and joined himself to one of the people of a city 17 of that country; and that man sent him into the field(1) to feed the swine. And he used to long to fill his belly with the carob that those swine were eating: and no man 18 gave him. And when he returned unto himself, he said, How many hired servants now in my father's house have bread enough and to spare, while I here perish with 19 hunger! I will arise and go to my father's house, and say unto him, My father, I 20 have sinned in heaven and before thee, and am not worthy now to be called thy 21 son: make me as one of thy hired servants. And he arose, and came to his father. But his father saw him while he was at a distance, and was moved with compassion 22 for him, and ran,(2) and fell on his breast,(3) and kissed him. And his son said unto him, My father, I have sinned in heaven and before thee, and am not worthy to be 23 called thy son. His father said unto his servants, Bring forth a stately robe, and put 24 it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and put on him shoes on his feet: and bring and 25 slay a fatted ox, that we may eat and make merry: for this my son was dead, and is 26 Arabic. alive; and was lost, and is found. And they began to be merry.(4) Now his p. 102 eider son was in the field; and when he came and drew near to the house, 27 he heard the sound of many singing.(5) And he called one of the lads, and asked him 28 what this was. He said unto him, Thy brother hath arrived; and thy father hath 29 slain a fatted ox, since he hath received him safe and sound.(6) And he was angry, 30 and would not enter; so his father went out, and besought him to enter. And he said to his father, How many years do I serve thee in bondage, and I never transgressed a commandment of thine; and thou hast never given me a kid, that I might 31 make merry with my friends? but this thy son, when he had squandered thy 32 property with harlots, and come, thou hast slain for him a fatted ox. His father said unto him, My son, thou art at all times with me, and everything I have is 33 thine. It behoveth thee to rejoice and make merry, since this thy brother was dead, and is alive; and was lost, and is found.

34 And he spake a parable unto his disciples: There was a rich man, and he had 35 a steward; and he was accused to him that he had squandered his property. So his lord called him, and said unto him, What is this that I hear regarding thee? Give me the account of thy stewardship; for it is now impossible that thou shouldest 36 be a steward for me. The steward said within himself, What shall I do, seeing that my lord taketh from me the stewardship? To dig I am not able; and to beg(7) I 37 am ashamed. I know what I will do, that, when I go out of the stewardship, they 38 may receive me into their houses. And he called one after another of his lord's 39 debtors, and said to the first, How much owest thou my lord? He said unto him, An hundred portions(8) of oil. He said unto him, Take thy writing, and sit down, and write 40 quickly fifty portions.(8) And he said to the next, And thou, how much owest thou my lord? He said unto him, An hundred cors of wheat. He said unto him, Take 41 Arabic, thy writing, and sit down, and write eighty cors. And our(9) lord com- p. 103 mended the sinful steward(10) because he had done a wise deed; for the chil- 42 dren of this world are wiser than the children of the light in this their age. And I also say unto you, Make unto yourselves friends with the wealth of this unrighteousness;(11) 43 so that, when it is exhausted, they may receive you into their tents for ever. He who is faithful in(12) a little is faithful also in much: and he who is unrighteous in a 44 little is unrighteous also in much. If then in the wealth of unrighteousness ye were 45 not trustworthy, who will intrust you with the truth?(13) If ye are not found faithful in what does not belong to you, who will give you what belongeth to you?

Lk. 15, 15.

Lk. 15, 16.

Lk. 15, 17.

Lk. 15, 18.

Lk. 15, 19.

Lk. 15, 20.

Lk. 15, 21.

Lk. 15, 22.

Lk. 15, 23.

Lk. 15, 24.

Lk. 15, 25.

Lk. 15, 26.

Lk. 15, 27.

Lk. 15, 28.

Lk. 15, 29.

Lk. 15, 30.

Lk. 15, 31.

Lk. 15, 32.

Lk. 16, 1.

Lk. 16, 2.

Lk. 16, 3.

Lk. 16, 4.

Lk. 16, 5.

Lk. 16, 6.

Lk. 16, 7.

Lk. 16, 8.

Lk. 16, 9.

Lk. 16, 10.

Lk. 16, 11.

Lk. 16, 12.

SECTION XXVII.

27 Therefore the kingdom of heaven is like a certain king, who would make a reckoning with his servants. And when he began to make it, they brought to him

Mt. 18, 23.

Mt. 18, 24.

85

27 3 one who owed him ten talents.(1) And because he had not wherewith to pay, his lord ordered that he should be sold, he, and his wife, and children, and all that he 4 had, and payment be made. So that servant fell down and worshipped him, and said unto him, My lord, have patience with me, and I shall pay thee everything. 5 And the lord of that servant had compassion, and released him, and forgave him his 6 debt. And that servant went out, and found one of his fellow-servants, who owed him Arabic. a hundred pence;(2) and he took him, and dealt severely with him, and said 7 p. 104 unto him, Give me what thou owest. Sothe fellow-servant fell down at his 8 feet, and besought him, and said, Grant me respite, and I will pay thee. And he would not; but took him, and cast him into prison, till he should give him his debt. 9 And when their fellow-servants saw what happened, it distressed them much; and 10 they came and told their lord of all that had taken place. Then his lord called him, and said unto him, Thou wicked servant, all that debt I forgave thee, because 11 thou besoughtest me: was it not then incumbent on thee also to have mercy on thy 12 fellow-servant, as I had mercy on thee?(3) And his lord became wroth, and delivered 13 him to the scourgers, till he should pay all that he owed. So shall my Father which is in heaven do unto you, if one forgive not his brother his wrong conduct(4) from 14 his heart. Take heed within(5) yourselves: if thy brother sin, rebuke him; and if he 15 repent, forgive him. And if he act wrongly towards thee seven times in a day, and on that day return seven times unto thee, and say, I repent towards thee; forgive him. 16 And if thy brother act wrongly towards thee, go and reprove him between thee and

17 him alone: if he hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. But if he hear thee not, take with thee one or two, and so(6) at the mouth of two or three every saying shall 18 be established. And if he listen not to these also, tell the congregation;(7) and if he listen not even to the congregation, let him be unto thee as a publican and a Gen- 19 tile.(8) Verily I say unto you, All that ye bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: 20 and what ye loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. I say unto you also, If two of you agree on earth to ask, everything shall(9) be granted them from my Father 21 Arabic, which is in heaven. For where two or three are gathered in my name, there 22 p. 105 am l amongst them. Then Cephas drew near to him, and said unto him, My Lord, how many times, if my brother act wrongly towards me, should I forgive him? 23 until seven times? Jesus said unto him, I say not unto thee, Until seven; but, Until sev-24 enty times seven, seven.(10) And the servant that knoweth his lord's will, and maketh not 25 ready for him according to his will, shall meet with much punishment; but he that knoweth not, and doeth something for which he meriteth punishment, shall meet with slight punishment. Every one to whom much hath been given, much shall be asked of him; and he that hath had much committed to him, much shall be 26 required at his hand. I came to cast fire upon the earth; and I would that it had 27 been kindled already.(11) And I have a baptism to be baptized with, and greatly am 28 I straitened till it be accomplished. See that ye despise not(12) one of these little ones that believe in me. Verily I say unto you, Their angels at all times see the 29 face of my Father which is in heaven. The Son of man came to save the thing which was lost.

30 And after that, Jesus walked in Galilee; and he did not like to walk in Judaea, 31 because the Jews sought to kill him. And there came people who told him of 32 the Galilaeans, those whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. Jesus answered and said unto them, Do ye imagine that those Galilaeans were sinners 33 more than all the Galilaeans, so that this thing has come upon them? Nay. Verily I say unto you now,(13) that ye shall all also, if ye repent not, likewise perish. 34 Or perchance those eighteen on whom the palace fell in Siloam, and slew them, do ye imagine that they were to be condemned(14) more than all the people that dwell 35 Arabic, in Jerusalem? Nay. Verily I say unto you, If ye do not all repent, ye p. 106 shall perish like them.

36 And he spake unto them this parable: A man had a fig tree planted in his vine-

Mt. 18, 25.

Mt. 18, 26.

Mt. 18, 27.

Mt. 18, 28.

Mt. 18, 29.

Mt. 18, 30.

Mt. 18, 31.

Mt. 18, 32.

Mt. 18, 33.

Mt. 18, 34.

Mt. 18, 35.

Lk. 17, 3.

Lk. 17, 4.

Mt. 18, 15.

Mt. 18, 16.

Mt. 18, 17.

Mt. 18, 18.

Mt. 18, 19.

Mt. 18, 20.

Mt. 18, 21.

Mt. 18, 22.

Lk. 12, 47.

Lk. 12, 48.

Lk. 12, 49.

Lk. 12, 50.

Mt. 18, 10.

Mt. 18, 11.

Jo. 7, 1.

Lk. 13, 1.

Lk. 13, 2.

Lk. 13, 3.

Lk. 13, 4.

Lk. 13, 5.

Lk. 13, 6.

86

27 37 yard; and he came and sought fruit thereon, and found none. So he said to the husbandman, Lo, three years do I come and seek fruit on this fig tree, and find 38 none: cut it down; why doth it render the ground unoccupied? The husbandman said unto him, My lord, leave it this year also, that I may dig about it, and dung 39 it; then if it bear fruit--! and if not, then cut it down in the coming year.

40 And when Jesus was teaching on the sabbath day in one of the synagogues, 41 there was there a woman that had a spirit of disease eighteen years; and she was 42 bowed down, and could not straighten herself at all. And Jesus saw her, and called 43 her, and said unto her, Woman, be loosed from thy disease. And he put his hand 44 upon her; and immediately she was straightened, and praised God. And the chief(1) of the synagogue answered with anger, because Jesus had healed on a sabbath, and said unto the multitudes, There are six days in which work ought to be done; 45 come in them and be healed, and not on the sabbath day. But Jesus answered and said unto him, Ye hypocrites, doth not each of you on the sabbath day loose 46 his ox or his ass from the manger, and go and water it? Ought not this woman, who is a daughter of Abraham, and whom the devil(2) hath bound eighteen years, 47 to be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day? And when he said this, they were all put to shame, those standing, who were opposing him:(3) and all the people were pleased with all the wonders that proceeded from his hand.

Lk. 13, 7.

Lk. 13, 8.

Lk. 13, 9.

Lk. 13, 10.

Lk. 13, 11.

Lk. 13, 12.

Lk. 13, 13.

Lk. 13, 14.

Lk. 13, 15.

Lk. 13, 16.

Lk. 13, 17.

SECTION XXVIII.(4)

28 1, 2 Arabic. And at that time the feast of tabernacles of the Jews drew near. So the p. 107 brethren of Jesus said unto him, Remove now hence, and go to Judaea, that 3 thy disciples may see the deeds that thou doest. For no man doeth a thing secretly 4 and wisheth to be apparent. If thou doest this, shew thyself to the world. For 5 up to this time not even the brethren of Jesus believed on him. Jesus said unto them, My time till now has not arrived; but as for you, your time is alway ready. 6 It is not possible for the world to hate you; but me it hateth, for I bear witness 7 against it, that its deeds are evil. As for you, go ye up unto this feast: but I go 8 not up now to this feast; for my time has not yet been completed. He said this, and remained behind in Galilee.

9 But when his brethren went up unto the feast, he journeyed from Galilee, and to came to the borders of Judaea, to the country beyond Jordan; and there came after 11 him great multitudes, and he healed them all there. And he went out, and proceeded 12 to the feast, not openly, but as one that conceals himself. And the Jews sought him 13 at the feast, and said, In what place is this man? And there occurred much murmuring there in the great multitude that came to the feast, on his account. For 14 some said, He is good: and others said, Nay, but he leadeth the people astray. But no man spake of him openly for fear of the Jews.

15 Arabic. But when the days of the feast of tabernacles were half over, Jesus went 16 p. 108 up to the temple, and taught. And the Jews wondered, and said, How doth 17 this man know writing,(5) seeing he hath not learned? Jesus answered and said, My doc- 18 trine(6) is not mine, but his that sent me. Whoever wisheth to do his will understandeth my doctrine? whether it be from God, or whether I speak of mine own accord. 19 Whosoever speaketh of his own accord seeketh praise for himself; but whosoever seeketh praise for him that sent him, he is true, and unrighteousness in his heart 20 there is none. Did not Moses give you the law, and no man of you keepeth the 21 law? Why seek ye to kill me? The multitude answered and said unto him, Thou 22 hast demons:(7) who seeketh to kill thee? Jesus answered and said unto them, I did 23 one deed, and ye all marvel because of this. Moses hath given you circumcision (not because it is from Moses, but it is from the fathers); and ye on the sabbath

Jo. 7, 2.

Jo. 7, 3.

Jo. 7, 4.

Jo. 7, 5.

Jo. 7, 6.

Jo. 7, 7.

Jo. 7, 8.

Jo. 7, 9.

Jo. 7, 10a.

Mt. 19, 1b.

Mt. 19, 2.

Jo. 7, 10a.

Jo. 7, 11.

Jo. 7, 12.

Jo. 7, 23.

Jo. 7, 14.

Jo. 7, 15.

Jo. 7, 16.

Jo. 7, 17.

Jo. 7, 18.

Jo. 7, 19.

Jo. 7, 20.

Jo. 7, 21.

Jo. 7, 22.

87

28 24 circumcise a man. And if a man is circumcised on the sabbath day, that the law of Moses may not be broken; are ye angry at me, because I healed on the sabbath 25 day the whole man? Judge not with hypocrisy, but judge righteous judgement.

26 And some people from Jerusalem said, Is not this he whom they seek to slay? 27 And lo, he discourseth with them openly, and they say nothing unto him. Think 28 you that our eiders have learned that this is the Messiah indeed? But this man is(1) known whence he is; and the Messiah, when he cometh, no man knoweth whence 29 he is. So Jesus lifted up his voice as he taught in the temple, and said, Ye both know me, and know whence I am; and of my own accord am I not come, but he 30 Arabic. that sent me is true, he whom ye know not: but I know him; for I am 31 p. 109 from him, and he sent me. And they sought to seize him: and no man 32 laid a hand on him, because his hour had not yet come. But many of the multitude believed on him; and they said, The Messiah, when he cometh, can it be that he will do more than these signs that this man doeth?

33 And a man of that multitude said unto our Lord, Teacher, say to my brother 34 that he divide with me the inheritance. Jesus said unto him, Man, who is it that 35 appointed me over you as a judge and divider? And he said unto his disciples, Take heed within yourselves of all inordinate desire; for it is not in abundance of 36 possessions that life shall be. And he gave them this parable: The ground of a 37 rich man brought forth abundant produce: and he pondered within himself, and 38 said, What shall I do, since I have no place to store my produce? And he said, I will do this: I will pull down the buildings of my barns, and build them, and make 39 them greater; and store there all my wheat and my goods. And I will say to my soul, Soul, thou hast much goods laid by for many years; take thine ease, eat, 30 drink, enjoy thyself. God said unto him, O than of little intelligence, this night shall thy soul be taken from thee; and this that thou hast prepared, whose shall it 41 be? So is he that layeth up treasures for himself, and is not rich in God.

42 And while Jesus was going in the way, there came near to him a young man(2) of the rulers,(3) and fell on his knees, and asked him, and said, Good Teacher, what is 43 it that I must do that I may have eternal life? Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou 44 me good, while there is none good but the one, even God?(4) Thou knowest the com- 45 mandments.(5) If thou wouldest enter into life, keep the commandments.(5) The young Arabic. man said unto him, Which of the commandments?(6) Jesus said unto him, 46 p. 110 Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shall not do injury, Honour thy father 47 and thy mother: and, Love thy neighbour as thyself. That young man said unto 48 him, All these have I kept from my youth: what then is it that I lack? And Jesus 49 looked intently at him, and loved him, and said unto him, If thou wouldest be perfect, what thou lackest is one thing:(7) go away and sell everything that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and take thy 50 cross, and follow me. And that young man frowned at this word, and went away 51 feeling sad; for he was very rich. And when Jesus saw his sadness, he looked towards his disciples, and said unto them, How hard it is for them that have possessions to enter the kingdom of God!

Jo. 7, 23.

Jo. 7, 24.

Jo. 7, 25.

Jo. 7, 26.

Jo. 7, 27.

Jo. 7, 28.

Jo. 7, 29.

Jo. 7, 30.

Jo. 7, 31.

Lk. 12, 13.

Lk. 12, 14.

Lk. 12, 15.

Lk. 12, 16.

Lk. 12, 17.

Lk. 12, 18.

Lk. 12, 19.

Lk. 12, 20.

Lk. 12, 21.

Mk. 10, 17.

Mk. 10, 18.

Mk. 10, 19a.

Mt. 19, 17b.

Mt. 19, 18a.

Mk. 10, 19b.

Mt. 19, 19b.

Mt. 19, 20.

Mk. 10, 21a.

Mt. 19, 21b.

Mt. 19, 22a.

Lk. 18, 23b.

Lk. 18, 24a.

Mk. 10, 23.

SECTION XXIX.

29 1 Verily I say unto you, It is difficult for a rich man to enter the kingdom of 2 heaven. And I say unto you also, that it is easier for a camel to enter the eye of 3 a needle, than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God. And the disciples were wondering at these sayings. And Jesus answered and said unto them again, My children, how hard it is for those that rely on their possessions to enter the 4 kingdom of God! And those that were listening wondered more, and said amongst 5 themselves, being agitated,(8) Who, thinkest thou, can be saved? And Jesus looked at

Mt. 19, 23.

Mt. 19, 24.

Mk. 10, 24.

Mk. 10, 26.

Mk. 10, 27.

88

them intently, and said unto them, With men this is not possible, but with God it is. 6 Arabic, it is possible for God to do everything. Simon Cephas said unto him, Lo, we p. 111 have left everything, and followed thee; what is it, thinkest thou, that we 7 shall have? Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, Ye that have followed me, in the new world, when the Son of man shall sit on the throne of his glory, ye also 8 shall sit on twelve thrones, and shall judge the twelve tribes of Israel. Verily I say unto you, No man leaveth houses, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or kinsfolk, or lands, because of the kingdom of God, or for my 9 sake, and the sake of my gospel, who shall not obtain(1) many times as much in this 10 time, and in the world to come inherit eternal life: and now in this time, houses, and brothers, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecution; 11 and in the world to come everlasting life. Many that are first shall be last,(2) and that are last shall be first.

12 And when the Pharisees heard all this, because of their love for wealth they 13 scoffed at him. And Jesus knew what was in their hearts, and said unto them, Ye are they that justify yourselves before men; while God knows your hearts: the thing that is lofty with men is base before God.

14 And he began to say, A certain man was rich, and wore silk and purple, and en- 15 joyed himself every day in splendour: and there was a poor man named Lazarus, and 16 he was cast down at the door of the rich man, afflicted with sores, and he longed to fill Arabic, his belly with the crumbs that fell from the table of that rich man; yea, 17 p. 112 even(3) the dogs used to come and lick his sores. And it happened that that poor man died, and the angels conveyed him into the bosom of Abraham: and the 18 rich man also died, and was buried. And while he was being tormented in Hades, 19 he lifted up his eyes from afar, and saw Abraham with(4) Lazarus in his bosom. And he called with a loud voice, and said, My father Abraham, have mercy upon me, and send Lazarus to wet the tip of his finger with water, and moisten my tongue 20 for me; for, behold, I am burned in this flame. Abraham said unto him, My son, remember that thou receivedst thy good things in thy life, and Lazarus his afflictions: but now, behold, he is at rest here, and thou art tormented. And in addition to all this, there is between us and you a great abyss placed, so that they that would cross unto you from hence cannot, nor yet from thence do they cross unto 22 us. He said unto him, Then I beseech thee, my father, to send him to my father's 23 house; for I have five brethren; let him go, that they also sin not,(5) and come to 24 the abode of this torment.(6) Abraham said unto him, They have Moses and the 25 prophets; let them hear them. He said unto him, Nay,(7) my father Abraham: but 26 let a man from the dead go unto them, and they will repent. Abraham said unto him, If they listen neither to Moses nor to the prophets, neither if a man from the dead rose would they believe him.

27 The kingdom of heaven is like a man that is a householder, which went out early 28 in the morning to hire labourers for his vineyard. And he agreed with the labourers on 29 one penny a day for each labourer, and he sent them into his vineyard. And he went 30 Arabic, out in three hours, and saw others standing in the market idle. He said p. 113 unto them, Go ye also into my vineyard, and what is right I will pay you. 31 And they went. And he went out also at the sixth and the ninth hour, and did like- 32 wise, and sent them. And about the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing idle. He said unto them, Why are ye standing the whole day idle? 33 They said unto him, Because no one hath hired us. He said unto them, Go ye 34 also into the vineyard, and what is right ye shall receive. So when evening came, the lord of the vineyard said unto his steward, Call the labourers, and pay them 35 their wages; and begin with the later ones, and end with the former ones. And 36 those of eleven hours(8) came, and received each a penny. When therefore the first came, they supposed that they should receive something more; and they also 37 received each a penny. And when they received it, they spake angrily against the

Lk. 18, 28.

Mt. 19, 27b.

Mt. 19, 28.

Mk. 10, 29b.

Lk. 18, 30.

Mk. 10, 30b.

Mk. 10, 31.

Lk. 16, 14.

Lk. 16, 15.

Lk. 16, 19.

Lk. 16, 20.

Lk. 16, 21.

Lk. 16, 22.

Lk. 16, 23.

Lk. 16, 24.

Lk. 16, 25.

Lk. 16, 26.

Lk. 16, 27.

Lk. 16, 28.

Lk. 16, 29.

Lk. 16, 30.

Lk. 16, 31.

Mt. 20, 1.

Mt. 20, 2.

Mt. 20, 3.

Mt. 20, 4.

Mt. 20, 5.

Mt. 20, 6.

Mt. 20, 7.

Mt. 20, 8.

Mt. 20, 9.

Mt. 20, 10.

Mt. 20, 11.

89

29 38 householder, and said, These last worked one hour, and thou hast made them equal 39 with us, who have suffered the heat of the day, and its burden. He answered and said unto one of them, My friend, I do thee no wrong: was it not for a penny that 40 thou didst bargain with me? Take what is thine, and go thy way; for I wish to 41 give this last as I have given thee. Or am I not entitled to do with what is mine(1) 42 what I choose? Or is thine eye perchance evil, because I am good? Thus shall the last ones be first, and the first last. The called are many, and the chosen are few.

43 And when Jesus entered into the house of one of the chiefs of the Pharisees to eat bread on the sabbath day, and they were watching him to see what he would 44,45 do, and there was before him a man which had the dropsy, Jesus answered and 46 said unto the scribes and the Pharisees, Is it lawful on the sabbath to heal? But Arabic, they were silent. So he took him, and healed him, and sent him away. 47 p. 114 And he said unto them, Which of you shall have his son or his ox fall on the sabbath day into a well, and not lift him up straightway, and draw water for 48 him? And they were not able to answer him a word to that.

SECTION XXX.

30 1 And he spake a parable unto those which were bidden there, because he saw 2 them choose the places that were in the highest part of the sitting room: When a man invites thee to a feast, do not go and sit at the head of the room; lest there 3 be there a man more honourable than thou, and he that invited you come and say unto thee, Give the place to this man: and thou be ashamed when thou risest and 4 takest(2) another place. But when thou art invited, go and sit last; so that when he that invited thee cometh, he may say unto thee, My friend, go up higher: and 5 thou shalt have praise before all that were invited with thee. For every one that exalteth himself shall be abased; and every one that abaseth himself shall be exalted.

6 And he said also to him that had invited him, When thou makest a feast a or a banquet,(3) do not invite thy friends, nor even thy brethren, nor thy kinsmen, nor thy 7 rich neighbours; lest haply they also invite thee, and thou have this reward. But when thou makest a feast, invite the poor, and those with withered hand, and the 8 lame, and the blind: and blessed art thou, since they have not the means to reward 9 thee; that thy reward may be at the rising of the righteous. And when one of them that were invited heard that, he said unto him, Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the kingdom of God.

10, 11 Jesus answered again in parables, and said, The kingdom of heaven hath been lik- Arabic, ened to(4) a certain king, which made a feast(5) for his son, and prepared a 12 p. 115 great banquet,(6) and invited many: and he sent his servants at the time of the feast to inform them that were invited, Everything is made ready for you; come. And 13 they would not come, but began all of them with one voice to make excuse. And the first said unto them, Say to him, I have bought a field, and I must needs go out 14 to see it: I pray thee to release(7) me, for I ask to be excused. And another said, I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I am going to examine them: I pray thee 15 to release me, for I ask to be excused. And another said, I have married a wife, 16 and therefore I cannot come. And the king sent also other servants, and said, Say to those that were invited, that my feast is ready, and my oxen and my fatlings are 17 slain, and everything is ready: come to the feast. But they made light of it, and 18 went, one to his field, and another to his merchandise: and the rest took his 19 servants, and entreated them shamefully, and killed them. And one of the servants 20 came, and informed his lord of what had happened. And when the king heard, he became angry, and sent his armies; and they destroyed those murderers, and 21 burned their cities. Then he said to his servants, The feast is prepared, but those 22 that were invited were not worthy. Go out quickly into the markets and into the

Mt. 20, 12.

Mt. 20, 13.

Mt. 20, 14.

Mt. 20, 15.

Mt. 20, 16.

Lk. 14, 1.

Lk. 14, 2.

Lk. 14, 3.

Lk. 14, 4.

Lk. 14, 5.

Lk. 14, 6.

Lk. 14, 7.

Lk. 14, 8.

Lk. 14, 9.

Lk. 14, 10.

Lk. 14, 11.

Lk. 14, 12.

Lk. 14, 13.

Lk. 14, 14.

Lk. 14, 15.

Mt. 22, 1.

Mt. 22, 2.

Lk. 14, 16b.

Lk. 14, 17.

Mt. 22, 3b.

Lk. 14, 18.

Lk. 14, 19.

Lk. 14, 20.

Mt. 22, 4.

Mt. 22, 5.

Mt. 22, 6.

Lk. 14, 21a.

Mt. 22, 7.

Mt. 22, 8.

Lk. 14, 21c.

90

30 partings of the ways of the city, and bring in hither the poor, and those with pains, and the lame, and the blind. And the servants did as the king commanded them. 23 And they came, and said unto him, Our lord, we have done all that thou com- 24 mandedst us, and there is here still room. So the lord said unto his servants, Go out into the roads, and the ways, and the paths, and every one that ye find, invite 25 Arabic, to the feast, and constrain them to enter, till my house is(1) filled. I say unto p. 116 you, that no one of those people that were invited shall taste of my feast. 26 And those servants went out into the roads, and gathered all that they found, good and 27 bad: and the banquet-house was filled with guests. And the king entered to see those 28 who were seated, and he saw there a man not wearing a festive garment: and he said unto him, My friend, how didst thou come in here not having on festive gar- 29 ments? And he was silent. Then the king said to the servants, Bind his hands and his feet, and put him forth into the outer darkness; there shall be weeping and 30 gnashing of teeth. The called are many; and the chosen, few.

31 And after that, the time of the feast of unleavened bread of the Jews arrived, 32 and Jesus went out to go to Jerusalem. And as he went in the way, there met him 33 ten persons who were lepers, and stood afar off: and they lifted up their voice, and 34 said, Our Master, Jesus, have mercy upon us. And when he saw them, he said unto them, Go and shew yourselves unto the priests. And when they went, they 35 were cleansed. And one of them, when he saw himself cleansed, returned, and 36 was praising God with a loud voice; and he fell on his face before the feet of 37 Jesus, giving him thanks: and this man was a Samaritan. Jesus answered and said, 38 Were not those that were cleansed ten? where then are the nine? Not one of them turned aside to come and praise God, but this man who is of a strange 39 people. He said unto him, Arise, and go thy way; for thy faith hath given thee life.(2)

40 And while they were going up in the way to Jerusalem, Jesus went in front of them; and they wondered, and followed him fearing. And he took his twelve disciples apart, 41 and began to tell them privately(3) what was about to befall him. And he said unto Arabic, them, We are going up to Jerusalem, and all the things shall be fulfilled 42 p. 117 that are written in the prophets concerning the Son of man. He shall be delivered to the chief priests and the scribes; and they shall condemn him to death, 43 and deliver him to the peoples;(4) and they shall treat him shamefully, and scourge 44 him, and spit in his face, and humble him,(5) and crucify him, and slay him: and on 45 the third day he shall rise. But they understood not one thing of this; but this word was hidden from them, and they did not perceive these things that were addressed to them.

46 Then came near to him the mother of the (two) sons of Zebedee, she and her (two) sons, and worshipped him, and asked of him a certain thing. And he said 47 unto her, What wouldest thou? And James and John, her two sons, came forward, and said unto him, Teacher, we would that all that we ask thou wouldest 48 do unto us. He said unto them,(6) What would ye that I should do unto you? 49 They said unto him, Grant us that we may sit, the one on thy right, and the other So on thy left, in thy kingdom and thy glory. And Jesus said unto them, Ye know not what ye ask. Are ye able to drink the cup that I am to drink? and with the 51 baptism that I am to be baptized with, will ye be baptized? And they said unto him, We are able. Jesus said unto them, The cup that I drink ye shall drink; and 52 with the baptism wherewith I am baptized ye shall be baptized: but that ye should sit on my right and on my left is not mine to give; but it is for him for whom my Father hath prepared it.

SECTION XXXI.

31 1 And when the ten heard, they were moved with anger against James and John. 2 And Jesus called them, and said unto them, Ye know that the rulers of the nations

Lk. 14, 22.

Lk. 14, 23a.

Mt. 22, 9b.

Lk. 14, 23b.

Lk. 14, 24.

Mt. 22, 10.

Mt. 22, 11.

Mt. 22, 12.

Mt. 22, 13.

Mt. 22, 14.

Jo. 5, 1a.

Lk. 17, 11.

Lk. 17, 12.

Lk. 17, 13.

Lk. 17, 14.

Lk. 17, 15.

Lk. 17, 16.

Lk. 17, 17.

Lk. 17, 18.

Lk. 17, 19.

Mk. 10, 33b.

Mk. 10, 34a.

Lk. 18, 33.

Lk. 18, 34.

Mt. 20, 20.

Mt. 20, 21a.

Mk. 10, 35.

Mk. 10, 36.

Mk. 10, 37.

Mk. 10, 38.

Mk. 10, 39.

Mk. 10, 40.

Mk. 10, 41.

Mk. 10, 42.

91

31 3 are their lords; and their great men are set in authority over them. Not thus shall it Arabic, be amongst you: but he amongst you that would be great, let him be to you a 4 p. 118 servant; and whoever of you would be first,(1) let him be to every man a 5 bond-servant: even as the Son of man also came not to be served, but to serve, and 6 to give himself a ransom in place of the many. He said this, and was going about 7 the villages and the cities, and teaching; and he went to Jerusalem. And a man asked him, Are those that shall be saved few? Jesus answered and said unto 8 them, Strive ye to enter at the narrow door: I say unto you now, that many shall 9 seek to enter, and shall not be able(2)--from the time when the master of the house riseth, and closeth the door, and ye shall be standing without, and shall knock at the door, and shall begin to say, Our lord, open unto us; and he shall answer and 10 say, I say unto you, I know you not whence ye are: and ye shall begin to say, 11 Before thee we did eat and drink, and in our markets didst thou teach; and he shall say unto you, I know you not whence ye are; depart(3) from me, ye servants 12 of untruth. There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, while ye are 13 put forth without. And they shall come from the east and the west, and from the 14 north and the south, and shah sit down in the kingdom of God. And there shall then be last that have become first, and first that have become last.

15, 16 And when Jesus entered and passed through Jericho, there was a man named Zac- 17 chaeus, rich, and chief of the publicans. And he desired to see Jesus who he was; and he was not able for the pressure of the crowd, because Zacchaeus was little of stature. 18 Arabic, And he hastened, and went before Jesus, and went up into an unripe fig 19 p. 119 tree(4) to see Jesus: for he was to pass thus. And when Jesus came to that place, he saw him, and said unto him, Make haste, and come down, Zacchaeus: 20 to-day I must be in thy house. And he hastened, and came down, and received 21 him joyfully. And when they all saw, they murmured, and said, He hath gone in 22 and lodged with a man that is a sinner. So Zacchaeus stood, and said unto Jesus, My Lord, now half of my possessions I give to the poor, and what I have unjustly 23 taken(5) from every man I give him fourfold. Jesus said unto him, To-day is salva- 24 tion come to this house, because this man also is a(6) son of Abraham. For the Son of man came to seek and save the thing that was lost.

25 And when Jesus went out of Jericho, he and his disciples, there came after him 26 a great multitude. And there was a blind man sitting by the way side begging. 27 And his name was Timaeus, the son of Timaeus. And he heard the sound of the 28 multitude passing, and asked, Who is this? They said unto him, Jesus the Naza- 29 rene passeth by. And when he heard that it was Jesus, he called out with a loud 30 voice, and said, Jesus, son of David, have mercy on me. And those that went before Jesus were rebuking him, that he should hold his peace: but he cried the 31 more, and said, Son of David, have mercy on me. And Jesus stood, and commanded that they should call him. And they called the blind man, and said unto 32 him, Be of good courage, and rise; for, behold, he calleth thee. And the blind 33 man threw away his garment, and rose, and came to Jesus. Jesus said unto him, What dost thou wish that I should do unto thee? And that blind man said unto him, My Lord and Master, that my eyes may be opened, so that I may see thee.(8) 34 Arabic, And Jesus had compassion on him, and touched his eyes, and said unto 35 p. 120 him, See; for thy faith hath saved thee. And immediately he received his sight,(9) and came after him, and praised God; and all the people that saw praised God.

36 And he spake a parable because he was nearing(10) Jerusalem, and they supposed 37 that at that time the kingdom of God was about to appear. He said unto them, A man, a son of a great race, went into a far country, to receive a kingdom, and 38 return. And he called his ten servants, and gave them ten shares, and said unto

Mk. 10, 43.

Mk. 10, 44.

Mt. 20, 28.

Lk. 13, 22.

Lk. 13, 23.

Lk. 13, 24.

Lk. 13, 25.

Lk. 13, 26.

Lk. 13, 27.

Lk. 13, 28.

Lk. 13, 29.

Lk. 13, 30.

Lk. 19, 1.

Lk. 19, 2.

Lk. 19, 3.

Lk. 19, 4.

Lk. 19, 5.

Lk. 19, 6.

Lk. 19, 7.

Lk. 19, 8.

Lk. 19, 9.

Lk. 19, 10.

Lk. 18, 35a.(7)

Mt. 20, 29b.

Lk. 18, 35b.

Mk. 10, 46b.

Lk. 18, 36.

Lk. 18, 37.

Mk. 10, 47a.

Lk. 18, 38.

Lk. 18, 39a.

Mk. 10, 48b.

Mk. 10, 49.

Mk. 10, 50.

Mk. 10, 51.

Mt. 20, 34a.

Lk. 18, 42b.

Lk. 18, 43.

Lk. 19, 11b.

Lk. 19, 12.

Lk. 19, 13.

92

31 39 them, Trade till the time of my coming. But the people of his city hated him, and 40 sent messengers after him, and said, We will not that this man reign over us. And when he had received a(1) kingdom, and returned, he said that the servants to whom he had given the money should be called unto him, that he might know what each 41 of them had traded. And the first came, and said, My lord, thy share hath gained 42 ten shares. The king said unto him, Thou good and faithful servant, who hast 43 been found faithful in a little, be thou set over ten districts. And the second came, 44 and said, My lord, thy portion hath gained five portions. And he said unto him 45 also, And thou shall be set over five districts. And another came, and said, My 46 lord, here is thy portion, which was with me laid by in a napkin: I feared thee, because thou art a hard man, and takest what thou didst not leave, and seekest 47 what thou didst not give, and reapest what thou didst not sow. His lord said unto him, From thy mouth shall I judge thee, thou wicked and idle servant, who wast untrustworthy. Thou knewest that I am a hard man, and take what I did not 48 leave, and reap what I did not sow: why didst thou not put my money at usury, 49 and so I might come and seek it, with its gains? And he said unto those that were standing in front of him, Take from him the share, and give it to him that hath 50, 51 Arabic, ten shares. They said unto him, Our lord, he hath ten shares. He said p. 121 unto them, I say unto you, Every one that hath shall be given unto; and 52 he that hath not, that which he hath also shall be taken from him. And those mine enemies who would not that I should reign over them, bring them, and slay them before me.

Lk. 19, 24.

Lk. 19, 15.

Lk. 19, 16.

Lk. 19, 17.

Lk. 19, 18.

Lk. 19, 19.

Lk. 19, 20.

Lk. 19, 21.

Lk. 19, 22.

Lk. 19, 23.

Lk. 19, 24.

Lk. 19, 25.

Lk. 19, 26.

Lk. 19, 27.

SECTION XXXII.

32 1 And when Jesus entered Jerusalem, he went up to the temple of God, and found 2 there oxen and sheep and doves. And when he beheld those that sold and those that bought, and the money-changers sitting, he made for himself a scourge of rope, and drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep and the oxen, and the money-changers; and he threw down their money, and upset their tables, and the seats of them that sold the doves; and he was teaching, and saying unto them, Is it not written, My house is a house of prayer for all peoples? and ye have made it a den for robbers. And he said unto those that sold the doves, Take this hence, and make not my Father's house a house of merchandise. And he suffered not any one to carry vessels inside the temple. And his disciples remembered the scripture, The zeal of thy house hath eaten me up. The Jews answered and said unto him, What sign hast thou shewn us, that thou doest this? Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and I shall raise it in three days. The Jews said unto him, This temple was built in forty-six years, and wilt thou raise it in three days? 10 But he spake unto them of the temple of his body, that when(2) they destroyed it, he 11 Arabic, would raise it in three days. When therefore he rose from among the p. 122 dead, his disciples remembered that he said this; and they believed the scriptures, and the word that Jesus spake.

12 And when Jesus sat down over against the treasury, he observed how the multitudes were casting their offerings into the treasury: and many rich men were 13, 14 throwing in much. And there came a poor widow, and cast in two mites. And Jesus called his disciples, and said unto them, Verily I say unto you, This poor 15 widow cast into the treasury more than all the people: and all of these cast into the place of the offering of God(3) of the superfluity of their wealth; while this woman of her want threw in all that she possessed. 16 And he spake unto them this parable, concerning people who trusted in them- 17 selves that they are righteous, and despised every man: Two men went up to the 18 temple to pray; one of them a Pharisee, and the other a publican. And the Pharisee stood apart,(4) and prayed thus, O Lord, I thank thee, since I am not like the rest of men, the unjust, the profligate, the extortioners, or even like this publican;

Mt. 21, 12a.

Jo. 2, 14a.

Mt. 21, 12b.

Jo. 2, 14b.

Mt. 21, 12c.

Mt. 21, 13.

Jo. 2, 17.

Jo. 2, 18.

Jo. 2, 19.

Jo. 2, 20.

Jo. 2, 21.

Jo. 2, 22.

Mk. 12, 41.

Mk. 12, 42a.

Lk. 21, 3.

Mk. 12, 44a.

Lk. 18, 9.

Lk. 18, 10.

Lk. 18, 11.

93

32 19 but I fast two days a week, and tithe all my possessions.(1) And the publican was 20 standing at a distance, and he would not even lift up his eyes to heaven, but was 21 beating upon his breast, and saying, O Lord, have mercy on me, me the sinner. I say unto you, that this man went down justified to his house more than the Pharisee. Every one that exalteth himself shall be abased; and every one that abaseth himself shall be exalted.

22 Arabic, And when eventide was come, he left all the people, and went outside the 23 p. 123 city to Bethany, he and his twelve, and he remained there. And all the people, because they knew the place, came to him, and he received them; and them that 24 had need of healing he healed. And on the morning of the next day, when he returned 25 to the city from Bethany, he hungered. And he saw a(2) fig tree at a distance on the beaten highway, having on it leaves. And he came unto it, expecting to find something on it; and when he came, he found nothing on it but the leaves--it(3) was not 26 the season of figs--and he said unto it, Henceforward for ever let no man eat fruit of thee. And his disciples heard.

27 And they came to Jerusalem. And there was there a man of the Pharisees, 28 named Nicodemus, ruler of the Jews. This man came unto Jesus by night, and said unto him, My Master, we know that thou hast been sent from God as a teacher; and no man can do these signs that thou doest, except him whom God is 29 with. Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, If a man 30 be not born a second time, he cannot see the kingdom of God. Nicodemus said unto him, How can a man who is old be born? can he, think you, return again to 31 his mother's womb a second time, to enter and be born? Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, If a man be not born of water and the Spirit, 32 he cannot enter the kingdom of God. For he that is born of flesh is flesh; and he that 33 is born of Spirit is spirit. Wonder not that I said unto thee that ye must be born a 34 Arabic, second time. The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest its voice, p. 124 but thou knowest not from what place it cometh, nor whither it goeth: so 35 is every man that is born of the Spirit. Nicodemus answered and said unto him, 36 How can that be? Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou teaching(4) Israel, 37 and yet knowest not these things? Verily, verily, I say unto thee, What we know 38 we say, and what we have seen we witness: and ye receive not our witness. If I said unto you what is on earth, and ye believed not, how then, if I say unto you 39 what is in heaven, will ye believe? And no man hath ascended up into heaven, except him that descended from heaven, the Son of man, which is in heaven. 40 And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so is the Son of man to be 41 lifted up; so that every man who may believe in him may not perish, but have 42 eternal life. God so loved the world, that(5) he should give his only Son; and so every one that believeth on him should not perish, but should have eternal life. 43 God sent not his Son into the world to judge the world; but that the world might 44 be saved by his hand. He that believeth in him shall not be judged: but he that believeth not is condemned beforehand, because he hath not believed in the name 45 of the only Son, the Son of God.(6) This is the judgement, that the light came into the world, and men loved the darkness more than the light; because their deeds 46 were evil. Whosoever doeth evil deeds hateth the light, and cometh not to the 47 light, lest his deeds be reproved. But he that doeth the truth cometh to the light, that his deeds may be known, that they have been done in God.

Lk. 18, 12.

Lk. 18, 13.

Lk. 18, 14.

Mk. 11, 19a

Mt. 21, 17.

Lk. 9, 11.

Mk. 11, 12.

Mk. 11, 13.

Mk. 11, 14.

Mk. 11, 15a.

Jo. 3, 1.

Jo. 3, 2.

Jo. 3, 3.

Jo. 3,4.

Jo. 3, 5.

Jo. 3, 6.

Jo. 3, 7.

Jo. 3, 8.

Jo. 3, 9.

Jo. 3, 10.

Jo. 3, 11.

Jo. 3, 12.

Jo. 3, 13.

Jo. 3, 14.

Jo. 3, 15.

Jo. 3, 16.

Jo. 3, 17.

Jo. 3, 18.

Jo. 3, 19.

Jo. 3, 20.

Jo. 3, 21.

SECTION XXXIII.

33 1 Arabic, And when evening came, Jesus went forth outside of the city, he and his 2 p. 125 disciples. And as they passed in the morning, the disciples saw that fig tree 3 withered away from its root. And they passed by, and said, How did the fig tree dry 4 up immediately? And Simon remembered, and said unto him, My Master, behold,

Mk. 11, 19.

Mk. 11, 20.

Mt. 21, 20b.

Mk. 11, 21.

94

33 5 that fig tree which thou didst curse hath dried up. And Jesus answered and said 6 unto them, Let there be in you the faith of God. Verily I say unto you, if ye believe, and doubt not in your hearts, and assure yourselves that that will be which 7 ye say, ye shall have what ye say. And if ye say to this mountain, Remove, and 8 fall(1) into the sea, it shall be. And all that ye ask God in prayer, and believe, he 9, 10 will give you. And the apostles(2) said unto our Lord, Increase our(3) faith. He said unto them, If there be in you faith like a grain of mustard, ye shall say to this fig tree, Be thou torn up, and be thou planted in the sea; and it will obey you. 11 Who of you hath a servant driving a yoke of oxen or tending sheep, and if he 12 come from the field, will say unto him straightway, Go and sit down? Nay,(4) he will say unto him, Make ready for me wherewith I may sup, and gird thy waist, and serve me, till I eat and drink; and afterwards thou shalt eat and drink also. 13 Doth that servant haply, who did what he was bid, receive his praise? I think 14 not. So ye also, when ye have done all that ye were bid, say, We are idle servants; what it was our duty to do, we have done.

15 For this reason I say unto you, Whatever ye pray and ask, believe that ye 16 Arabic, receive, and ye shall have. And when ye stand to pray, forgive what is p. 126 in your heart against any man; and your Father which is in heaven will 17 forgive you also your wrong-doings. But if ye forgive not men their wrong-doings, neither will your Father forgive you also your wrong-doings.

18 And he spake unto them a parable also, that they should pray at all times, and 19 not be slothful: There was a judge in a city, who feared not God, nor was ashamed 20 for men: and there was a widow in that city; and she came unto him, and said, 21 Avenge me of mine adversary. And he would not for a long time: but afterwards he said within himself, If of God I have no fear, and before men I have no shame; 22 yet because this widow vexeth me, I will avenge her, that she come not at all times 23, 24 and annoy me. And our Lord said, Hear ye what the judge of injustice said. And shall not God still more do vengeance for his elect, who call upon him in the night 25 and in the day, and grant them respite? I say unto you, He will do vengeance for them speedily. Thinkest thou the Son of man will come and find faith on the earth?

26, 27 And they came again to Jerusalem. And it came to pass, on one of the days, as Jesus was walking in the temple, and teaching the people, and preaching the 28 gospel, that the chief priests and the scribes with the elders came upon him, and said unto him, Tell us: By what power doest thou this? and who gave thee this 29 power to do that? And Jesus said unto them, I also will ask you one word, and if 30 ye tell me, I also shall tell you by what power I do that. The baptism of John, from 31 what place is it? from heaven or of men? Tell me. And they reflected within them- Arabic, selves, and said, If we shall say unto him, From heaven; he will say unto 32 p. 127 us, For what reason did ye not believe him? But(5) if we shall say, Of men; 33 we fear(6) that the people will stone us, all of them. And all of them were holding(7) 34 to John, that he was a true prophet. They answered and said unto him, We know 35 not. Jesus said unto them, Neither tell I you also by what power I work. What think ye? A man had two sons; and he went to the first, and said unto him, My 36 son, go to-day, and till in the vineyard. And he answered and said, I do not wish 37 to: but finally he repented, and went. And he went to the other, and said unto 38 him likewise. And he answered and said, Yea, my lord: and went not. Which of these two did the will of his father? They said unto him, The first. Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, The publicans and harlots go before you into 39 the kingdom of God. John came unto you in the way of righteousness, and ye believed him not; but the publicans and harlots believed him; and ye, not even when ye saw, did ye repent at last, that ye might believe in him.

40 Hear another parable: A man was a householder, and planted a vineyard, and surrounded it with a hedge, and digged in it a winepress, and built in it a tower, 41, 42 and gave it to husbandmen, and went to a distance for a long time. So when the time of the fruits came, he sent his servants(8) unto the husbandmen, that they might

Mk. 11, 22.

Mk. 11, 23.

Mt. 21, 21b.

Lk. 17, 5.

Lk. 17, 6.

Lk. 17, 7.

Lk. 17, 8.

Lk. 17,9.

Lk. 17, 10.

Mk. 11, 24.

Mk. 11, 25.

Mk. 11, 26.

Lk. 18, 1.

Lk. 18, 2.

Lk. 18, 3.

Lk. 18, 4.

Lk. 18, 5.

Lk. 18, 6.

Lk. 18, 7.

Lk. 18, 8.

Mk. 11, 15a.

Lk. 20, 1.

Lk. 20, 2a.

Mk. 11, 28b.

Mk. 11, 29a.

Mt. 21, 24b.

Mt. 21, 25a.

Mk. 11, 30b.

Mt. 21, 25b.

Mt. 21, 26a.

Lk. 20, 6b.

Mk. 11, 32b.

Mk. 11, 33.

Mt. 21, 28.

Mt. 21, 29.

Mt. 21, 30.

Mt. 21, 31.

Mt. 21, 32.

Mt. 21, 33a.

Lk. 20, 9b.

Mk. 21, 34.

95

33 43 send him of the produce(1) of his vineyard. And those husbandmen beat him, and 44 sent him away empty. And he sent unto them another servant also; and they 45 stoned him, and wounded(2) him, and sent him away with shameful handling. And he sent again another; and they slew him. And he sent many other servants unto 46 them. And the husbandmen took his servants, and one they beat, and another they 47 stoned, and another they slew. So he sent again other servants more than the first; and 48 Arabic, they did likewise with them. So the owner of the vineyard said, What shall p. 128 I do? I will send my beloved son: it may be they will see him and be 49, 50 ashamed. So at last he sent unto them his beloved son that he had. But the husbandmen, when they saw the son, said amongst themselves, This is the heir. 51, 52 And they said, We will slay him, and so the inheritance will be ours. So they took 53 him, and put him forth without the vineyard, and slew him. When then the lord 54 of the vineyard shall come, what will he do with those husbandmen? They said unto him, He will destroy them in the worst of ways,(3) and give the vineyard to 55 other husbandmen, who will give him fruit in its season. Jesus said unto them, Have ye never read in the scripture,

The stone which the builders declared to be base,

The same came to be at the head of the corner:

56 From God was this,

And it is wonderful in our eyes?

57 Therefore I say unto you, The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and 58 given to a people that will produce fruit. And whosoever falleth on this stone shall be broken in pieces: but on whomsoever it falleth, it will grind him to 59 powder. And when the chief priests and the Pharisees heard his parables, they 60 perceived that it was concerning them he spake. And they sought to seize him; and they feared the multitude, because they were holding to him as the prophet.

Mk. 12, 3b.

Mk. 12, 4.

Mk. 12, 5a.

Mt. 21, 35.

Mt. 21, 36.

Lk. 20, 13.

Mk. 12, 6a.

Mt. 21, 38a.

Lk. 20, 14b.

Mt. 21, 39.

Mt. 21, 40.

Mt. 21, 41.

Mt. 21, 42a.

Lk. 20, 17b.

Mt. 21, 42c.

Mt. 21, 43.

Mt. 21, 44.

Mt. 21, 45.

Mt. 21, 46.

SECTION XXXIV.

34 1 Then went the Pharisees and considered how they might ensnare him in a word, 2 and deliver him into the power of the judge,(4) and into the power of the ruler. And they sent unto him their disciples, with the kinsfolk of Herod; and they said unto him, Arabic, Teacher, we know that thou speakest the truth, and teachest the way of God p. 129 with equity,(5) and art not lifted up(6) by any man: for thou actest not so as to 3 be seen of any man. Tell us now, What is thy opinion? Is it lawful that we should 4 pay the tribute to Caesar, or not? shall we give, or shall we not give? But Jesus knew 5 their deceit, and said unto them, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites? Shew me the 6 penny of the tribute. So they brought unto him a penny. Jesus said unto them, To whom belongeth this image and inscription? They said unto him, To Caesar. 7, 8 He said unto them, Give what is Caesar's to Caesar, and what is God's to God. And they could not make him slip in a single word before the people; and they marvelled at his word, and refrained.

9 And on that day came the Sadducees, and said unto him,(7) There is no life for 10 the dead. And they asked him, and said unto him, Teacher, Moses said unto us, If a man die, not having children, let his brother take his wife, and raise up seed 11 for his brother. Now there were with us seven brethren: and the first took a wife, 12 and died without children; and the second took his wife, and died without children; 13 and the third also took her; and in like manner the seven of them also, and they 14, 15 died without leaving children. And last of them all the woman died also. At the resurrection, then, which of these seven shall have this woman? for all of them took 16 her. Jesus answered and said unto them, Is it not for this that ye have erred, 17 because ye know not the scriptures, nor the power of God? And the sons of this 18 world take wives, and the women become the men's;(8) but those that have become worthy of that world, and the resurrection from among the dead, do(9) not take

Mt. 22, 15.

Lk. 20, 20b.

Mt. 22, 16.

Mt. 22, 17.

Mk. 12, 15a.

Mt. 22, 18b.

Mt. 22, 19.

Mt. 22, 20.

Mt. 22, 21.

Lk. 20, 26.

Mt. 22, 23.

Mt. 22, 24.

Mt. 22, 25.

Lk. 20, 29b.

Lk. 20, 30.

Lk. 20, 31.

Mt. 22, 27.

Mt. 22, 28.

Mt. 22, 29a.

Mk. 12, 24b.

Lk. 20, 34b.

Lk. 20, 35.

96

34 19 Arabic, wives, and the women also do(1) not become the men's. Nor is it possible p. 130 that they should die; but they(2) are like the angels, and are the children of 20 God, because they have become the children of the resurrection. For in(3) the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read in the book of Moses, how from the bush God said unto him, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? 21 And God is not the God of the dead, but of the living: for all of them are alive with him. And ye have erred greatly.

22, 23 And when the multitudes heard, they were wondering at his teaching. And 24 some of the scribes answered and said unto him, Teacher, thou hast well said. But the rest of the Pharisees, when they saw his silencing the Sadducees on this point, gathered against him to contend with him.

And one of the scribes, of those that knew the law, when he saw the excellence 26 of his answer to them, desired to try him, and said unto him, What shall I do to inherit eternal life? and, Which of the commandments is greater, and has precedence 27 in the law? Jesus said unto him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O 28 Israel; The Lord our God, the Lord is one: and thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy thought, and with all thy 29, 30 strength. This is the great and preeminent(5) commandment. And the second, which is like it, is, Thou shall love thy neighbour as thyself. And another commandment 31 greater than these two there is not. On these two commandments, then, are hung the

32 Arabic, law and the prophets. That scribe said unto him, Excellent! my Master;(6) p. 131 thou hast said truly that he is one, and there is no other outside of him: 33 and that a man should love him with all his heart, and with all his thought, and with all his soul, and with all his strength, and that he should love his neighbour as 34 himself, is better than all savours and sacrifices. And Jesus saw him that he had answered wisely; and he answered and said unto him, Thou art not far from the 35, 36 kingdom of God. Thou hast: spoken rightly: do this, and thou shalt live. And he, as his desire was to justify himself, said unto him, And who is my neighbour? 37 Jesus said unto him, A man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho; and the robbers fell upon him, and stripped(7) him, and beat him, his life remaining in him but little,(8) 38 and went away. And it happened that there came down a certain priest that way; 39 and he saw him, and passed by. And likewise a Levite also came and reached 40 that place, and saw him, and passed by. And a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, 41 came to(9) the place where he was, and saw him, and had compassion on him, and came near, and bound up his strokes,(10) and poured on them wine and oil; and he set(11) him on the ass, and brought him to the inn, and expended his care upon him. 42 And on the morrow of that day he took out two pence, and gave them to the innkeeper, and said unto him, Care for him; and if thou spendest upon him more, 43 when I return, I shall give thee. Who of these three now, thinkest thou, is nearest 44 to him that fell among the robbers? And he said unto him, He that had compas- 45 Arabic, sion on him. Jesus said unto him, Go, and do thou also likewise. And p. 132 no man dared afterwards to ask him anything.

46 And he was teaching every day in the temple. But the chief priests and scribes and the eiders of the people sought to destroy him: and they could(12) not find what 47 they should do with him; and all the people were hanging upon him to hear him. 48 And many of the multitude believed on him, and said, The Messiah, when he 49 cometh, can it be that he will do more than these signs that this man doeth? And the Pharisees heard the multitudes say that of him; and the chief priests sent 50 officers(13) to seize him. And Jesus said unto them, I am with you but a short time

Lk. 20, 36.

Mt. 22, 30a.

Mk. 12, 26b.

Lk. 20, 38.

Mk. 12, 27b.

Mt. 22, 33.

Lk. 20, 39.

Mt. 22, 34.

Lk. 10, 35.

Lk. 10, 36.

Lk. 10, 37.

Mk. 12, 34b

Lk. 19, 47.

Lk. 19, 48.

Jo. 7, 31.

Jo. 7, 32.

Jo. 7, 33.

97

34 51 yet, and I go to him that sent me. And ye shall seek me, and shall not find me: 52 and where I shall be, ye shall not be able to come. The Jews said within themselves, Whither hath this man determined to go that we shall not be able(1) to find him? can it be that he is determined to go to the regions of the nations,(2) and teach 53 the heathen? What is this word that he said, Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me: and where I am, ye cannot come?

Jo. 7, 34.

Jo. 7, 35.

Jo. 7, 36.

SECTION XXXV.

35 1 And on the great day, which is the last of the feast, Jesus stood, crying out and 2 saying, If any man is thirsty, let him come unto me, and drink. Every one that believeth in me, as the scriptures said, there shall flow from his belly rivers of pure water. He said that referring to the Spirit, which those who believed in him were to receive: for the Spirit was not yet granted; and because Jesus had not yet been Arabic, glorified. And many of the multitude that heard his words said, This is p. 133 in truth the prophet. And others said, This is the Messiah. But others said, Can it be that the Messiah will come from Galilee? Hath not the scripture said that from the seed of David, and from Bethlehem, the village of David, the 7 Messiah cometh? And there occurred a dissension in the multitude because of him. 8 And some of them were wishing to seize him; but no man laid a hand upon him.

9 And those officers came to the chief priests and Pharisees: and the priests said 10 unto them, Why did ye not bring him? The officers said, Never spake man thus 11 as speaketh this man. The Pharisees said unto them, Perhaps ye also have gone 12, 13 astray? Hath any of the rulers or the Pharisees haply believed in him? except 14 this people which knows not the law; they are accursed. Nicodemus, one of them, 15 he that had come to Jesus by night, said unto them, Doth our law haply condemn 16 a man, except it hear him first and know what he hath done? They answered and said unto him, Art thou also haply from Galilee? Search, and see that a prophet riseth not from Galilee.

17, 18 And when the Pharisees assembled, Jesus asked them, and said, What say ye of 19 the Messiah? whose son is he? They said unto him, The son of David. He said unto them, And how doth David in the Holy Spirit call him Lord? for he said, 20 The Lord said unto my Lord,

Sit on my right hand,

That I may put thine enemies under thy feet.

21, 22 If then David calleth him Lord, how is he his son? And no one was able to answer him; and no man dared from that day again to ask him of anything.

23 And Jesus addressed them again, and said, I am the light of the world; and he that 24 followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall find the light of life. The Pharisees Arabic, said unto him, Thou bearest witness to thyself; thy witness is not true. Jesus 25 p. 134 answered and said unto them, If I bear witness to myself, my witness is true; for I know whence I came, and whither I go; but ye know not whence I came, or 26, 27 whither I go. And ye judge after the flesh; and I judge no man. And even if I judge, my judgement is true; because I am not alone, but I and my Father which 28, 29 sent me. And in your law it is written, that the witness of two men is true. I am he that beareth witness to myself, and my Father which sent me beareth witness to 30 me. They said unto him, Where is thy Father? Jesus answered and said unto them, Ye know not me, nor my Father: for did ye know me, ye would know my 31 Father. He said these sayings in the treasury, where he was teaching in the 32 temple: and no man seized him; because his hour had not yet come. Jesus said unto them again, I go truly, and ye shall seek me and not find me, and ye shall die 33 in your sins: and where I go, ye cannot come. The Jews said, Will he haply kill 34 himself, that he saith, Where I go, ye cannot come? He said unto them, Ye are from below; and I am from above: ye are of this world; and I am not of this 35 world. I said unto you, that ye shall die in your sins: if ye believe not that I am 36 he, ye shall die in your sins. The Jews said, And thou, who art thou? Jesus said

Jo. 7, 37.

Jo. 7, 38.

Jo. 7, 39.

Jo. 7, 40.

Jo. 7, 41.

Jo. 7, 42.

Jo. 7, 43.

Jo. 7, 44.

Jo. 7, 45.

Jo. 7, 46.

Jo. 7, 47.

Jo. 7, 49.

Jo. 7, 50.

Jo. 7, 51.

Jo. 7, 52.

Mt. 22, 41.

Mt. 22, 42.

Mt. 22, 43.

Mt. 22, 44.

Mt. 22, 45.

Mt. 22, 46.

Jo. 8, 12.

Jo. 8, 13.

Jo. 8, 14.

Jo. 8, 15.

Jo. 8, 16.

Jo. 8, 17.

Jo. 8, 18.

Jo. 8, 19.

Jo. 8, 20.

Jo. 8, 21.

Jo. 8, 22.

Jo. 8, 23.

Jo. 8, 24.

Jo. 8, 25.

98

35 37 unto them, If I should begin to speak unto you, I have concerning you many words and judgement: but he that sent me is true; and I, what I heard from him is what 38, 39 I say in the world. And they knew not that he meant by that the Father. Jesus Arabic, said unto them again, When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then ye p. 135 shall know that I am he: and I do nothing of myself, but as my Father 40 taught me, so I speak. And he that sent me is with me; and my Father hath not 41 left me alone; because I do what is pleasing to him at all times. And while he was saying that, many believed in him.

42 And Jesus said to those Jews that believed in him, If ye abide in my words, truly 43 ye are my disciples: and ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free. 44 They said unto him, We are the seed of Abraham, and have never served any man 45 in the way of slavery: how then sayest thou, Ye shall be free children? Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Every one that doeth a sin is a slave of 46 sin. And the slave doth not remain for ever in the house; but the son remaineth 47, 48 for ever. And if the Son set you free, truly ye shall be free children. I know that ye are the seed of Abraham; but ye seek to slay me, because ye are unable for my 49 word. And what I saw with my Father, I say: and what ye saw with your father, 50 ye do. They answered and said unto him, Our father is Abraham. Jesus said unto them, If ye were the children of Abraham, ye would do the deeds of Abraham. 51 Now, behold, ye seek to kill me, a man that speak(1) with you(2) the truth, that I 52 heard from God: this did Abraham not do. And ye do the deeds of your father. They said unto him, We were not born of fornication;(3) we have one Father, who is 53 God. Jesus said unto them, If God were your Father, ye would love me: I proceeded and came(4) from God; and it was not of my own self that I came,(4) but he sent 54 Arabic, me. Why then do ye not know my word? Because ye cannot hear my word. 55 p. 136 Ye are from the father, the devil,(5) and the lust of your father do ye desire to do, who from the beginning is a slayer of men, and in the truth standeth not, because the truth is not in him. And when he speaketh untruth, he speaketh from 56 himself: for he is a liar, and the father of untruth. And I who speak the truth, ye 57 believe me not. Who of you rebuketh me for a sin? And if I speak the truth, ye 58 do not believe me.(6) Whosoever is of God heareth the words of God: therefore do 59 ye not hear, because ye are not of God. The Jews answered and said unto him, 60 Did we not say well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast demons? Jesus said unto them, As for me, I have not a devil; but my Father do I honour, and ye dishonour 61 me. I seek not my glory: here is one who seeketh and judgeth.

Jo. 8, 26.

Jo. 8, 27.

Jo. 8, 28.

Jo. 8, 29.

Jo. 8, 30.

Jo. 8, 31.

Jo. 8, 32.

Jo. 8, 33.

Jo. 8, 34.

Jo. 8, 35.

Jo. 8, 37.

Jo. 8, 38.

Jo. 8, 39.

Jo. 8, 40.

Jo. 8, 41.

Jo. 8, 42.

Jo. 8, 43.

Jo. 8, 44.

Jo. 8, 45.

Jo. 8, 46.

Jo. 8, 47.

Jo. 8, 48.

Jo. 8, 49.

Jo. 8, 50.

SECTION XXXVI.

36 1 Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever keepeth my word shall not see death 2 for ever. The Jews said unto him, Now we know that thou hast demons. Abraham is dead, and the prophets; and thou sayest, Whosoever keepeth my word shall not 3 taste death for ever. Art thou haply greater than our father Abraham, who is 4 dead, and than the prophets, which are dead? whom makest thou thyself? Jesus said unto them, If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing: my Father is he that 5 glorifieth me; of whom ye say, that he is our(7) God; and yet ye have not known him: but I know him; and if I should say that I know him not, I should become 6 Arabic, a liar like you: but I know him, and keep his word. Abraham your father 7 p. 137 longed to see my day; and he saw, and rejoiced. The Jews said unto him, 8 Thou art now not fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham? Jesus said unto 9 them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am. And they take(8) stones to stone him: but Jesus concealed himself, and went out of the temple. And he passed through them, and went his way.

Jo. 8, 51.

Jo. 8, 52.

Jo. 8, 53.

Jo. 8, 54.

Jo. 8, 55.

Jo. 8, 56.

Jo. 8, 57.

Jo. 8, 58.

Jo. 8, 59.

Jo. 8, 60.(9)

99

36 10 And as he passed, he saw a man blind from his mother's womb. And his 11 disciples asked him, and said, Our Master, who sinned, this man, or his parents, so 12 that he was born blind?(1) Jesus said unto them, Neither did he sin, nor his parents: 13 but that the works of God may be seen in him.(2) It is incumbent on me to do the deeds of him that sent me, while it is day: a night will come, and no man will be 14 able to busy himself. As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world. 15 And when he said that, he spat upon the ground, and made clay of his spittle, and 16 smeared it on the eyes of the blind man, and said unto him, Go and wash thyself in 17 the pool(3) of Siloam.(4) And he went and washed, and came seeing. And his neighbours, which saw him of old begging, said, Is not this he that was sitting begging? 18 And some said, It is he; and others said, Nay, but he resembles him much. He 19, 20 said, I am he. They said unto him, How then were thine eyes opened? He answered and said unto them, A man named Jesus made clay, and smeared it on my eyes, and said unto me, Go and wash in the water of Siloam: and I went and 21 washed, and received sight.(5) They said unto him, Where is he? He said, I know not. 22, 23 Arabic, And they brought him that was previously blind to the Pharisees. And p. 138 the day in which Jesus made clay and opened with it his eyes was a sabbath 24 day. And again the Pharisees asked him, How didst thou receive sight? And he said 25 unto them, He put clay on mine eyes, and I washed, and received sight. The people(6) of the Pharisees said, This man is not from God, for he keepeth not the sabbath. And others said, How can a man that is a sinner do these signs? And there came 26 to be a division amongst them. And again they said to that blind man, Thou, then, what sayest thou of him that opened for thee thine eyes? He said unto them, 27 I say that he is a prophet. And the Jews did not believe concerning him, that he was blind, and received sight, until they summoned the parents of him who received 28 sight, and asked them, Is this(7) your son, of whom ye said that he was born blind? 29 how then, behold, doth he now see? His parents answered and said, We know 30 that this is our son, and that he was born blind: but how he has come to see now, or who it is that opened his eyes, we know not: and he also has reached his prime; 31 ask him, and he will speak for himself. This said his parents, because they were fearing the Jews: and the Jews decided, that if any man should confess of him that 32 he was the Messiah, they would put him out of the synagogue. For this reason 33 said his parents, He hath reached his prime; ask him. And they called the man a second time, him that was blind, and said unto him, Praise God: we know that this 34 man is a sinner. He answered and said unto them, Whether he be a sinner, I know 35 not: I know one thing, that I was blind, and I now see. They said unto him again, 36 Arabic, What did he unto thee? how opened he for thee thine eyes? He said unto p. 139 them, I said unto you, and ye did not hear: what(8) wish ye further to hear? 37 ye also, do ye wish to become disciples to him? And they reviled him, and said unto him, Thou art the disciple(9) of that man; but as for us, we are the disciples of 38 Moses. And we know that God spake unto Moses: but this man, we know not 39 whence he is. The man answered and said unto them, From this is the wonder, 40 because ye know not whence he is, and mine eyes hath he opened. And we know that God heareth not the voice of sinners: but whosoever feareth him, and doeth 41 his will, him he heareth. From eternity hath it not been heard of, that a man 42 opened the eyes of a blind man, who had been born in blindness. If then this man 43 were not from God, he could not do that. They answered and said unto him, Thou wast all of thee born in sins, and dost thou teach us? And they put him forth without.

44 And Jesus heard of his being put forth without, and found him, and said unto 45 him, Dost thou believe in the Son of God? He that was made whole answered 46 and said, Who is he, my Lord, that I may believe in him? Jesus said unto him, 47 Thou hast seen him, and he that speaketh to thee is he. And he said, I believe, my Lord. And he fell down worshipping him.

100

SECTION XXXVII.

37 1 And Jesus said, To judge the world am I come, so that they that see not may 2 see, and they that see may become blind. And some of the Pharisees which were 3 with him heard that, and they said unto him, Can it be that we are blind? Jesus said unto them, If ye were blind, ye should not have sin: but now ye say, We see: and because of this your sin remaineth.(1) 4 Arabic, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever entereth not into the fold of the p. 140 sheep by the door, but goeth up from another place, that man is a thief and a 5, 6 stealer. But he that entereth by the door is the shepherd of the sheep. And therefore(2) the keeper of the door openeth for him the door; and the sheep hear his voice: and 7 he calleth his sheep(3) by their names, and they go forth unto him. And when he putteth forth his sheep, he goeth before them, and his sheep(3) follow him: because 8 they know his voice. And after a stranger will the sheep not go, but they flee from 9 him: because they hear not the voice of a stranger. This parable spake Jesus unto them: but they knew not what he was saying unto them. 10 Jesus said unto them again, Verily, verily, I say unto you, I am the door of the 11 sheep. And all that came are thieves and stealers: but the sheep heard them not. 12 I am the door: and if a man enter by me, he shall live, and shall go in and go out, 13 and shall find pasture. And the stealer cometh not, save that he may steal, and kill, and destroy: but I came that they might have life, and that they might have 14 the thing that is better.(4) I am the good shepherd; and the good shepherd giveth 15 himself(5) for his sheep. But the hireling, who is not a shepherd, and whose the sheep(6) are not, when he seeth the wolf as it cometh, leaveth the sheep, and fleeth, 16 and the wolf cometh, and snatcheth away the sheep, and scattereth(7) them: and the 17 hireling fleeth because he is an hireling, and hath no care for the sheep. I am the 18 good shepherd; and I know what is mine, and what is mine knoweth me, as my Father knoweth me, and I know my Father; and I give myself(18) for the sheep. 19 And I have other sheep also, that are not of this flock: them also I must invite, and they shall hear my voice; and all the sheep shall be one, and the shepherd one. 20 Arabic, And therefore doth my Father love me, because I give my life, that I may 21 p. 141 take it again. No man taketh it from me, but l leave it of my own choice. And I have the right to leave it, and have the right also to take it. And this commandment did I receive of my Father.

22 And there occurred a disagreement among the Jews because of these sayings. 23 And many of them said, He hath a devil, and is afflicted with madness;(9) why listen 24 ye to him? And others said, These sayings are not those of men possessed with demons. Can a demon haply open the eyes of a blind man?

25, 26 And the feast of the dedication came on at Jerusalem: and it was winter. And 27 Jesus was walking in the temple in the porch of Solomon. The Jews therefore surrounded him, and said unto him, Until when dost thou make our hearts anxious? 28 If thou art the Messiah, tell us plainly. He answered and said unto them, I told you, and ye believe not: and the deeds that I do in my Father's name bear witness 29, 30 to me. But ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep,(10) as I said unto you. 31 And my sheep(10) hear my voice, and I know them, and they come after me: and I give them eternal life; and they shall not perish for ever, nor shall any man snatch 32 them out of my hands.(11) For the Father, who hath given them unto me, is greater 33 than all; and no man is able to take them from the hand of my(12) Father. I and 34, 35 my Father are one. And the Jews took stones to stone him. Jesus said unto them, Many good deeds from my Father have I shewed you; because of which(13) of them, 36 then, do ye stone me? The Jews said unto him, Not for the good deeds do we stone thee, but because thou blasphemest; and, whilst thou art a man, makest thy-

Jo. 9, 39.

Jo. 9, 40.

Jo. 9, 41.

Jo, 10, 1.

Jo. 10, 2.

Jo. 10, 3.

Jo. 10, 4.

Jo. 10, 5.

Jo. 10, 6.

Jo. 10, 7.

Jo. 10, 8.

Jo. 10, 9.

Jo. 10, 10.

Jo. 10, 11.

Jo. 10, 12.

Jo. 10, 13.

JO. 10, 14.

Jo. 10, 15.

Jo. 10, 16.

Jo. 10, 17.

Jo. 10, 18.

Jo. 10, 19.

Jo. 10, 20.

JO. 10, 21.

Jo. 10, 22.

Jo. 10, 23.

Jo. 10, 24.

Jo. 10, 25.

Jo. 10, 26.

Jo. 10, 27.

Jo. 10, 28.

Jo. 10, 29.

Jo. 10, 30.

Jo. 10, 31.

Jo. 10, 32.

Jo. 10, 33.

101

37 37 self God. Jesus said unto them, Is it not thus written in your law, I said, Ye are gods? 38 Arabic, And if he called those gods--for(1) to them came the word of God (and it is 39 p. 142 not possible in(2) the scripture that anything should be undone)--he then, whom the Father hath sanctified and sent into the world, do ye say that he blasphemeth; 40 because I said unto you, I am the Son of God? If then I do not the deeds of my 41 Father, ye believe me not.(3) But if I do, even if ye believe not me, believe the deeds: that ye may know and believe that my Father is in me, and I in my Father. 42 And they sought again to take him: and he went forth out of their hands.

43 And he went beyond Jordan to the place where John was baptizing formerly; 44 and abode there. And many people came unto him; and they said, John did not 45 work even one sign: but all that John said of this man is truth. And many believed in him. 46 And there was a sick man, named Lazarus, of the village of Bethany, the brother 47 of Mary and Martha. And Mary was she that anointed with sweet ointment the feet of Jesus, and wiped them with her hair; and Lazarus, who was sick, was the 48 brother of this woman.(4) And his sisters sent unto Jesus, and said unto him, Our 49 Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick. But Jesus said, This sickness is not unto death, but for the glorifying of God, that the Son of God may be glorified 50, 51 because of it. And Jesus loved Martha, and Mary, and Lazarus. And when he 52 heard that he was sick, he abode in the place where he was two days. And after that, 53 he said unto his disciples, Come, let us go into Judaea. His disciples said unto him, Our Arabic, Master, now the Jews desire to stone thee; and goest thou again thither? 54, 55 p. 143 Jesus said unto them, Is not the day of twelve hours? If then a man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of the world. But if 56 a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, because there is no lamp in him. This said Jesus: and after that, he said unto them, Lazarus our friend hath fallen asleep; but 57 I am going to awaken him. His disciples said unto him, Our Lord, if he hath 58 fallen asleep, he will recover. But Jesus said that concerning his death: while they 59 supposed that he spake of lying down to sleep. Then Jesus said unto them plainly, 60 Lazarus is dead. And I am glad that I was not there for your sakes, that ye may 61 believe; but let us go thither. Thomas, who is called Thama,(5) said to the disciples, his companions, Let us also go, and die with him.

Jo. 10, 34.

Jo. 10, 35.

Jo. 10, 36.

Jo. 10, 37.

Jo. 10, 38.

Jo. 10, 39.

Jo. 10, 40.

Jo. 10, 41.

Jo. 10, 42.

Jo. 11. 1.

Jo. 11, 2.

Jo. 11, 3.

Jo. 11, 4.

Jo. 11, 5.

Jo. 11, 6.

Jo. 11, 7.

Jo. 11, 8.

Jo. 11, 9.

Jo. 11, 10.

Jo. 11, 11.

Jo. 11, 12.

Jo. 11, 13.

Jo. 11, 14.

Jo. 11. 15.

Jo. 11, 16.

SECTION XXXVIII.

38 1, 2 And Jesus came to Bethany, and found him already four days in the grave. And Bethany was beside Jerusalem, and its distance from it was a sum of fifteen fur- 3 longs;(6) and many of the Jews came unto Mary and Martha, to comfort their heart 4 because of their brother. And Martha, when she heard that Jesus had come, went 5 out to meet him: but Mary was sitting in the house. Martha then said unto Jesus, 6 My Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died. But I know now that, 7 whatever thou shalt ask of God, he will give thee. Jesus said unto her, Thy brother shall 8 rise. Martha said unto him, I know that he shall rise in the resurrection at the last day. 9 Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: whosoever believeth in 10 Arabic, me, even though he die, he shall live: and every living one that believeth 11 p. 144 in me shall never die. Believest thou this? She said unto him, Yea, my Lord: I believe that thou art the Messiah, the Son of God, that cometh into the 12 world. And when she had said that, she went and called Mary her sister secretly, 13 and said unto her, Our Master hath come, and summoneth thee. And Mary, when 14 she heard, rose in haste, and came unto him. (And Jesus then had not come into 15 the village, but was in the place where Martha met him.) And the Jews also that were with her in the house, to comfort her, when they saw that Mary rose up and went out in haste, went after her, because they supposed that she was going to the 16 tomb to weep. And Mary, when she came to where Jesus was, and saw him, fell at his feet, and said unto him, If thou hadst been here, my Lord, my brother had

Jo. 11. 17.

Jo. 11, 18.

Jo. 11, 19.

Jo. 11, 20.

Jo. 11, 21.

Jo. 11, 22.

Jo. 11, 23.

Jo. 11, 24.

Jo. 11, 25.

Jo. 11, 26.

Jo. 11, 27.

Jo. 11, 28.

Jo. 11, 29.

Jo. 11, 30.

Jo. 11. 31.

Jo. 11, 32.

102

38 17 not died. And Jesus came; and when he saw her weeping, and the Jews that were 18 with her weeping, he was troubled(1) in himself, and sighed; and he said, In what 19 place have ye laid him? And they said unto him, Our Lord, come and see. And 20 the tears of Jesus came.(2) The Jews therefore said, See the greatness of his love for 21 him! But some of them said, Could not this man, who opened the eyes of that 22 blind man, have caused that this man also should not die? And Jesus came to the place of burial, being troubled within himself. And the place of burial was a cave, 23 and a stone was placed at its door. Jesus therefore said, Take these stones away.

Martha, the sister of him that was dead, said unto him, My Lord, he hath come to 24 stink for some time: he hath been(3) four days dead. Jesus said unto her, Did not I say 25 Arabic, unto thee, If thou believest, thou shall see the glory of God? And they re- p. 145 moved those stones. And Jesus lifted his eyes on high,and said, My Father, 26 I thank thee Since thou didst hear me. And I know that thou at all times hearest me: but I say this unto thee because of this multitude that is standing, that they 27 may believe that thou didst send me. And when he had said that, he cried with a 28 loud voice, Lazarus, come forth. And that dead man came out, having his hands and feet bound with bandages, and his face wrapped in a scarf. Jesus said unto them, Loose him, and let him go.

29 And many of the Jews which came unto Mary, when they saw the deed of Jesus, 30 believed in him. But some of them went to the Pharisees, and informed them of all that Jesus did.

31 And the chief priests and the Pharisees gathered, and said, What shall we do? 32 for lo, this man doeth many signs. And if we leave him thus, all men will believe 33 in him: and the Romans will come and take our country and people. And one of them, who was called Caiaphas, the chief priest he was in that year, said unto them, 34 Ye know not anything, nor consider that it is more advantageous for us that one 35 man should die instead of the people, and not that the whole people perish. And this he said not of himself: but because he was the chief priest of(4) that year, he 36 prophesied that Jesus was to die instead of the people; and not instead of the people alone, but that he might gather the scattered children of God together. 37 And from that day they considered how to kill him. 38 Arabic, And Jesus did not walk openly amongst the Jews, but departed thence to a p. 146 place near the wilderness, to a town(5) called Ephraim; and he was there, going 39 about with his disciples. And the passover of the Jews was near: and many went 40 up from the villages unto Jerusalem before the feast, to purify themselves. And they sought for Jesus, and said one to another in the temple, What think ye of his 41 holding back from the feast? And the chief priests and the Pharisees had given commandment, that, if any man knew in what place he was, he should reveal it to them, that they might take him.

42 And when the days of his going up were accomplished, he prepared himself that 43 he might go(6) to Jerusalem. And he sent messengers before him, and departed,(7) and 44 entered into a village(8) of Samaria, that they might make ready for him. And they 45 received him not, because he(9) was prepared for going to Jerusalem. And when James and John his disciples saw it, they said unto him, Our Lord, wilt thou that we speak, and fire come down from heaven, to extirpate them, as did Elijah also? 46 And Jesus turned, and rebuked them, and said, Ye know not of what spirit ye are. 47 Verily the Son of man did not come to destroy lives, but to give life. And they went to another village.

Jo. 11, 33.

Jo. 11, 34.

Jo. 11, 35.

Jo. 11, 36.

Jo. 11, 37.

Jo. 11, 38.

Jo. 11, 39.

Jo. 11, 40.

JO. 11, 41.

Jo. 11, 42.

Jo. 11, 43.

Jo. 11, 44.

Jo. 11, 45.

Jo. 11, 46.

Jo. 11, 47.

Jo. 11, 48.

Jo. 11, 49.

Jo. 11, 50.

Jo. 11, 51.

Jo. 11, 52.

Jo. 11, 53.

Jo. 11, 54.

Jo. 11, 55.

Jo. 11, 56.

Jo. 11, 57.

Lk. 9, 51.

Lk. 9, 52.

Lk. 9, 53.

Lk. 9, 54.

Lk. 9, 55.

Lk. 9, 56.

103

SECTION XXXIX.

39 1 And Jesus six days before the passover(1) came to Bethany, where was Lazarus, 2 whom Jesus raised from among the dead. And they made(2) a feast for him there: 3 and Martha was serving; while Lazarus was one of them that sat with him. And 4 at the time of Jesus' being at Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, great multitudes of the Jews heard that Jesus was there: and they came, not because of Jesus alone, but Arabic, that they might look also on Lazarus, whom he raised from among the dead. 5, 6 p. 147 And the chief priests considered how they might kill Lazarus also; because 7 many of the Jews were going on his account, and believing in Jesus· And Mary took a case of the ointment of fine nard, of great price, and opened it, and poured 8 it out on the head of Jesus as he was reclining; and she anointed his feet, and wiped them with her hair: and the house was filled with the odour of the ointment. 9, 10 But Judas Iscariot, one of the disciples, he that was to betray him, said, Why was 11 not this ointment sold for three hundred pence, and given unto the poor? This he said, not because of his care for the poor, but because he was a thief, and the chest 12 was with him, and what was put(3) into it he used to bear. And that displeased the rest of the disciples also within themselves, and they said, Why went this ointment 13 to waste? It was possible that it should be sold for much, and the poor be given 14 it. And they were angry with(4) Mary. And Jesus perceived it, and said unto them, Leave her; why molest ye her? a good work hath she accomplished on me: for the 15 day of my burial kept she it. At all times the poor are with you, and when ye 16 wish ye can do them a kindness: but I am not at all times with you. And for this cause, when she poured(5) this ointment on my body, it is as if she did it for my bur- 17 ial, and anointed my body beforehand. And verily I say unto you, In every place where this my gospel shall be proclaimed in all the world, what she did shall be told for a memorial of her. 18, 19 Arabic, And when Jesus said that, he went out leisurely to go to Jerusalem, And p. 148 when he arrived at Bethphage and at Bethany, beside the mount which is 20 called the mount of Olives, Jesus sent two of his disciples, and he said unto them, Go 21 into this village that is opposite you: and when ye enter it, ye shall find an ass tied, and 22 a colt with him,(6) which no man ever yet mounted: loose him, and bring them(7) unto me. And if any man say unto you, Why loose ye them? say unto him thus, We 23 seek them for our Lord; and straightway send them hither.All this was, that what was said in the prophet might be fulfilled, which said,

24 Say ye unto the daughter of Zion,

Behold, thy King cometh unto thee,

Meek, and riding upon an ass,

And upon a colt the foal of an ass.

25 And the disciples did not know this at that time: but after that Jesus was glorified, his disciples remembered that these things were written of him, and that this 26 they had done unto him. And when the two disciples went, they found as he had 27 said unto them, and they did as Jesus charged them. And when they loosed them, 28 their owners said unto them, Why loose ye them? They said unto them, We seek 29 them for our Lord. And they let them go. And they brought the ass and the colt, 30 and they placed on the colt their garments; and Jesus mounted it. And most of the multitudes spread their garments on the ground before him: and others cut branches 31 from the trees, and threw them in the way. And when he neared his(8) descent from Arabic, the mount of Olives, all the disciples began to rejoice and to praise God with 32 p. 149 a loud voice for all the powers which they had seen; and they said, Praise in the highest; Praise to the Son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name 33 of the Lord; and blessed(10) is the kingdom that cometh, that of(11) our father David: Peace in heaven, and praise in the highest.

Jo. 12, 1.

Jo. 12, 2.

Mk. 14, 3a.

Jo. 12, 9.

Jo. 12, 10.

Jo. 12, 11.

Jo. 12, 3a.

Mk. 14, 3b.

Jo. 12, 3b.

Jo. 12, 4.

Jo. 12, 5.

Jo. 12, 6.

Mk. 14, 4.

Mt. 26, 9.

Mk. 14, 5b.

Mt. 26, 10a.

Mk. 14, 6b.

Jo. 12, 7b.

Jo. 12, 8a.

Mk. 14, 7b.

Mt. 26, 12.

Mk. 14, 8b.

Mk. 14, 9.

Lk. 19, 28.

Lk. 19, 29a.

Mt. 21, 1b.

Mt. 21, 2a.

Mk. 11, 2b.

Mt. 21, 2b.

Lk. 19, 30b.

Mt. 21, 2c.

Lk. 19, 31a.

Mt. 21, 3b.

Mt. 21, 4.

Mt. 21, 5.

Jo. 12, 16.

Mt. 21, 6a.

Lk. 19, 32b.

Mt. 21, 6b.

Lk. 19, 33.

Lk. 19, 34.

Mk. 11, 6b.

Mt. 21, 7.

Mt. 21, 8.

Lk. 19, 37.

Mt. 21, 9b.(9)

Mk. 11, 10a.

Lk. 19, 38c.

104

39 34 And a great multitude, that which came to the feast, when they heard that Jesus 35 was coming to Jerusalem, took young palm branches,(1) and went forth to meet him, and cried and said, Praise: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord, the 36 King of Israel. Certain therefore of the Pharisees from among the multitudes 37 said unto him, Our Master, rebuke thy disciples. He said unto them, Verily I say unto you, If these were silent, the stones would cry out.

38, 39 And when he drew near, and saw the city, he wept over it, and said, Would that thou hadst known the things that are(2) for thy peace, in this thy day! now that is 40 hidden from thine eyes. There shall come unto thee days when thine enemies 41 shall encompass thee, and straiten thee from every quarter, and shall get possession of(3) thee, and thy children within thee; and they shall not leave in thee a stone upon another; because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation.

42 And when he entered into Jerusalem, the whole city was agitated, and they said, 43 Who is this? And the multitudes said, This is Jesus, the prophet that is from Naza- 44 reth of Galilee. And the multitude which was with him bare witness that he called 45 Lazarus from the grave, and raised him from among the dead. And for this cause great multitudes went out to meet him, because they heard the sign which he did.

Jo. 12, 12b.

Jo. 12, 13.

Lk. 19, 39.

Lk. 19, 40.

Lk. 19, 41.

Lk. 19, 42.

Lk. 19, 43.

Lk. 19, 44.

Mt. 21, 10.

Mt. 21, 11.

Jo. 12, 17.

Jo. 12, 18.

SECTION XL.

40 1 Arabic, And when Jesus entered the temple, they brought unto him blind and 2 p. 150 lame: and he healed them. But when the chief priests and the Pharisees saw the wonders that he did, and the children that were crying in the temple and 3 saying, Praise be to the Son of David: it distressed them, and they said, Hearest thou not what these say? Jesus said unto them, Yea: did ye not read long ago, From 4 the mouths of children and infants thou hast chosen my praise? And the Pharisees said one to another, Behold, do ye not see that nothing availeth us? for lo, the whole world hath followed him.

5 And there were among them certain Gentiles also, which had come up to wor- 6 ship at the feast: these therefore came to Philip, who was of Bethsaida of Galilee, 7 and asked him, and said unto him, My lord, we wish to see Jesus. And Philip 8 came and told Andrew: and Andrew and Philip told Jesus. And Jesus answered and said unto them, The hour is come nigh, in which the Son of man is to be glori- 9 fied. Verily, verily, I say unto you, A grain of wheat, if it fall not and die in the 10 earth, remaineth alone; but if it die, it beareth much fruit. He that loveth his life(4) destroyeth it; and he that hateth his life(4) in this world shall keep it unto the life eter- 11 nal. If a man serve me, he will follow me; and where I am, there shall my servant be 12 also: and whosoever serveth me, the Father will honour him. Now is my soul trou-Arabic, bled: and what shall I say? My Father, deliver me from this hour. But 13 p. 151 for this cause came I unto this hour. My Father, glorify thy name. And a 14 voice was heard from heaven, I have glorified it, and shall glorify it. And the multitude that were standing heard, and said, This is thunder: and others said, An 15 angel speaketh to him. Jesus answered and said unto them, Not because of me 16 was this voice, but because of you. Now is the judgement of this world; and the 17 prince of this world shall now be cast forth. And I, when I am lifted up from the 18 earth, shall draw every man unto me. This he said, that he might shew by what 19 manner of death he should die. The multitudes said unto him, We have heard out of the law that the Messiah abideth for ever: how then sayest thou, that the Son of 20 man is to be lifted up? who is this, the Son of man? Jesus said unto them, Another little while is the light with you. Walk so long as ye have light, test the darkness overtake you; for he that walketh in the darkness knoweth not whither he goeth. 21 So long as ye have light, believe the light, that ye may be the children of the light.

22 And when certain of the Pharisees asked of Jesus, when the kingdom of God should come, he answered and said unto them, The kingdom of God cometh not

Mt. 21, 14.

Mt. 21, 15.

Mt. 21, 16.

Jo. 12, 19.

Jo. 12, 20.

Jo. 12, 21.

Jo. 12, 22.

Jo. 12, 23.

Jo. 12, 24.

Jo. 12, 25.

Jo. 12, 26.

Jo. 12, 27.

Jo. 12, 28.

Jo. 12, 29.

Jo. 12, 30.

JO. 12, 31.

Jo. 12, 32.

Jo. 12, 33.

Jo. 12, 34.

Jo. 12, 35.

Jo. 12, 36.

Lk. 17, 20.

105

40 23 with expectation: neither shall they say, Lo, it is here! nor, Lo, it is there! for the kingdom of God is within you.

24 And in the daytime he was teaching in the temple; and at night he used to go 25 out, and pass the night in the mount called the mount of Olives.And all the people came[1] to him in the morning in the temple, to hear his word.

26, 27 Then spoke Jesus unto the multitudes and his disciples, and said unto them, On Arabic, the seat of Moses are seated the scribes and Pharisees: everything that p. 152 they say unto you now to keep, keep and do: but according to their deeds 29 do ye not; for they say, and do not. And they bind heavy burdens, and lay them on the shoulders of the people; while they with one of their fingers will not come 30, 31 near[2] them. But all their deeds they do to make a shew before men. And all the multitude were hearing that with pleasure.

32 And in the course of his teaching he said unto them, Guard yourselves from the 33 scribes, who desire to walk in robes, and love salutation in the marketplaces, and sitting in the highest places of the synagogues, and at feasts in the highest parts of 34 the rooms: and they broaden their amulets, and lengthen the cords of their cloaks, 35 and love that they should be called by men, My master, and devour widows' houses, because a of their prolonging' their prayers; these then shall receive greater judge- 36 ment. But ye, be ye not called masters:[4] for your master is one; all ye are brethren. 37 Call not then to yourselves any one[5] father on earth: for your Father is one, who is 38 in heaven. And be not called directors: for your director is one, even the Messiah. 39, 40 He that is great among you shall be unto you a minister. Whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and whosoever shall abase himself shall be exalted.

41 Woe unto you, Pharisees! because ye love the highest places in the synagogues, and salutation in the marketplaces.

42 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye devour widows' houses, because[6] of your prolonging your prayers: for this reason then ye shall receive greater judgement.

43 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye have shut the kingdom of God before men.

44 Arabic Woe unto you that know the law! for ye concealed the keys of know- p. 153 ledge: ye enter not, and those that are entering ye suffer not to enter.

45 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because[7] ye compass land and sea to draw s one proselyte; and when he is become so, ye make him a son of hell twice as much[9] as yourselves.

46 Woe unto you, ye blind! guides! because ye say, Whosoever sweareth by the temple, it is nothing; but whosoever sweareth by the gold that is in the temple, 47 shall be condemned.[10] Ye blind foolish ones: which is greater, the gold, or the 48 temple which sanctifieth the gold? And, Whosoever sweareth by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever sweareth by the offering that is upon it, shall be condemned.[10] 49 Ye blind foolish ones: which is greater, the offering, or the altar which sanctifieth 50 the offering? Whosoever then sweareth by the altar, hath sworn by it, and by all 51 that is upon it. And whosoever sweareth by the temple, hath sworn by it, and by 52 him that is dwelling in it. And whosoever sweareth by heaven, hath sworn by the throne of God, and by him that sitteth upon it.

53 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye tithe mint and rue and dill and cummin and all herbs, and ye leave the important matters of the law, judgement, and mercy, and faith, and the love of God: this ought ye to do, and 54 not to leave that undone. Ye blind guides, which strain out a gnat, and swallow n camels.

55 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye cleanse the outside

Lk. 17, 21.

Lk. 21, 37.

Lk. 21, 315.

Mt. 23, 1.

Mt. 23, 2.

Mt. 23, 3.

Mt. 23, 4.

Mt. 23, 5a.

Mk. 12, 37b.

Mk. 12, 38.

Mk. 12, 39.

Mt. 23, 5b.

Mt. 23, 7b.

Mk. 12, 40.

Mt. 23, 8.

Mt. 23, 9.

Mr. 23, 10.

Mt. 23, 11.

Mt. 23, 12.

Lk. 11, 43.

Mt. 23, 14.

Mt. 23, 13a.

Lk. 11, 52a.

Mt. 23, 13b.

Mt. 23, 15.

Mt. 23, 16.

Mt. 23, 17.

Mt. 23, 18.

Mt. 23, 19.

Mt. 23, 20.

Mt. 23, 21.

Mt. 23, 22.

Mt. 23, 23.

Mt. 23, 24.

Mt. 23, 25.

106

40 of the cup and of the platter, while the inside of them is full of injustice and wrong. 56 Ye blind Pharisees, cleanse first the inside of the cup and of the platter, then shall the outside of them be cleansed.

57 Arabic, Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye resem- p. 154 ble whited sepulchres, which appear[1] from the outside beautiful, but within 58 full of the bones of the dead, and all uncleanness. So ye also from without appear unto men like the righteous, but within ye are full of wrong and hypocrisy.

59 One of the scribes answered and said unto him, Teacher, in this saying of thine 60 thou art casting a slur on us. He said, And to you also, ye scribes, woe! for ye lade men with heavy burdens, and ye with one of your fingers come not near[2] those burdens.

61 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye build the tombs of the prophets, which your fathers killed, and adorn the burying-places of the righteous, 62 and say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we should not have been partakers 63 with them in the blood of the prophets. Wherefore, behold, ye witness against 64 yourselves, that ye are the children of those that slew the prophets. And ye also, 65 ye fill up the measure[3] of your fathers. Ye serpents, ye children of vipers, where shall ye flee from the judgement of Gehenna?

Mt. 23, 26.

Mt. 23, 27.

Mt. 23, 28.

Lk. 11, 45.

Lk. 11, 46.

Mt. 23, 29a.

Mt. 23, 29b.

Mt. 23, 29b.

Mt. 23, 30.

Mt. 23, 31.

Mt. 23, 32.

Mt. 23, 33.

SECTION XLI.

41 1 Therefore, behold, I, the wisdom of God, am sending unto you prophets, and apostles, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye shall slay and crucify; and some of them ye shall beat in your synagogues, and persecute[4] from city to 2 city: that there may come on you all the blood of the righteous that hath been poured upon the ground[5] from the blood of Abel the pure to the blood of Zachariah the son of Barachiah, whom ye slew between the temple[6] and the altar. 3 Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation,[7]

4 Arabic, O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, slayer of the prophets, and stoner of them that p. 155 are sent unto her! how many times did I wish to gather thy children, as 5 a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! Your house shall 6 be left over you desolate. Verily I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. 7 And many of the rulers also believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they 8 were not confessing him, lest they be put s out of the synagogue: and they loved 9 the praise of men more than the praising of God. And Jesus cried and said, 10 Whosoever believeth in me, believeth not in me, but in him that sent me. And 11 whosoever seeth me hath seen him that sent me. I am come a light[9] into the 12 world, and so every one that believeth in me abideth not in the darkness. And whosoever heareth my sayings, and keepeth them not, I judge him not: for I came 13 not to judge the world, but to give the world life.[10] Whosoever wrongeth[11] me, and receiveth not my sayings, there is one that judgeth him: the word that I spake, it 14 shall judge him at the last day. I from myself did not speak: but the Father which sent me, he hath given me commandment,[12] what I should say, and what I 15 should speak; and I know that his commandment[12] is eternal life. The things that I say now, as my Father hath said unto me, even so I say.

16 And when he said that unto them, the scribes and Pharisees began their evil-doing, being angry with him, and finding fault with his sayings, and harassing[13] him 17 in many things; seeking to catch something from his mouth, that they might be able to calumniate him.

18 And when there gathered together myriads of great multitudes, which almost trode

Mt. 23, 34.

Mt. 23, 35.

Mt. 23, 36.

Mt. 23, 37.

Mt. 23, 38.

Mt. 23, 39.

Jo. 12, 42.

Jo. 12, 42.

Jo. 12, 43.

Jo. 12, 45.

Jo. 12, 46.

Jo. 12, 47.

Jo. 12, 48.

Jo. 12, 49.

Jo. 12, 50.

Lk. 11, 53.

Lk. 11, 54.

Lk. 12, 1.

107

41 Arabic, one upon another, Jesus began to say unto his disciples, Preserve yourselves 19 p. 156 from the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. For there is nothing 20 concealed, that shall not be revealed: nor hid, that shall not be known. Everything that ye have said in the darkness shall be heard in the light; and what ye have spoken secretly in the ears in the inner chambers shall be proclaimed on the roofs.

21, 22 This said Jesus, and he went and hid himself from them. But notwithstanding 23 his having done all these signs before them, they believed not in him: that the word of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, who said,

My Lord, who is he that hath believed to hear us?

And the arm of the Lord, to whom hath it appeared?

24 And for this reason it is not possible for them to believe, because Isaiah also said,

25 They have blinded their eyes, and made dark their heart;

That they may not see with their eyes, and understand with their heart,

And turn,

So that I should heal them.

26 This said Isaiah when he saw his glory, and spake of him.

27 And when Jesus went out of the temple, certain of his disciples came forward 28 to shew[1] him the buildings of the temple, and its beauty and greatness, and the strength of the stones that were laid in it, and the elegance of its building, and that 29 it was adorned with noble stones and beautiful colours. Jesus answered and said 30 unto them, See ye these great buildings? verily I say unto you, Days will come,

when there shall not be left here a stone upon another, that shall not be cast down.

31 And two days before[3] the passover of unleavened bread, the chief priests and 32 the scribes sought how they might take him by deceit,[4] and kill him: and they said, It shall not be at the feast, lest the people be agitated.

33 And when Jesus sat on the mount of Olives opposite the temple, his disciples, Simon Cephas and James and John and Andrew, came forward unto him, and said unto him 34 between themselves and him, Teacher, tell us when that shall be, and what is the sign 35 Arabic, of thy coming and the end of the world. Jesus answered and said unto them, p. 157 Days will come, when ye shall long to see one of the days of the Son of 36, 37 man, and shall not behold. Take heed lest any man lead you astray. Many shall 38 come in my name, and say, I am the Messiah; and they shall say, The time is come 39 near, and shall lead many astray: go not therefore after them. And when ye hear of wars and tidings of insurrections, see to it, be[5] not agitated: for these things must 40 first be; only the end is not yet come. Nation shall rise against nation, and king- 41 dom against kingdom: and great earthquakes shall be in one place and another, and there shall be famines and deaths and agitations: and there shall be fear and terror and great signs that[6] shall appear from heaven, and there shall be great 42, 43 storms. All these things are the beginning of travail. But before all of that, they shall lay hands upon you, and persecute you, and deliver you unto the synagogues 44 and into prisons, and bring you before kings and judges for my name's sake. And 45 that shall be unto you for a witness. But first must my gospel be preached unto all 46 nations. And when they bring you into the synagogues before the rulers and the authorities, be not anxious beforehand how ye shall answer for yourselves, or what ye 47, 48 shall say: because it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Spirit. Lay it to your heart, not 49 Arabic, to be anxious before the time what ye shah say: and I shall[7] give you under- p. 158 standing and wisdom,s which all your adversaries shall not be able to gainsay. 50 And then shall they deliver you unto constraint, and shall kill you: and ye shall be 51 hated of all nations because of my name. And then shall many go astray,[9] and they 52 shall hate one another, and deliver one another unto death. And your parents, and your brethren, and your kinsfolk, and your friends shall deliver you up, and shall 53, 54 slay some of you. But a lock of hair from your heads shall not perish. And by 55 your patience ye shall gain[10] your souls. And many men,[11] false prophets, shall arise, 56 and lead many astray. And because of the abounding of iniquity, the love of many

Lk. 12, 2.

Lk. 12, 3.

Jo. 12, 36b.

Jo. 12, 37.

Jo. 12, 38.

Jo. 12, 39.

Jo. 12, 40.

Jo. 12, 41.

Mt. 24, 1.

Mk. 13, 1b.

Lk. 21, 5b.

Mt. 24, 2a.

Lk. 19, 43a.

Lk. 19, 44b.[2]

Mk. 14, 1.

Mk. 14, 2.

Mk. 13, 3.

Lk. 21, 7b.

Mt. 24, 3b.

Mt. 24, 4a.

Lk. 17, 22b.

Mt. 24, 4b.

Mt. 24, 5a.

Lk. 21, 8b.

Mk. 13, 6b.

Lk. 21, 8c.

Mk. 13, 7a.

Mt. 24, 7b.

Lk. 21, 9b.

Mt. 24, 7a.

Lk. 21. 11.

Mt. 24, 8.

Lk. 21, 12.

Lk. 21, 13.

Mk. 13, 10.

Lk. 12, 11.

Mk. 13, 11b.

Lk. 21, 14.

Lk. 21, 15.

Mt. 24, 9.

Mt. 24, 30.

Lk. 21, 16.

Lk. 21, 18.

Lk. 21, 19.

Mt, 24, 11.

Mt. 24, 12.

108

41 57 shall wax cold. But he that endureth to the end, the same shall be saved. And 58 this, the[1] gospel of the kingdom, shall be preached in all the world for a testimony to all nations; and then shall come the end of all.

Mt. 24, 13.

Mt. 24, 14.

SECTION XLII.

42 1 But when ye see Jerusalem with the army compassing it about, then know that 2 its desolation is come near. Those then that are in Judaea at that time shall flee to the mountain; and those that are within her shall flee; and those that are in the 3 villages shall not enter her. For these days are the days of vengeance, that all that 4 is written may be fulfilled. And when ye see the unclean sign of desolation,[2] spoken of in Daniel the prophet, standing in the pure place, he that readeth shall understand, 5,6 and then he that is in Judaea shall flee in to the mountain: and let him that is on the 7 roof not go down, nor enter in to take anything from his house: and let him that is in 8 Arabic, the field not turn behind him to take his garment. Woe to them that are p. 159 with child and to them that give suck in those days! there shall be great 9 distress in the land, and wrath against this nation. And they shall fall on the edge of the sword,[3] and shall be taken captive to every land: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the nations, until the times of the nations be ended.

10 Then if any man say unto you, The Messiah is here; or, Lo, he is there; believe 11 him not: there shall rise then false Messiahs and prophets of lying, and shall do signs and wonders, in order that they may lead astray even the elect also, if they 12 be able. But as for you, beware: for I have acquainted you with everything 13 beforehand. If then they say unto you, Lo, he is in the desert; go not out, lest ye 14 be taken: and if they say unto you, Lo, he is in the chamber; believe not. And as the lightning appeareth from the east, and is seen unto the west; so shall be the 15 coming of the Son of man. But first he must suffer much and be rejected by this 16 generation.[4] Pray therefore that your flight be not in winter, nor on a sabbath: 17 there shall be then great tribulation,[5] the like of which there hath not been from the 18 beginning of the world till now, nor shall be. And except the Lord had shortened those days, no flesh would have lived: but because of the elect, whom he elected, 19 he shortened those days. And there shall be signs in the sun and the moon and the stars; and upon the earth affliction[5] of the nations, and rubbing of hands for the con- 20 Arabic. fusion[6] of the noise of the sea, and an earthquake: the souls of men shall 21 p. 160 go forth from fear of that which is to come upon the earth. And in those days, straightway after the distress of those days, the sun shall become dark, and the moon shall not shew its light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers 22 of heaven shall be convulsed: and then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and at that time all the tribes of the earth shall wail, and look unto the Son 23 of man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and much glory. And he shall send his angels with the great trumpet, and they shall gather his elect from the four 24 winds, from one end of heaven to the other.[7] But when these things begin to be, be of good cheer, and lift up your heads; for your salvation [8] is come near.

25 Learn the example of the fig tree: when it letteth down its branches,[9] and put- 26 teth forth its leaves, ye know that the summer is come; so ye also, when ye see these things begun to be, know ye that the kingdom of God hath arrived at the 27 door. Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away, until all these 28 things shall be. Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my sayings shall not pass away.

29 Take heed to yourselves, that your hearts become not heavy with inordinate desire,[10] and drunkenness, and the care of the world at any time, and that day come

Lk. 21, 20.

Lk. 21, 21.

Lk. 21, 22.

Mt. 24, 15.

Mt. 24, 16.

Mk. 13, 15.

Mk. 13, 16.

Lk. 21, 23.

Lk. 21, 24.

Mk. 13, 21.

Mt. 24, 24.

Mk. 13, 23.

Mt. 24, 26.

Mt. 24, 17.

Lk. 17, 25.

Mt. 24, 20.

Mt. 24, 21.

Mk. 13, 20.

Lk. 21, 25.

Lk. 21, 26a.

Mk. 13, 24a.

Mt. 24, 29.

Mt. 24, 30.

Mt. 24, 31.

Lk. 21, 28.

Mt. 24, 32.

Mt. 24, 33.

Mt. 24, 34.

Mt. 24, 35.

Lk. 21, 34.

109

14 30 upon you suddenly: for it is as a shock that shocks all the inhabitants that are on the 31 face of the whole earth. Watch at all times, and pray, that ye may be worthy to escape Arabic. from all the things that are to be, and that ye may stand before the Son of 32 p. 161 man. Of that day and of that hour hath no man learned, not even the angels 33 of heaven, neither the Son, but the Father. See ye, and watch and pray: for ye know 34 not when that time will be. It is as a man, who journeyed, and left his house, and gave his authority to his servants, and appointed every man to his work, and 35 charged the porter to be wakeful. Be wakeful then:[1] since ye know not when the lord of the house cometh, in the evening, or in the middle of the night, or when the 36 cock croweth, or in the morning; lest he come unexpectedly, and find you sleeping. 37 The thing that I say unto you, unto all of you do I say it, Be ye watchful.

38 For as it was in the days of Noah, so shall the coming of the Son of man be. 39 As they were before the flood eating and drinking, and taking wives, and giving 40 wives to men, until the day in which Noah entered into the ark, and they perceived not till the flood came, and took them all; so shall the coming of the Son of man 41 be. And as it was in the days of Lot; they were eating and drinking, and selling 42 and buying, and planting and building, on the day in which Lot went out from Sodom, and the Lord rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them 43, 44 all: so shall it be in the day in which the Son of man is revealed.[2] And in that day, whosoever is on the roof, and his garments[3] in the house, let him not go down to 45 take them: and he that is in the field shall not turn behind him. Remember Lot's 46 wife. Whosoever shall desire to save his life shall destroy it: but whosoever shall 47 destroy his life shall save it. Verily I say unto you, In that night there shall be two on 48 Arabic, one bed; one shall be taken, and another left. And two women shall be grind- 49 p. 162 ing at one mill; one shall be taken, and another left. And two shall be in the 50 field; one shall be taken, and another left. They answered and said unto him, To what place, our Lord? He said unto them, Where the body is, there will the eagles 51, 52 gather. Be attentive now: for ye know not at what hour your Lord cometh. Know this: if the master of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have been attentive, and would not make it possible that his house should be 53 broken through. Therefore be ye also ready: for in the hour that ye think not the Son of man cometh.

Lk. 21, 35.

Lk. 21, 36.

Mk. 13, 32.

Mk. 13, 33.

Mk. 13, 34.

Mk. 13, 35.

Mk. 13, 36.

Mk. 13, 37.

Mt. 24, 37.

Mt. 24, 38.

Mt. 24, 39.

Lk. 17, 28.

Lk. 17, 29.

Lk. 17, 30.

Lk. 17, 31.

Lk. 17, 32.

Lk. 17, 33.

Lk. 17, 34.

Lk. 17, 35.

Lk. 17, 36.

Lk. 17, 37.

Mt. 24, 42.

Mt. 24, 43.

Mt. 24, 44.

SECTION XLIII.

43 1 Simon Cephas said unto him, Our Lord, is it to us that thou hast spoken this 2 parable, or also to every man? Jesus said unto him, Who, thinkest thou, is the servant, the master of the house,[5] trusted with control,[6] whom his lord set over his 3 household, to give them their food in its season? Blessed is that servant, whom his 4 lord shall come and find having done so. Verily I say unto you, He will set him 5 over all that he hath. But if that evil servant say in his heart, My lord delayeth his 6 coming; and shall begin to beat his servants and the maidservants of his lord, and 7 shall begin to eat and to drink with the drunken; the lord of that servant shall come 8 in the day that he thinketh not, and in the hour that he knoweth not, and shall Arabic, judge him, and appoint his portion with the hypocrites, and with those that p. 163 are not faithful: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

9 Then shall the kingdom of heaven be like unto ten virgins, those that took their 10 lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom and the bride. Five of them were 11 wise, and five foolish. And those foolish ones took their lamps, and took not with 12, 13 them oil: but those wise ones took oil in vessels along with their lamps. When then 14 the bridegroom delayed, they all slumbered and slept. But in the middle of the night there occurred a cry, Behold, the bridegroom cometh! Go forth therefore to 5, 16 meet him. Then all those virgins arose, and made ready their lamps. The foolish 17 said unto the wise, Give us of your oil; for our lamps are gone out. But those wise answered and said, Perhaps[7] there will not be enough for us and you: but go ye to

Lk. 12, 41.

Lk. 12, 42a.[4]

Mt. 24, 45.

Mt. 24, 46.

Lk. 12, 44a.

Mt. 24, 47b.

Mt. 24, 48.

Lk. 12, 45b.

Mt. 24, 49b.

Mt. 24, 50.

Mt. 24, 51a.

Lk. 12, 46b.

Mt. 24, 51b.

Mt. 25, 1.

Mt. 25, 2.

Mt. 25, 3.

Mt. 25, 4.

Mt. 25, 5.

Mt. 25, 6.

Mt. 25, 7.

Mt. 25, 8.

Mt. 25, 9.

110

43 18 the sellers, and buy for yourselves. And when they went away to buy, the bridegroom came; and those that were ready went in with him to the marriage feast: and 19 the door was shut. And at last those other virgins also came and said, Our Lord, 20 our Lord, open unto us. He answered and said unto them, Verily I say unto you, 21 I know you not. Watch then, for ye know not that day nor that hour.

22 It is as a man, who went on a journey, and called his servants, and delivered unto 23 them his possessions. And unto one he gave five talents,[1] and another two, and another 24 one; every one according to his strength; and went on his journey forthwith. He Arabic, then that received the five talents went and traded with them, and gained 25, 26 p. 164 other five. And so also he of the two gained other two. But he that re- 27 ceived the one went and digged in the earth, and hid the money of his lord. And after a long time the lord of those servants came, and took from them the account. 28 And he that received five talents came near and brought other five, and said, My lord, thou gavest me five talents: lo, I have gained other five in addition to them. 29 His lord said unto him, Well done, thou good and faithful servant: over a little hast 30 thou been faithful, over much will I set thee: enter into the joy of thy lord. And he that had the two came near and said, My lord, thou gavest me two talents: lo, 31 other two have I gained in addition to them. His lord said unto him, Good,[2] thou faithful servant: over a little hast thou been faithful, over much will I set thee: enter 32 into the joy of thy lord. And he also that received the one talent came forward and said, My lord, I knew thee that thou an a severe man, who reapest where thou 33 sowest not, and gatherest where thou didst not scatter: and so I was afraid, and 34 went away and hid thy talent in the earth: lo, thou hast what is thine. His lord answered and said unto him, Thou wicked and slothful servant, thou knewest me 35 that I reap where I sowed not, and gather where I did not scatter; it was incumbent on thee to put my money to the bank,[3] and then I should come and seek it with its 36 gains. Take now from him the talent, and give it to him that hath ten talents. 37 Whosoever hath shall be given, and he shall have more: but he that hath not, even 38 Arabic, what he hath shall be taken from him. And the unprofitable servant, put p. 165 him forth into the outer darkness: there shall be the weeping and gnashing of teeth.

39, 40 Your loins shall be girded, and your lamps lit; and ye shall be like the people that are looking for their lord, when he shall return from the feast; so that, when 41 he cometh and knocketh, they may at once open unto him. Blessed are those servants, whom their lord shall come and find attentive: verily I say unto you, that he will gird his waist, and make them sit down, and pass through[4] them and serve 42 them. And if he come in the second watch, or the third, and find thus, blessed are those servants.

43 But when the Son of man cometh in his glory, and all his pure angels with him, 44 then shall he sit on the throne of his glory: and he will gather before him all the nations, and separate them the one from the other, like the shepherd who separateth 45 the sheep from the goats; and will set[5] the sheep on his right, and the goats on his 46 left. Then shall the King say to those that are at his right, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundations[6] of the world: 47 I hungered, and ye gave me to eat; and I thirsted, and ye gave me to drink; and I 48 was a stranger, and ye took me in; and I was naked, and ye clothed me; and I 49 was sick, and ye visited me; and I was in prison, and ye cared for me. Then shall those righteous say unto him, Our Lord, when saw we thee hungry, and fed thee? 50 or thirsty, and gave thee to drink? And when saw we thee a stranger, and took 51 thee in? or naked, and clothed thee? And when saw we thee sick, or imprisoned, and 52 cared for thee? The King shall answer an d say[7] unto them, Verily I say unto you, What Arabic, ye did to one of these my brethren, the little ones, ye did unto me. Then 53 p. 166 shall he say unto those that are on his left also, Depart from me, ye cursed, 54 into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his hosts: I hungered, and ye fed me 55 not; and I thirsted, and ye did not give me to drink; and I was a stranger, and ye

Mt. 25, 10.

Mt. 25, 11.

Mt. 25, 12.

Mt. 25, 13.

Mt. 25, 14.

Mt. 25, 15.

Mt. 25, 16.

Mt. 25, 17.

Mt. 25, 18.

Mt. 25, 19.

Mt. 25, 20.

Mt. 25, 21.

Mt. 25, 22.

Mt. 25, 23.

Mt. 25, 24.

Mt. 25, 25.

Mt. 25, 26.

Mt. 25, 27.

Mt. 25, 28.

Mt. 25, 29.

Mt. 25, 30.

Lk. 12, 35.

Lk. 12, 36.

Lk. 12, 37.

Lk. 12, 38.

Mt. 25, 31.

Mt. 25, 32.

Mt. 25, 33.

Mt. 25, 34.

Mt. 25, 35.

Mt. 25, 36.

Mt. 25, 37.

Mt. 25, 38.

Mt. 25, 39.

Mt. 25, 40.

Mt. 25, 41.

Mt. 25, 42.

Mt. 25, 43.

111

43 took me not in; and I was naked, and ye clothed me not; and I was sick, and im- 56 prisoned, and ye visited me not. Then shall those also answer and say, Our Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, or athirst, or naked, or a stranger, or sick, or im- 57 prisoned, and did not minister unto thee? Then shall he answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, When ye did it not unto one of these little ones, ye did it not 58 unto me also. And these shall go away into eternal punishment: but the righteous into eternal life.

Mt. 25, 44.

Mt. 25, 45.

Mt. 25, 46.

SECTION XLIV.

41 1, 2 And when Jesus[1] finished all these sayings, he said unto his disciples, Ye know that after two days will be the passover, and the Son of man is delivered up to be 3 crucified. Then gathered together the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders 4 of the people, unto the court of the chief priest, who was called Caiaphas; and they took counsel together concerning Jesus, that they might seize him by subtilty, and 5 kill him. But they said, Not during the feast, lest there take place a disturbance among the people; for they feared the people.

6 And Satan entered into Judas who was called Iscariot, who was of the number 7 of the twelve. And he went away, and communed with the chief priests, and the scribes, and those that held command in the temple, and said unto them, What 8 Arabic, would ye pay me, and I will deliver him unto you? And they, when they p. 167 heard it, were pleased, and made ready[2] for him thirty pieces of money.[3] 9 And he promised[4] them, and from that time he sought an opportunity[5] that he might deliver unto them Jesus without the multitude. And on the first day of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus, and said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and make ready for thee that thou mayest eat the passover?

11 And before the feast of the passover, Jesus knew that the hour was arrived for his departure from this world unto his Father; and he loved his own in this world, 12 and to the last he loved them. And at the time of the feast, Satan put into the 13 heart of Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot, to deliver him up. And Jesus, because he knew that the Father had delivered into his hands everything, and that he came 14 forth from the Father, and goeth unto God, rose from supper, and laid aside his 15 garments; and took a towel, and girded his waist, and poured water into a bason, and began to wash the feet of his disciples, and to wipe them with the towel where- 16 with his waist was girded. And when he came to Simon Cephas, Simon said unto 17 him, Dost thou, my Lord, wash for me my feet? Jesus answered and said unto 18 him, What I do, now thou knowest not; but afterwards thou shall learn. Simon said unto him, Thou shalt never wash for me my feet. Jesus said unto him, If I 19 wash thee not, thou hast no part with me. Simon Cephas said unto him, Then, my 20 Lord, wash not for me my feet alone, but my hands also and my head. Jesus said unto him, He that batheth[6] needeth not to wash save his feet, whereas his whole 21 body is clean: and ye also are clean, but not all of you. For Jesus knew him that should betray him; therefore said he, Ye are not all clean.

22 Arabic. So when he had washed their feet, he took his garments, and sat down, and 23 p. 168 said unto them, Know ye what I have done unto you? Ye call me, Master, 24 and, Lord: and ye say well; so I am. If then I, now, who am your Lord and Master, have washed for you your feet, how needful is it that ye should wash one another's feet! 25 This have I given you as an example, that as I have done to you so ye should do 26 also. Verily, verily, I say unto you, No servant is greater than his lord; nor an 27 apostle greater than he that sent him. If ye know that, ye are happy if ye do it. 28 My saying this[7] is not for all of you: for I know whom I have chosen: but that the scripture might be fulfilled, He that eateth with me bread lifted against me his

Mt. 26, 1.

Mt. 26, 2.

Mt. 26, 3.

Mt. 26, 4.

Mt. 26, 5.

Lk. 22, 2b.

Lk. 22, 3.

Lk. 22, 4a.

Mt. 26, 15a.

Mk. 14, 11a.

Mt. 26, 15b.

Lk. 22, 6.

Mk. 14, 12.

Jo. 13, 1.

Jo. 13, 2.

Jo. 13, 3.

Jo. 13, 4.

Jo. 13, 5.

Jo. 13, 6.

Jo. 13, 7.

Jo. 13, 8.

Jo. 13, 9.

Jo. 13, 10.

Jo. 13, 11.

Jo. 13, 12.

Jo. 13, 13.

Jo. 13, 14.

Jo. 13, 15.

Jo. 13, 16.

Jo. 13, 17.

Jo. 13, 18.

112

44 29 heel. Henceforth I say unto you before it come to pass, that, when it cometh to 30 pass, ye may believe that I am he. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever receiveth whomsoever I send receiveth me; and whosoever receiveth me receiveth him that sent me.

31 Who is the great one, he that sitteth, or he that serveth? is it not he that sitteth? 32 I am among you as he that serveth. But ye are they that have continued with me 33 in my temptations; I promise[1] you, as my Father promised[1] me, the kingdom, that ye may eat and drink at the table of my kingdom.

34 And the first day[2] came, the feast of unleavened bread, on which the Jews were 35 wont[3] to sacrifice[4] the passover. And Jesus sent two of his disciples, Cephas and John, and said unto them, Go and make ready for us the passover, that we may eat. 36, 37 And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we make ready for thee? He said unto them, Go, enter the city; and at the time of your entering, there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water; follow him, and the place where he entereth, say 38 to such an one, the master of the house, Our Master saith, My time is come, and Arabic, at thy house I keep the passover. Where then is the lodging-place where 39 p. 169 I shall eat with my disciples? And he will shew you a large upper room 40 spread and made ready: there then make ready for us. And his two disciples went out, and came to the city, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover as he had said unto them.

41 And when the evening was come, and the time arrived, Jesus came and reclined, 42 and the twelve apostles with him. And he said unto them, With desire I have 43 desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer: I say unto you, that henceforth I shall not eat it, until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.

44 Jesus said that, and was agitated s in his spirit, and testified, and said, Verily, 45 verily, I say unto you, One of you, he that eateth with me, shall betray me. And they were very sorrowful; and they began to say unto him, one after another of 46 them, Can it be 1, Lord? He answered and said unto them, One of the twelve, 47 he that dippeth his hand with me in the dish, will betray me. And Io, the hand of 48 him that betrayeth me is on the table. And the Son of man goeth, as it is written of him: woe then to that man by whose hand the Son of man is betrayed! for it 49 would have been better for that man had he not been born. And the disciples 50 looked one on another, for they knew not to whom he referred; and they began to search among themselves, who that might be who was to do this.

Jo. 13, 19.

Jo. 13, 20.

Lk. 22, 27.

Lk. 22, 28.

Lk. 22, 29.

Lk. 22, 30.

Lk. 22, 7.

Lk. 22, 8.

Lk. 22. 9.

Lk. 22, 10a.

Mk. 14, 13b.

Lk. 22, 10b.

Lk. 22, 11a.

Mt. 26, 18b.

Lk. 22, 11b.

Lk. 22, 12.

Mk. 14, 15.

Mk. 14, 16.

Lk. 22, 14.

Lk. 22, 15.

Lk. 22, 16.

Jo 13, 21a.

Mk. 14, 18b.

Mk. 14, 19.

Mk. 14, 20.

Lk. 22, 21.

Mk. 14, 21.

Jo. 13, 22.

Lk. 22, 23.

SECTION XLV.

45 1, 2 Arabic,And one of his disciples was sitting[6] in his bosom, he whom Jesus loved. p. 170 To him Simon Cephas beckoned, that he should ask him who this was, con- 3 cerning whom he spake. And that disciple leaned[7] on Jesus' breast, and said unto him, 4 My Lord, who is this? Jesus answered and said, He to whom I shall dip bread, and give it. And Jesus dipped bread, and gave to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot. 5 And after the bread, Satan entered him. And Jesus said unto him, What thou 6 desirest to do, hasten the doing of it. And no man of them that sat knew why he 7 said this unto him. And some of them thought, because Judas had the box, that he was bidding him buy what would be needed for the feast; or, that he might pay 8 something to the poor. Judas the betrayer answered and said, Can it be I, my 9 Master? Jesus said unto him, Thou hast said. And Judas took the bread straightway, and went forth without: and it was still night.

10 And Jesus said, Now is the Son of man being glorified,[8] and God is being glorified[8] 11 in him; and if God is glorified in him, God also will glorify him in him, and straightway will glorify him. 12 And while they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and divided; and he

Jo. 13, 23.

Jo. 13, 24.

Jo. 13, 25.

Jo. 13, 26.

Jo. 13, 27.

Jo. 13, 28.

Jo. 13, 29.

Mt. 26, 25.

Jo. 13, 30.

Jo. 13, 31.

Jo. 13, 32.

Mk. 14, 22a.

Mt. 26, 26b.

113

45 13 gave to his disciples, and said unto them, Take and eat; this is my body. And he Arabic, took a cup, and gave thanks, and blessed, and gave them, and said, Take 14, 15 p. 171 and drink of it, all of you. And they drank of it, all of them. And he said unto them, This is my blood, the new covenant, that is shed for many for the 16 forgiveness of sins. I say unto you, I shall not drink henceforth of this, the juice of the vine, until the day in which I drink(1) with you new wine in the kingdom of 17 God. And thus do ye in remembrance of me. And Jesus said unto Simon, Simon, 18 behold, Satan asketh that he may sift you like wheat: but I entreat(2) for thee, that thou lose not thy faith:(3) and do thou, at some time, turn(4) and strengthen thy brethren. My children, another little while am I with you. And ye shall seek me: and as 20 I said unto the Jews, Whither I go, ye cannot come; I say unto you now also. A new commandment I give you, that ye may love one another; and as I have loved 21 you, so shall ye also love one another. By this shall every man know that ye are 22 my disciples. if ye have love one to another. Simon Cephas said unto him, Our Lord, whither goest thou? Jesus answered and said unto him, Whither I go, thou canst not now follow me; but later thou shall come.

23 Then said Jesus unto them, Ye all shall desert(5) me this night:(6) it is written, I 24 will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered. But after my 25 rising, I shall go before you into Galilee. Simon Cephas answered and said unto 26 him, My Lord, if every man desert thee, I shall at no time desert thee. I am with thee ready for imprisonment and for death. And my life will I give up for thee. 27 Arabic, Jesus said unto him, Wilt thou give up thy life for me? Verily, verily, p. 172 I say unto thee, Thou shall to-day, during this night, before the cock crow 28 twice, three times deny me, that thou knowest me not. But Cephas said the more,(7) Even if it lead to(8) death with thee, I shall not deny thee, my Lord. And in like manner said all the disciples also.

Then Jesus said unto them, Let not your hearts be troubled:(9) believe in God, 30 and believe in me. The stations(10) in my Father's house are many, else I should 31 have told(11) you. I(12) go to prepare for you a place. And if I go to prepare for you a place, I shall return again, and take you unto me: and so where I am, there ye 32, 33 shall be also. And the place that I go ye know,(13) and the way ye know.(13) Thomas said unto him, Our Lord, we know not whither thou goest; and how is the way for 34 us to the knowledge of that?(14) Jesus said unto him, I am the way, and the truth, 35 and the life: and no man cometh unto my Father, but through me. And if ye had known me, ye should have known my Father: and from henceforth ye know(15) him, 36 and have seen him. Philip(16) said unto him, Our Lord, shew us the Father, and it suf- 37 ficeth us. Jesus said unto him, Have I been all this time with you, and dost thou not know(17) me, Philip?(18) whosoever hath seen me hath seen the Father; how then sayest 38 thou, Shew us the Father? Believest thou not that I am in my Father, and my Father in me? and the saying that I say, I say not of myself: but my Father who dwelleth in 39 me, he doeth these deeds. Believe that I am in my Father, and my Father in me: 40 Arabic, or else believe for the sake of the deeds. Verily, verily, I say unto you, p. 173 Whosoever believeth in me, the deeds that I do shall he do also; and 41 more than that shall he do: I go unto the Father. And what ye shall ask in my 42 name, I shall do unto you, that the Father may be glorified in his Son. And if ye 43, 44 ask me is in my name, I will do it. If ye love me, keep my commandments. And I will entreat of my Father, and he will send unto you another Paraclete, that he 45 may be with you for ever, even the Spirit of truth: whom the world cannot receive; for it hath not seen him, nor known him: but ye know him; for he hath dwelt(19)

Mk. 14, 23a.

Mt. 26, 27b.

Mk. 14, 23b.

Mk. 14, 24a.

Mt. 26, 28.

Mt. 26, 29.

Lk. 22, 19b.

Lk. 22, 31.

Lk. 22, 32.

Jo. 13, 33.

Jo. 13, 34.

Jo. 13, 35.

Jo. 13, 36.

Mt. 26, 31.

Mt. 26, 32.

Mt. 26, 33.

Lk. 22, 33b.

Jo. 13, 37b.

Jo. 13, 38a.

Mk. 14, 30b.

Lk. 22, 34b.

Mk. 14, 31.

Jo. 14, 1.

Jo. 14, 2.

Jo. 14, 3.

Jo. 14, 4.

Jo. 14, 5.

Jo. 14, 6.

Jo. 14, 7.

Jo. 14, 8.

Jo. 14, 9.

Jo. 14, 10.

Jo. 14, 11

Jo. 14, 12.

Jo. 14, 13.

Jo. 14, 14

Jo. 14, 15.

Jo. 14, 16.

Jo. 14, 17.

114

45 46 with you, and is in you. I will not leave you orphans: I will come unto you. 47 Another little while, and the world seeth me not; but ye see me that I live, and ye 48 shall live also. And in that day ye shall know that I am in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you.

Jo. 14, 18.

Jo. 14, 19.

Jo. 14, 20.

SECTION XLVI.

46 1 Whosoever hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will 2 shew myself unto him. Judas (not Iscariot) said unto him, My Lord, what is the 3 purpose of thy intention to shew thyself to us, and not to the world? Jesus answered and said unto him, Whosoever loveth me will keep my word: and my Father will love him, and to him will we come, and make our(1) abode with him. 4 But he that loveth me not keepeth not my word: and this word that ye hear is not my word, but the Father's which sent me.

5, 6 This have I spoken unto you, while I was yet with you. But the Paraclete, the Holy Spirit, whom my Father will send in my name, he will teach you everything, and 7 Arabic, he will bring to your remembrance all that I say unto you. Peace I leave you; p. 174 my peace I give unto you: and not as this world giveth, give I unto you. 8 Let your heart not be troubled,(2) nor fearful. Ye heard that I said unto you, that I go away, and come unto you. If(3) ye loved me, ye would rejoice, that I go away to my 9 Father: for my Father is greater than I. And now I say unto you before it come 10 to pass, that, when it cometh to pass, ye may believe me. Now I will not speak with you much: the Archon of the world will come, and he will have nothing in 11 me: but that the world may know that I love my Father, and as my Father charged me, so I do.

12 And he said unto them, When I sent you without purses, or wallets, and shoes,(4) 13 lacked ye perchance anything? They said unto him, Nothing. He said unto them, Henceforth, whosoever hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise the wallet also: and whosoever hath not a sword, shall sell his garment, and buy for himself a 14 sword. I say unto you, that this scripture also must be fulfilled in me, that I should be reckoned(5) with the transgressors: for all that is said of me is fulfilled in 15 me. His disciples said unto him, Our Lord, lo, here are two swords. He said 16 unto them, They are sufficient. Arise, let us go hence. And they arose, and praised, and went forth, and went, according to their custom, to the mount of Olives, he and his disciples.

17 And he said unto them, I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman. 18 Every branch that produceth not fruit in me, he taketh it: and that which giveth fruit, 19 he cleanseth it, that it may give much fruit. Ye are already clean because of the word 20 that I have spoken unto you. Abide in me, and I in you. And as the branch of the Arabic, vine cannot produce fruit of itself, if it be not abiding in the vine; so too ye 21 p. 175 also, if ye abide not in me. I am the vine, and ye are the branches: He then that abideth in me, and I in him, he giveth much fruit: for without me ye can- 22 not do anything. And if a man abide not in me, he is cast without, like a withered 23 branch; and it is gathered, and cast(6) into the fire, that it may be burned. If ye abide in me, and my word abide in you, everything that ye desire to ask shall be 24 done unto you. And herein is the Father glorified, that ye may give much fruit; 25 and ye shall be my disciples. And as my Father loved me, I loved you also: 26 abide in my love. If ye keep my commands, ye shall abide in my love; as I have 27 kept my Father's commands, and abode in his love. I have spoken that unto you, 28 that my joy(7) may be in you, and your joy(7) be fulfilled. This is my commandment, 29 that ye love one another, as I loved you. And no love is greater than this, namely, 30 that a man should give his life for his friends. Ye are my friends, if ye do all that 31 I command you. I call you not now servants; for the servant knoweth not what

Jo. 14, 21.

Jo. 14, 22.

Jo. 14, 23.

Jo. 14, 24.

Jo. 14, 25.

Jo 14, 26.

Jo. 14, 27.

Jo. 14, 28.

Jo. 14, 29.

Jo. 14, 30.

Jo. 14, 31a.

Lk. 22, 35.

Lk. 22, 36.

Lk. 22, 37.

Lk. 22, 38.

Jo. 14, 31b.

Lk. 22, 39.

Jo. 15, 1.

Jo. 15, 2.

Jo. 15, 3.

Jo, 15, 4.

Jo. 15, 5.

Jo. 15, 6.

Jo. 15, 7.

Jo. 15, 8.

Jo. 15, 9.

Jo. 15, 10.

Jo. 15, 11.

Jo. 15, 12.

Jo. 15, 13.

Jo. 15, 14.

Jo. 15, 15.

115

46 his lord doeth: my friends have I now called you; for everything that I heard from 32 my Father I have made known unto you. Ye did not choose(1) me, but I chose I you, and appointed you, that ye also should go and bear fruit, and that your fruit should(2) 33 abide; and that all that ye shall ask my Father in my name, he may(2) give you. This 34 I command(3) you, that ye love one another. And if the world hate you, know that 35 before you it hated me. If then ye were of the world, the world would love its own: but ye are not of the world: I chose you out of the world: therefore the world 36 Arabic, hateth you. Remember the word that I said unto you, that no servant is p. 176 greater than his lord. And if they persecuted(4) me, you also will they 37 persecute;(4) and if they kept my word, your word also will they keep. But all these things will they do unto you for my name's sake, for they have not known(5) him 38 that sent me. And if I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin: 39 but now they have no excuse for their sins. Whosoever hateth me, also hateth my 40 Father. And if I had not done the deeds before them that no other man did, they would not have had sin: but now they have seen and hated me and my Father 41 also: that the word may be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me for 42 nothing. But when the Paraclete is come, whom I will send unto you from my Father, even the Spirit of truth, which goeth forth from my Father, he shall bear witness of 43 me: and ye also bear witness, because from the beginning ye have been with me.

44, 45 I have said that unto you, that ye may not stumble.(6) And they shall put you out of their synagogues: and there cometh an(7) hour when every one that killeth 46 you shall think that he hath offered unto God an offering. And they will do that, 47 because they do not know me, nor my Father. I have said that unto you, so that 48 when its time is come, ye may remember it, that I told you. And this hitherto I said not unto you, because I was with you. But(8) now I go unto him that sent me; and no 49 man of you asketh me whither I go. I have said that unto you now, and grief hath 50 come and taken possession of your hems. But I say the truth unto you; It is better(9) for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Paraclete will not come unto you; 51 Arabic, but if I go away, I will send him unto you. And when he cometh, he p. 177 will reprove the world for sin, and for righteousness, and for judgement: 52, 53 for sin, because they have not believed in me; and for righteousness, because I go 54 to my Father; and for judgement, because(10) the Archon of this world hath been 55 judged. And further have I many things to speak unto you, but ye cannot tarry(11) 56 now. Howbeit(12) when the Spirit of truth is come, he will remind(13) you of all the truth: he will say nothing from himself; but everything that he heareth, that shall 57 he say: and he shall make known unto you the things that are to be. And he shall 58 glorify me; for from me shall he take and shew you. All that my Father hath is mine: therefore said I unto you, that he taketh(14) of mine, and shall shew(14) you.

Jo. 15, 16.

Jo. 15, 17.

Jo. 15. 18.

Jo. 15, 19.

Jo. 15, 20.

Jo. 15, 21.

Jo. 15, 22.

Jo. 15, 23.

Jo. 15, 24.

Jo. 15, 25.

Jo. 15, 26.

Jo. 15, 27.

Jo. 16, 1

Jo. 16, 2.

Jo. 16, 3.

Jo. 16, 4.

Jo. 16, 5.8

Jo. 16, 6.

Jo. 16, 7.

Jo. 16, 8.

Jo. 16, 9

Jo. 16, 10.

Jo. 16, 11.

Jo. 16, 12.

Jo. 16, 13.

Jo. 16, 14.

Jo. 16, 15.

SECTION XLVII.

47 1 A little while, and ye shall not behold me; and a little while again, and ye shall 2 behold me; because I go to the Father. His disciples therefore said one to another, What is this that he hath said unto us, A little while, and ye shall not behold me; and a little while again, and ye shall behold me: and, I go to my Father? And they said, What is this little while that he hath said? We know not what he speaketh. And Jesus perceived that they were seeking to ask him, and said unto them, Do ye inquire among yourselves concerning this, that I said unto you, A little while, and ye behold me not, and a little while again, and ye shall behold me? Verily, verily,(15) I say unto you, that ye shall weep and grieve, but the world shall rejoice: and ye shall be sorrowful, but your grief shall turn(16) to joy.

Jo. 16, 16.

Jo. 16, 17.

Jo. 16, 18.

Jo. 16, 19.

Jo. 16, 20.

116

47 6 For, a woman when the time is come for her that she should bring forth, the arrival of the day of her bringing forth distresseth her: but whenever she hath brought forth a son, she remembereth not her distress, for joy at the birth of a man into the 7 world. And ye now also grieve: but I shall see you, and your hearts shall rejoice, 8 Arabic, and your joy no man taketh from you. And in that day ye shall ask me p. 178 nothing. And verily, verily,[1] I say unto you, All that ye ask my Father 9 in my name, he will give you. Hitherto ye have asked nothing in my name: ask, and ye shall receive, that your joy may be complete.

10 I have spoken unto you now in aenigmas:[2] but there will come an hour when a I shall not speak to you in aenigmas,[2] but shall reveal unto you the Father plainly, 11 in that day when[4] ye shall ask in my name: and I say not unto you, that I shall 12 entreat the Father for you; for the Father loveth you, because ye have loved me, 13 and have believed that I came forth from my Father. I came forth from my Father, and came into the world: and I leave the world, and go unto my Father. 14 His disciples said unto him, Lo, thy speech is now plain, and thou hast not said one 15 thing in an aenigma. Now, lo, we know that thou knowest everything, and needest not that any man should ask thee: and by this we believe that thou camest forth 16, 17 from God. Jesus said unto them, Believe that an hour cometh, and lo, it hath come, and ye shall be scattered, every one of you to his place, and shall leave me 18 alone: and yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me. This have I said unto you, that in me ye may have peace. And in the world trouble shall overtake you: but be of good courage; for I have overcome the world.

19 This said Jesus, and lifted up his eyes unto heaven, and said, My Father, the hour 20 is come; glorify thy Son, that thy Son may glorify thee: as thou gavest him authority over all flesh, that all that thou hast given him, he might give them[5] eternal life. And this is eternal life, that they should[6] know that thou alone art true God, and that he 22 Arabic, whom thou didst send is Jesus the Messiah.[7] I glorified thee in the earth, 23 P. 179 and the work which thou gavest me to do I have accomplished. And now glorify thou me, O Father, beside thee, with that glory which I had with thee 24 before the world was. I made known thy name to the men whom thou gavest me out of the world: thine they were, and thou gavest them to me; and they have kept 25, 26 thy word. Now they[8] know that all that thou hast given me is from thee: and the sayings which thou gavest me I have given unto them; and they received them, and knew of a truth that I came forth from thee, and believed that thou didst send me. 27 And I ask for their sake: and my asking is not for the world, but for those whom 28 thou hast given me; for they are thine: and all that is mine is thine, and all that is 29 thine is mine: and I am glorified in them. And now I am not in the world, and they are in the world, and I come to thee. My[9] holy Father, keep them in thy 30 name which[10] thou hast given unto me, that they may be one, as we are. When I was with them in the world, I kept them in thy name: and I kept those whom thou gavest unto me: and no man of them hath perished, but the son of perdition; that 31 the scripture might be fulfilled. Now I come to thee: and this I say in the world, 32 that my joy may be complete in them. I have given them thy word; and the world 33 hated them, because they were not of the world, as I was not of the world. And I ask not this, that thou take them from the world, but that thou keep them from the 34, 35 evil one. They were not of the world, as I was not of the world. O Father, sanctify 36 them in thy truth: for thy word is truth. And as thou didst send me into the world, I 37 Arabic, also send them into the world. And for their sake I sanctify myself, that they 38 P. 180 also may be sanctified in the truth. Neither for these alone do I ask, but for 39 the sake of them that believe in me through their word; that they may be all one;

Jo. 16, 21.

Jo. 16, 22.

Jo. 16, 23.

Jo. 16, 24.

Jo. 16, 25.

Jo. 16, 26.

Jo. 16, 27.

Jo. 16, 28.

Jo. 16, 29.

Jo. 16, 30.

Jo. 16, 31.

Jo. 16, 32.

Jo. 16, 33.

Jo. 17 ,1.

Jo. 17, 2.

Jo. 17, 3.

Jo. 17, 4.

Jo. 17, 5.

Jo. 17, 6.

Jo. 17, 7.

Jo. 17, 8.

Jo. 17, 9.

Jo. 17, 10.

Jo. 17, 11.

Jo. 17, 12.

Jo. 17, 13.

Jo. 17, 14.

Jo. 17, 15.

Jo. 17, 16.

Jo. 17, 17.

Jo. 17, 18.

Jo. 17, 19.

Jo. 17. 20.

Jo. 17, 21.

117

47 as thou art in me, and I in thee, and so they also shall be one in us: that the world 40 may believe that thou didst send me. And the glory which thou hast given unto 41 me I have given unto them; that they may be one, as we are one; I in them, and thou in me, that they may be perfect into[1] one; and that the world may know that 42 thou didst send me, and that I[2] loved them, as thou lovedst me. Father, and those whom thou hast given me, I wish that, where I am, they may be with me also; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given me: for thou lovedst me before 43 the foundation[3] of the world. My righteous Father,[4] and the world knew thee not, 44 but I know thee; and they knew that thou didst send me; and I made known unto them thy name, and will make it known to them; that the love wherewith thou lovedst me may be in them, and I shall[5] be in them.

Jo. 17, 22.

Jo. 17, 23.

Jo. 17, 24

Jo. 17, 25.

Jo. 17, 26.

SECTION XLVIII.

48 1 This said Jesus, and went forth with his disciples to a place which was called Gethsemane,[6] on[7] the side that is in the plain[8] of Kidron, the mountain,[9] the place 2 in which was a garden; and he entered thither, he and his disciples. And Judas the 3 betrayer knew that place: for Jesus oft-times met with his disciples there. And when Jesus came to the place, he said to his disciples, Sit ye here, so that I may go and pray; 4, 5 Arabic, and pray ye, that ye enter not into temptations. And he took with him p. 181 Cephas and the sons of Zebedee together, James and John; and he began to 6 look sorrowful, and to be anxious. And he said unto them, My soul is distressed unto 7 death: abide ye here, and watch with me. And he withdrew from them a little, 8 the space of a stone's throw; and he kneeled,[10] and fell on his face, and prayed, so 9 that, if it were possible, this hour might pass[11] him. And he said, Father, thou art able for all things; if thou wilt, let this cup pass me: but let not my will be done, 10 but let thy will be done. And he came to his disciples, and found them sleeping; 11 and he said unto Cephas, Simon, didst thou sleep? Could ye thus not for one hour 12 watch with me? Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptations: the spirit is 13 willing and ready, but the body is weak.[12] And he went again a second time, and prayed, and said, My Father, if it is not possible with regard to[13] this cup that it pass, 14 except I drink it, thy will be done. And he returned again, and found his disciples sleeping, for their eyes were heavy from their grief and anxiety; and they knew not 15 what to say to him. And he left them, and went away again, and prayed a third 16 time, and said the very same word. And there appeared unto him an angel from 17 heaven, encouraging him. And being afraid[14] he prayed continuously:[15] and his sweat[16] Arabic, became like a stream of blood, and fell on the ground. Then he rose from 19 p. 182 his prayer, and came to his disciples, and found them sleeping. And he 20 said unto them, Sleep now, and rest: the end hath arrived,[16] and the hour hath come; 21 and behold, the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. Arise, let us go:[17] for he hath come that betrayeth me.

22 And while he was still speaking, came Judas the betrayer, one of the twelve, and with him a great multitude carrying lanterns and torches[18] and swords and staves, from the chief priests and scribes and eiders of the people, and with him the foot- 23 soldiers of the Romans.[19] And Judas the betrayer gave them a sign, and said, He whom I shall kiss, he is he: take him with care,[20] and lead him away.[21]

Jo. 18, 1.

Jo. 18, 2.

Lk. 22, 40a.

Mt. 26, 36b.

Lk. 22, 40b.

Mt. 26, 37.

Mt. 26, 38.

Lk. 22, 41a.

Mk. 14, 35b.

Mk. 14, 36a.

Lk. 22, 42b.

Mt. 26, 40a.

Mk. 14, 37b.

Mt. 26, 40b.

Mt. 26, 41a.

Mt. 14, 38b.

Mt. 26, 42.

Mk. 14, 40.

Mt. 26, 44.

Lk. 22, 43.

Lk. 22, 44.

Lk. 22, 45a.

Lk. 22, 46.

Mt. 26, 45b.

Mk. 14, 41b.

Mt. 26, 46b.

Mt. 26, 46b.

Mt. 26, 47.

Mt. 26, 48.

Mk. 14, 44b.

118

48 24 And Jesus, because he knew everything that should come upon him, went forth 25 unto them. And immediately Judas the betrayer came to Jesus, and said, Peace, 26 my Master; and kissed him. And Jesus said unto him, Judas, with a kiss betrayest 27 thou the Son of man? Was it for that thou camest, my friend? And Jesus said 28 to those that came unto him, Whom seek ye? They said unto him, Jesus the Nazarene. Jesus said unto them, I am he. And Judas the betrayer also was standing 29 with them. And when Jesus said unto them, I am he, they retreated backward, and 30 fell to the ground. And Jesus asked them again, Whom seek ye? They answered, 31 Jesus the Nazarene. Jesus said unto them, I told you that I am he: and if ye seek 32 me, let these go away: that the word might be fulfilled which he spake, Of those 33 Arabic whom thou hast given me I lost not even one. Then came those that were p. 183 with Judas, and seized Jesus, and took him.

34 And when his disciples saw what happened, they said, Our Lord, shall we smite 35 them with swords? And Simon Cephas had a sword, and he drew it, and struck the servant of the chief priest, and cut off his right ear. And the name of that ser- 36 vant was Malchus. Jesus said unto Cephas, The cup which my Father hath given 37 me, shall I not drink it? Put the sword into its sheath: for all that take with[1] the 38 sword shall die by the sword. Thinkest[2] thou that I am not able to ask of my 39 Father, and he shall now raise up for me more than[3] twelve tribes of angels? Then 40 how should the scriptures which were spoken be fulfilled, that thus it must be? Your 41 leave in this.[4] And he touched the ear of him that was struck, and healed it. And in that hour Jesus said to the multitudes, As they come out against a thief are ye come out against me with swords and staves to take me? Daily was I with you in 42 the temple sitting teaching, and ye took me not: but this is your hour, and the power 43 of darkness. And that was, that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled. 44 Then the disciples all left him, and fled. And the footsoldiers and the officers 45 and the soldiers[5] of the Jews seized Jesus, and came. And a certain[6] young man 46 followed him, and he was wrapped in a towel, naked: and they seized him; so he 47 Arabic, left the towel, and fled naked. Then they took Jesus, and bound him, and p. 184 brought him to Annas first; because he was the father in law of Caiaphas, 48 who was chief priest that year. And Caiaphas was he that counselled the Jews, that it was necessary that one man should die instead of the people.

49 And Simon Cephas and one of the other disciples followed Jesus. And the chief 50 priest knew that disciple, and he entered with Jesus into the court; but Simon was standing without at the door. And that other disciple, whom the chief priest knew, 51 went out and spake unto her that kept the door, and she brought Simon in. And when the maid that kept the door saw Simon, she looked stedfastly at him, and said unto him, Art not thou also one of the disciples of this man, I mean Jesus the 52 Nazarene? But he denied, and said, Woman, I know him not, neither know I even 53 what thou sayest. And the servants and the soldiers rose, and made a fire in the 54 middle of the court, that they might warm themselves; for it was cold. And when 55 the fire burned up, they sat down around it. And Simon also came, and sat down with them to warm himself, that he might see the end of what should happen.

Jo. 18, 4a.

Mt. 26, 49.

Mt. 26, 50a.

Lk. 22, 48b.

Mt. 26, 50b.

Lk. 22, 52a, c.

Jo. 18, 5.

Jo. 18, 6.

Jo. 18, 7.

Jo. 18, 8.

Jo. 18, 9.

Mt. 26, 50c.

Lk. 22, 49.

Jo. 18, 10.

Jo. 18, 11a.

Jo. 18, 11c.

Mt. 26, 53.

Mt. 26, 54.

Lk. 22, 51b.

Mt. 26, 55.

Lk. 22, 53b.

Mt. 26, 56.

Jo. 18, 12a.

Mk. 14, 51.

Mk. 14, 52.

Jo. 18, 12b.

Jo, 18, 13.

Jo. 18, 14.

Jo. 18, 15.

Jo. 18, 16.

Jo. 18, 17a.

Lk. 22, 57.

Mk. 14, 68b.

Jo. 18, 18a.

Lk. 22, 55a.

Jo. 18, 18c.

Mt. 26, 58b.

SECTION XLIX.

49 1, 2 And the chief priest asked Jesus about his disciples, and about his doctrine.[7] And Jesus said unto him, I was speaking[8] openly to the people; and I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, where all the Jews gather; and I have spoken nothing in 3 Arabic, secret. Why askest thou me? ask those that have heard, what I spake unto 4 p. 185 them: for they know all that I said. And when he had said that, one of the soldiers which were standing there struck the cheek[9] of Jesus, and said unto him,

Jo. 18, 19.

Jo. 18, 20.

Jo. 18, 21.

Jo. 18, 22.

119

49 5 Dost thou thus answer the chief priest? Jesus answered and said unto him, If I 6 have spoken evil, bear witness of evil:[1] but if well, why didst thou smite me? And Annas sent Jesus bound unto Caiaphas the chief priest.

7 And when Jesus went out, Simon Cephas was standing in the outer court warm- 8 ing himself. And that maid saw him again, and began to say to those that stood 9 by, This man also was there with Jesus the Nazarene. And those that stood by 10 came forward and said to Cephas, Truly thou art one of his disciples. And he 11 denied again with an oath, I know not the man. And after a little one of the servants of the chief priest, the kinsman of him whose ear Simon cut off, saw him; and 12 he disputed[2] and said, Truly this matt was with him: and he also is a Galilaean; 13 and his speech resembles.[3] And he said unto Simon, Did not I see thee with him 14 in the garden? Then began Simon to curse,[4] and to swear, I know not this man 15 whom ye have mentioned. And immediately, while he was speaking, the cock crew 16 twice. And in that hour Jesus turned, he being without, and looked stedfastly at Cephas. And Simon remembered the word of our Lord, which he said unto him, 17, 18 Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. And Simon went forth without, and wept bitterly.

19 Arabic, And when the morning approached, the servants of all the chief priests p. 186 and the scribes and the elders of the people and all the multitude assembled, 20, 21 and made a plot; and they took counsel against Jesus to put him to death. And they sought false witnesses who should witness against him, that they might put him to 22, 23 death, and they found not; but many false witnesses came, but their witness did not 24, 25 agree. But at last there came two lying witnesses, and said, We heard him say, I will destroy this[5] temple of God that is made with hands, and will build another not 26, 27 made with hands after three days. And not even so did their witness agree. But Jesus was silent. And the chief priest rose in the midst, and asked Jesus, and said, 28 Answerest thou not a word concerning anything? what do these[6] witness against 29, 30 thee? But Jesus was silent, and answered him nothing. And they took him up 31 into their assembly,[7] and said unto him, If thou art the Messiah, tell us. He said 32 unto them, If I tell you, ye will not believe me: and if I ask you, ye will not answer 33 me a word, nor let me go. And the chief priest answered and said unto him, I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou art the Messiah, the

34, 35 Son of the living God. Jesus said unto him, Thou hast said that I am he. They all said unto him, Then thou art now the Son of God? Jesus said, Ye have said 36 that I am he. I say unto you, that henceforth ye shall see the Son of man sitting 37 Arabic, at the right hand of power, and coming on the clouds of heaven. Then the 38 p. 187 chief priest rent his tunic,[8] and said, He hath blasphemed. And they all said, Why should we seek now witnesses? we have heard now the blasphemy from his mouth. 39, 40 What then think ye? They all answered and said, He is worthy of death. Then some of them drew near, and spat in his face, and struck him, and scoffed at him. 41 And the soldiers struck him on his cheeks,[9] and said, Prophesy unto us, thou Mes- 42 siah: who is he that struck thee? And many other things spake they falsely,[10] and said against him.

43 And all of their assembly arose,[11] and took Jesus, and brought him bound[12] to 44 the praetorium,[13] and delivered him up to Pilate the judge; but they entered not into the praetorium, that they might not be defiled when they should eat the passover. 45 And Jesus stood before the judge. And Pilate went forth unto them without, and 46 said unto them, What accusation[14] have ye against this man? They answered and

said unto him, If he had not been doing evils, neither should we have delivered 47 him up unto thee. We found this man leading our people astray, and restraining from giving tribute to Caesar, and saying of himself that he is the King, the Messiah. 48 Pilate said unto them, Then take ye him, and judge him according to your law.

Jo. 18, 23.

Jo. 18, 24.

Jo. 18, 25a.

Mk. 14, 69a.

Mt. 26, 71b.

Mt. 26, 73b.

Lk. 22, 58a.

Lk. 22, 58a.

Jo. 18, 26a.

Lk. 22, 59b.

Mt. 26, 73c.

Lk. 22, 60b.

Lk. 22, 61a.

Mk. 14, 30b, c.

Lk. 22, 62.

Lk. 22, 66a.

Mt. 27, 1b.

Mt. 26, 59b.

Mt. 26, 60a.

Mk. 14, 59.

Mt. 26, 60b

Mk. 14, 57b.

Mk. 14, 59.

Mt. 26, 63a.

Mk. 14, 60a.

Mk. 14, 60a.

Mt. 26, 62b.

Mk. 14, 61a.

Lk. 22, 66b.

Lk. 22, 67.

Lk. 22, 68.

Mt. 26, 63b.

Mt. 26, 64a.

Lk. 22, 70.

Mt. 26, 64b.

Mk. 14, 63a.

Mt. 26, 65b.

Lk. 22, 71.

Mk. 14, 64b.

Mt. 26, 66.

Mk. 14, 65a.

Lk. 22, 63b.

Mk. 14, 65c.

Lk. 22. 65.

Jo. 18, 28.

Mk. 15, 1b.

Jo. 18, 28c.

Mt. 27, 11a.

Jo. 18, 29.

Jo. 18, 30.

Lk. 23, 2b.

Jo. 18, 31.

120

49 Arabic, The Jews said unto him, We have no authority to put a man to death: 49 p. 188 that the word might be fulfilled, which Jesus spake, when he made known by what manner of death he was to die. 50 And Pilate entered into the praetorium, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art St thou the King of the Jews? Jesus said unto him, Of thyself saidst thou this, or 52 did others tell it thee concerning me? Pilate said unto him, Am I, forsooth,[1] a Jew? The sons of thy nation[2] and the chief priests delivered thee unto me: what 53 hast thou done? Jesus said unto him, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be 54 delivered to the Jews: now my kingdom is not from hence. Pilate said unto him, Then thou art a king? Jesus said unto him, Thou hast said that I am a king. And for this was I born, and for this came I into the world, that I should bear witness 55 of the truth. And every one that is of the truth heareth my voice. Pilate said unto him, And what is the truth? And when he said that, he went out again unto the Jews.

Jo. 18, 32.

Jo. 18, 33.

Jo. 18, 34.

Jo. 18, 35.

Jo. 18, 36.

Jo. 18, 37.

Jo. 18, 38a.

SECTION L.

50 1 And Pilate said unto the chief priests and the multitude, I have not found 2 against this man anything. But they cried out and said, He hath disquieted[3] our people with his teaching in all Judaea, and he began[4] from Galilee and unto this 3 place. And Pilate, when he heard the name of Galilee, asked, Is this man a Gali- 4 laean? And when he learned that he was under the jurisdiction of Herod, he sent him to Herod: for he was in Jerusalem in those days.

5 And Herod, when he saw Jesus, rejoiced exceedingly: for he had desired to see him for a long time, because he had heard regarding him many things; and he counted on[5] 6 Arabic, seeing some sign from him. And he questioned him with many words; but 7 p. 189 Jesus answered him not a word. And the scribes and chief priests were 8 standing by, and they accused him vehemently. And Herod scoffed at him, he and his servants; and when he had scoffed at him, he clothed him in robes of scarlet, 9 and sent him to Pilate. And on that day Pilate and Herod became friends, there having been[6] enmity between them before that.

10, 11 And Pilate called the chief priests and the rulers of the people, and said unto them, Ye brought unto me this man, as the perverter of your people: and I have tried him before you, and have not found in this man any cause[7] of all that ye 12 seek[8] against him: nor yet Herod: for I sent him unto him; and he hath done 13 nothing for which he should deserve death. So now I will chastise him, and let 14, 15 him go. The multitude all cried out and said, Take him from us, take him. And 16 the chief priests and the eiders accused him of many things. And during their 17 accusation he answered not a word. Then Pilate said unto him, Hearest thou not 18 how many things they witness against thee? And he answered him not, not even one word: and Pilate marvelled at that. 19 And when the judge sat on his tribune, his wife sent unto him, and said unto him, See that thou have nothing to do with that righteous man: for I have suffered much in my dream[9] to-day because of him.

20 And at every feast the custom of the judge was to release to the people one 21 prisoner, him whom they would. And there was in their prison a well-known pris- 22, 23 oner, called Barabbas. And when they assembled, Pilate said unto them, Ye have a custom, that I should release unto you a prisoner at the passover: will ye that I 24 release unto you the King of the Jews? And they all cried out and said, Release not Arabic, unto us this man, but release unto us Barabbas. And this Barabbas was a 25 p. 190 robber, who for sedition[10] and murder, which was in the city, was cast into the

Lk. 23, 4.

Lk. 23, 5.

Lk. 23, 6.

Lk. 23, 7.

Lk. 23, 8.

Lk. 23, 9.

Lk. 23, 10.

Lk. 23, 11.

Lk. 23, 12.

Lk. 23, 13.

Lk. 23, 14.

Lk. 23, 15.

Lk. 23, 16.

Lk. 23, 18a.

Mk. 15, 3a.

Mt. 27, 12.

Mt. 27, 13.

Mt. 27, 14.

Mt. 27, 19.

Mt. 27, 15.

Mt. 27, 16.

Mt. 27, 17a.

Jo. 18, 39.

Jo. 18, 40.

Lk. 23, 19.

121

50 26 prison. And all the people cried out and began to ask him to do as the custom was 27 that he should do with them. And Pilate answered and said unto them, Whom will ye that I release unto you? Barabbas, or Jesus which is called the Messiah, the 28 King of the Jews? For Pilate knew that envy had moved them to deliver him up. 29 And the chief priests and the elders asked the multitudes to deliver Barabbas, and 30 to destroy Jesus. The judge answered and said unto them, Whom of the two will 31 ye that I release unto you? They said, Barabbas. Pilate said unto them, And 32 Jesus which is called the Messiah, what shall I do with him? They all cried out 33 and said, Crucify him. And Pilate spake to them again, for he desired to release 34 Jesus; but they cried out and said, Crucify him, crucify him, and release unto us 35 Barabbas. And Pilate said unto them a third time, What evil hath this man done? I have not found in him any cause(1) to necessitate death: I will chastise him and 36 let him go. But they increased in importunity(2) with a loud voice, and asked him to crucify him. And their voice, and the voice of the chief priests, prevailed. 37 Then Pilate released unto them that one who was cast into prison for sedition and murder, Barabbas, whom they asked for: and he scourged Jesus with whips.(3) 38 Then the footsoldiers of the judge took Jesus, and went into the praetorium, and 39 Arabic, gathered unto him all of the footsoldiers. And they stripped him, and put on 40 p. 191 him a scarlet cloak. And they clothed him in garments of purple, and plaited a crown of thorns, and placed it on his head, and a reed in his right hand; and while they mocked at him and laughed, they fell down on their knees before him, and bowed 42 down to(4) him, and said, Hail,(5) King of the Jews! And they spat in his face, and took the reed from his hand, and struck him on his head, and smote his cheeks. 43 And Pilate went forth without again, and said unto the Jews, I bring him forth to 44 you, that ye may know that I do not find, in examining(6) him, even one crime.(7) And Jesus went forth without, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple garments. 45 Pilate said unto them, Behold, the man! And when the chief priests and the soldiers(8) saw him, they cried out and said, Crucify him, crucify him. Pilate said unto them, Take him yourselves, and crucify him: for I find not a cause(9) against 46 him. The Jews said unto him, We have a law, and according to our law he deserves 47 death, because he made himself the Son of God. And when Pilate heard this word, his fear increased; and he entered again into the porch, and said to Jesus, Whence 49 art thou? But Jesus answered him not a word. Pilate said unto him, Speakest(10) thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have authority to release thee, and have 50 authority to crucify thee? Jesus said unto him, Thou hast not any(11) authority over me, if thou wert not given it from above: therefore the sin of him that delivered 51 me up unto thee is greater than thy sin. And for this word Pilate wished to release him: but the Jews cried out, If thou let him go, thou art not a friend of Caesar: for every one that maketh himself a king is against Caesar.

Mk. 15, 8.

Mk. 15, 9a.

Mt. 27, 17b.

Mt. 27, 18.

Mt. 27, 20.

Mt. 27, 21.

Mt. 27, 22a.

Mk. 15, 13.

Mt. 27, 21.

Lk. 23, 20.

Lk. 23, 21.

Lk. 23, 22.

Lk. 23, 23.

Mk. 15, 15a.

Lk. 23, 25a.

Mt. 27, 26b.

Mt. 27, 27.

Mt. 27, 28.

Jo. 19, 2.

Mt. 27, 29b.

Mt. 27, 30.

Jo. 19, 3b.

Jo. 19, 4.

Jo. 19, 5.

Jo. 19, 6.

Jo. 19, 7.

Jo. 19, 8.

Jo. 19, 9.

Jo. 19, 10.

Jo. 19, 11.

Jo. 19, 12.

SECTION LI.

51 1 Arabic, And when Pilate heard this saying, he took Jesus out, and sat on the p. 192 tribune in the place which was called the pavement of stones, but in the He- 2 brew called Gabbatha. And that day was the Friday of the passover: and it had reached 3 about the sixth hour.(12) And he said to the Jews, Behold, your King! And they cried out, Take him, take him, crucify him, crucify him. Pilate said unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests said unto him, We have no king except 4 Caesar. And Pilate, when he saw it, and(13) he was gaining nothing, but the tumult

Jo. 19, 13.

Jo. 19, 14.

Jo. 19, 15.

Mt. 27, 24

122

51 was increasing, took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, and said, I 5 am innocent of the blood of this innocent man: ye shall know.(1) And all the people 6 answered and said, His blood be on us, and on our children. Then Pilate commanded to grant them their request; and delivered up Jesus to be crucified, according to their wish.

7 Then Judas the betrayer, when he saw Jesus wronged, went and returned the 8 thirty pieces of money to the chief priests and the eiders, and said, I have sinned in my betraying innocent blood. And they said unto him, And we, what must we do? 9 know thou. And he threw down the money in the temple, and departed; and he 10 went away(2) and hanged(3) himself. And the chief priests took the money, and said, We have not authority to cast it into the place of the offering,(4) for it is the price 11 of blood. And they took counsel, and bought with it the plain of the potter, for 12 the burial of strangers. Therefore that plain was called, The field of blood, unto 13 Arabic, this day. Therein(5) was fulfilled the saying in the prophet which said, I p. 193 took thirty pieces of money, the price of the precious one, which was fixed 14 by the children of Israel; and I paid them for the plain of the potter, as the Lord commanded me.

15 And the Jews took Jesus, and went away to crucify him. And when he bare his 16 cross and went out, they stripped him of those purple and scarlet garments which he 17 had on, and put on him his own garments. And while they were going with him, they found a man, a Cyrenian, coming from the country, named Simon, the father of Alexander and Rufus: and they compelled this man to bear the cross of Jesus. 18 And they took the cross and laid it upon him, that he might bear it, and come after Jesus; and Jesus went, and his cross behind him.

19 And there followed him much people, and women which were lamenting and 20 raving.(6) But Jesus turned unto them and said, Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not 21 for me: weep for yourselves, and for your children. Days are coming, when they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the womb's that bare not, and the breasts 22 that gave not suck. Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and 23 to the hills, Cover us. For if they do so in the green tree,(7) what shall be in the dry?

24 And they brought with Jesus two others of the malefactors,(8) to be put to death.

25 And when they came unto a certain place called The skull, and called in the Hebrew Golgotha, they crucified him there: they crucified with him these two 26 malefactors, one on his right, and the other on his left. And the scripture was 27 Arabic, fulfilled, which saith, He was numbered with the transgressors. And they p. 194 gave him to drink wine and myrrh, and vinegar which had been mixed with the myrrh; and he tasted, and would not drink; and he received it not.

28 And the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and cast lots for them in four parts, to every party of the soldiers a part; and his tunic was 29 without sewing, from the top woven throughout. And they said one to another, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: and the scripture was fulfilled, which saith,

They divided my garments among them,

And cast the lot for my vesture.

30, 31 This the soldiers did. And they sat and guarded him there. And Pilate wrote on a tablet the cause of his death, and put it on the wood of the cross above his head.(9) And there was written upon it thus: THIS IS JESUS THE NAZARENE THE NAZARENE, THE KING OF THE 32 Jews. And this tablet(10) read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city: and it was written in Hebrew and Greek and Latin. 33 And the chief priests said unto Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but, He it is 34 that(11) said, I am the King of the Jews. Pilate said unto them, What hath been 35 written hath been written.(12) And the people were standing beholding; and they

Mt. 27, 25.

Jo. 19, 16a.

Mt. 27, 3.

Mt. 27, 4.

Mt. 27, 5.

Mt. 27, 6.

Mt. 27, 7.

Mt. 27, 8.

Mt. 27, 9.

Mt. 27, 10.

Jo. 19, 16b.

Mk. 15, 20b.

Jo. 19, 17a.

Mt. 27, 31b.

Mt. 27, 32a.

Mk. 15, 21b.

Mt. 27, 32b.

Lk. 23, 26b.

Lk. 23, 27.

Lk. 23, 28.

Lk. 23, 29.

Lk. 23, 30.

Lk. 23, 31.

Lk. 23, 32.

Lk. 23, 33a.

Jo. 19, 17c.

Lk. 23, 33b.

Mk. 15, 28.

Mk. 15, 23a.

Mt. 27, 34b.

Mk. 15, 23b.

Jo. 19, 23.

Jo. 19, 24.

Mt. 27, 36.

Jo. 19, 19.

Jo. 19, 20.

Jo. 19, 21.

Jo. 19, 22.

Lk. 23, 35a.

Mt. 27, 39.

123

51 36 that passed by were reviling(1) him, and shaking(2) their heads, and saying, Thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself if thou art the Son 37 of God, and come down from the cross. And in like manner the chief priests and the Arabic, scribes and the elders and the Pharisees derided him, and laughed one with 38, 39 p. 195 another, and said, The saviour of others cannot save himself. If he is the Messiah, the chosen of God, and the King of Israel,(3) let him come down now from the 40 cross, that we may see, and believe in him. He that relieth on God--let him deliver him 41 now, if he is pleased with him: for he said, I am the Son of God. And the soldiers 42 also scoffed at him in that they came near unto him, and brought him vinegar, and 43 said unto him, If thou art the King of the Jews, save thyself. And likewise the two robbers(4) also that were crucified with him reproached him. 44 And one of those two malefactors who were crucified with him reviled him, and 45 said, If thou art the Messiah, save thyself, and save us also. But his comrade rebuked him, and said, Dost thou not even fear God, being thyself also in this 46 condemnation? And we with justice, and as we deserved, and according to our deed,(5) have we been rewarded: but this man hath not done anything unlawful. 47 And he said unto Jesus, Remember me, my Lord, when thou comest in thy kingdom. 48 Jesus said unto him, Verily(6) I say unto thee, To-day shalt thou be with me in Paradise. 49 And there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister,(7) 50 Mary(8) that was related to Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. And Jesus saw his mother, and that disciple whom he loved standing by; and he said to his mother, 51 Woman, behold, thy son! And he said to that disciple, Behold, thy mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto himself.

52 Arabic, And from the sixth hour(9) darkness was on all the land unto the ninth 53 p. 196 hour,(9) and the sun became dark. And at the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, and said, Yail, Yaili,(10) why hast thou forsaken me? which(11) is, My 54 God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? And some of those that stood there, when they heard, said,(12) This man called Elijah.

Mt. 27, 40a.

Mk. 15, 29.

Mt. 27, 40c.

Mt. 27, 41.

Mt. 27, 42a.

Lk. 23, 35c.

Mt. 27, 42c.

Mt. 27, 43.

Lk. 23, 36.

Lk. 23, 37.

Mt. 27, 44.

Lk. 23, 39.

Lk. 23, 40.

Lk. 23, 41.

Lk. 23, 42.

Lk. 23, 43.

Jo. 19, 25.

Jo. 19, 26.

Jo. 19, 27.

Mt. 27, 45a.

Lk. 23, 44b.

Lk. 23, 45a.

Mk. 15, 34.

Mt. 27, 47.

SECTION LII.

52 1 And after that, Jesus knew that all things were finished; and that the scripture 2 might be accomplished, he said, I thirst. And there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and in that hour one of them hasted, and took a sponge, and filled it with that 3 vinegar, and fastened it on a reed, and brought it near(13) his mouth to give him a 4 drink. And when Jesus had taken that vinegar, he said, Everything is finished. 5 But the rest said, Let be, that we may(14) see whether Elijah cometh to save him. 6, 7 And Jesus said, My Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And Jesus cried again with a loud voice, and said, My Father, into thy hands I commend(15) my spirit. He said that, and bowed his head, and gave up his spirit. 8 And immediately the face of(16) the door of the temple was rent into two parts from 9 top to bottom; and the earth was shaken; and the stones were split to pieces; and the Arabic, tombs were opened; and the bodies of many saints which slept, arose and 10 p. 197 came forth; and after his resurrection they entered into the holy city and 11 appeared unto many. And the officer of the footsoldiers, and they that were with him who were guarding Jesus,(17) when they saw the earthquake, and the things which came 12 to pass, feared greatly, and praised God, and said, This man was righteous; and, 13 Truly he was the Son of God. And all the multitudes that were come together to the sight, when they saw what came to pass, returned and smote upon their breasts.

Jo. 19, 28.

Jo. 19, 29a.

Mt. 27, 48.

Mk. 15, 36b.

Jo. 19, 30a.

Mt. 27, 49.

Lk. 23, 34.

Jo. 19, 30b.

Mt. 27, 51.

Mt. 27, 52.

Mt. 27, 53.

Mt. 27, 54.

Lk. 23, 47b.

Mt. 27, 54b.

Lk. 23, 48.

124

52 14 And the Jews, because of the Friday, said, Let these bodies not remain on their crosses,(1) because it is the morning of the sabbath (for that sabbath was a great day); and they asked of Pilate that they might break the legs of those that were 15 crucified, and take them down. And the soldiers came, and brake the legs of the 16 first, and that other which was crucified with him: but when they came to Jesus, 17 they saw that he had died before, so they brake not his legs: but one of the soldiers pierced(2) him in his side with a spear, and immediately there came forth blood and 18 water. And he that hath seen hath borne witness, and his witness is true: and he 19 knoweth that he hath said the truth, that ye also may believe. This he did, that 20 the scripture might be fulfiled, which saith, A bone shall not be broken in him; and the scripture also which saith, Let them look upon him whom they pierced.(2)

21 And there were in the distance all the acquaintance of Jesus standing, and the women that came with him from Galilee, those that followed him and ministered. 22 One of them was Mary Magdalene; and Mary the mother of James the little 23 and Arabic Joses, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee, and Salome, and many others p. 198 which came up with him unto Jerusalem; and they saw that.

24 And when the evening of the Friday was come, because of the entering of the 25 sabbath, there came a rich man,(3) a noble(4) of Ramah,(5) a city of Judah,(6) named Joseph, and he was a good man and upright; and he was a(7) disciple of Jesus, but 26 was concealing himself for fear of the Jews. And he did not agree with the accusers 27 in their desire and their deeds: and he was looking for the kingdom of God. And this man went boldly, and entered in unto Pilate, and asked of him the body of 28 Jesus. And Pilate wondered how he had died already: and he called the officer of 29 the footsoldiers, and asked him concerning his death before the time. And when 30 he knew, he commanded him to deliver up his body unto Joseph. And Joseph bought for him a winding cloth of pure linen, and took down the body of Jesus, 31 and wound it in they came and took it. And there came unto him Nicodemus also, who of old came unto Jesus by night; and he brought with him perfume(8) 32 of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pounds. And they took the body of Jesus, and wound it in the linen and the perfume, as was the custom of the Jews to bury.

33 And there was in the place where Jesus was crucified a garden; and in that garden 34 a new tomb cut out in a rock? wherein was never man yet laid. And they left 35 Jesus there because the sabbath had come in, and because the tomb was near. And they pushed (10) a great stone, and thrust n it against the door of the sepulchre, and 36 went away. And Mary Magdalene and Mary that was related to Joses came to 37 Arabic the sepulchre after them,(12) and sat opposite the sepulchre,(13) and saw the 38 p. 199 body, how they took it in and laid it there. And they returned, and ointment(14) and perfume,(15) and prepared(16) it, that they might come and anoint him. 39 And on the day which was the sabbath day they desisted according to the command.

40, 41 And the chief priests and the Pharisees gathered unto Pilate, and said unto him, Our lord, we remember that that misleader said, while he was alive, After three days 42 I rise. And now send beforehand and guard the tomb(17) until the third day,(18) lest his disciples come and steal him by night, and they will say unto the people that he 43 is risen from the dead: and the last error shall be worse than the first. He said unto them, And have ye not guards?(19) go, and take precautions as ye know how. 44 And they went, and set guards at the tomb, and sealed that stone, with the guards.

45 And in the evening of the sabbath, which is the morning of the first day, and in 46 the dawning(20) while the darkness yet remained, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary and other women to see the tomb. They brought with them the perfume which they had prepared, and said among themselves, Who is it that will

Jo. 19, 31.

Jo. 19, 32.

Jo. 19, 33.

Jo. 19, 34.

Jo. 19, 35.

Jo. 19, 36.

Jo. 19, 37.

Lk. 23, 49a.

Mk. 15, 41b.

Mt. 27, 56a.

Mk. 15, 40b.

Mt. 27, 56c.

Mk. 15,40c,41c.

Lk. 23, 49b.

Mk. 15, 42.

Lk. 23, 50.

Jo. 19, 38b.

Lk. 23, 51a.

Lk. 23, 51c.

Mk. 15, 43b.

Mk. 15, 44.

Mk. 15, 45a.

Mt. 27, 58b.

Mk. 15, 46a.

Jo. 19, 38d.

Jo. 19, 39.

Jo. 19, 40.

Jo. 19, 41.

Jo. 19, 42.

Mt. 27, 60b.

Mk. 15, 47a.

Lk. 23, 55b.

Lk. 23, 56a.

Mk. 16, 1b.

Lk. 23, 56c.

Mt. 27, 62.

Mt. 27, 63.

Mt. 27, 64.

Mt. 27, 65.

Mt. 27, 66.

Mt. 28, 1a.

Lk. 24, 1b.

Mt. 28, 1b.

Lk. 24, 1d.

Mk. 16, 3.

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52 48 remove for us the stone from the door of the tomb? for it was very great. And when they said thus, there occurred a great earthquake; and an angel came down 49 from heaven, and came and removed the stone from the door. And they came and found the stone removed from the sepulchre, and the angel sitting upon the 50 stone. And his appearance was as the lightning, and his raiment white as the 51 snow: and for fear of him the guards were troubled, and became as dead men. 52 And when he went away, the women entered into the sepulchre; and they found 53 Arabic not the body of Jesus. And they saw there a young man sitting on 54 the p. 200 right, strayed in a white garment; and they were amazed.(1) And the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear ye not: for I know that ye seek Jesus the 55 Nazarene, who hath been crucified. He is not here; but he is risen, as he said. Come and see the place where our Lord lay.

Mk. 16, 4b.

Mt. 28, 2a.

Lk. 24, 2.

Mt. 28, 2b.

Mt. 28, 3.

Mt. 28, 4.

Lk. 24, 3.

Mk. 16, 5b.

Mt. 28, 5.

Mt. 28, 6.

SECTION LIII.(2)

53 1 And while they marvelled at that, behold, two men standing above them, their 2 raiment shining: and they were seized with fright, and bowed down their face to 3 the earth: and they said unto them, Why seek ye the living one with the dead? He is not here; he is risen: remember what he was speaking unto you while he was in 4 Galilee, and saying, The Son of man is to be delivered up into the hands of sinners, 5 and to be crucified, and on the third day to rise. But go in haste, and say to his disciples and to Cephas, He is risen from among the dead; and lo, he goeth before 6 you into Galilee; and there ye shall see him, where(3) he said unto you: lo, I have 7 told you. And they remembered his sayings; and they departed in haste from the 8 tomb with joy and great fear, and hastened and went; and perplexity and fear 9 encompassed them; and they told no man anything, for they were afraid. And Mary hastened, and came to Simon Cephas, and to that other disciple whom Jesus loved, and said unto them, They have taken our Lord from the sepulchre, and I 10 know not where they have laid him. And Simon went out, and that other disciple, 11 and came to the sepulchre. And they hastened both together: and that disciple 12 outran(4) Simon, and came first to the sepulchre; and he looked down, and saw the 13 linen laid; but he went not in. And Simon came after him, and entered into the 14 Arabic, sepulchre, and saw the linen laid; and the scarf with which his head was bound was not with the linen, but wrapped and laid aside in a certain place. 15 Then entered that disciple which came first to the sepulchre, and saw, and believed. 16 And they knew not yet from the scriptures that the Messiah was to rise from among 17 the dead. And those two disciples went to their place.

18 But Mary remained(5) at the tomb weeping: and while she wept, she looked 19 down into the tomb; and she saw two angels sitting in white raiment, one of them toward his pillow, and the other toward his feet, where the body of Jesus had been 20 laid. And they said unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? She said unto them, 21 They have taken my Lord, and I know not where they have left him. She said that, and turned behind her, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was 22 Jesus. Jesus said unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou? And she supposed (6) him to be the gardener, and said, My lord, if thou hast taken him, 23 tell me where thou hast laid him, that I may go and take him Jesus said unto her, Mary. She turned, and said unto him in Hebrew, Rabboni; which is, being 24 interpreted, Teacher. Jesus said unto her, Touch me not;(7) for I have not ascended yet unto my Father: go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father and your Father, and my God and your God.

25 And on the First-day on which he rose, he appeared first unto Mary Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven demons.

Lk. 24, 4.

Lk. 24, 5.

Lk. 24, 6.

Lk. 24, 7.

Mt. 28, 7a.

Mk. 16, 7b.

Mt. 28, 7c.

Lk. 24, 8.

Mt. 28, 8a.

Mk. 16, 8b.

Jo. 20, 2.

Jo. 20, 3.

Jo. 20, 4.

Jo. 20, 5.

Jo. 20, 6.

Jo. 20, 7.

Jo. 20, 8.

Jo. 20, 9.

Jo. 20, 10.

Jo. 20, 11.

Jo. 20, 12.

Jo. 20, 13.

Jo. 20, 14.

Jo. 20, 15.

Jo. 20, 16.

Jo. 20, 17.

Mk. 16, 9.

126

53 26 And some of those guards(1) came to the city, and informed the chief priests of Arabic, all that had happened. And they assembled with the elders, and took p. 202 counsel; and they gave money, not a little, to the guards, and said unto them, Say ye, His disciples came and stole him by night, while we were sleeping.

29 And if the judge hear that, we will make a plea with him, and free you of blame. 30 And they, when they took the money, did according to what they taught them. And this word spread among the Jews unto this day.

31 And then came Mary Magdalene, and announced to the disciples that she had seen our Lord, and that he had said that unto her.

32 And while the first(2) women(3) were going in the way to inform(4) his disciples,(3) 33 Jesus met them, and said unto them, Peace unto you. And they came and took 34 hold of his feet, and worshipped him. Then said Jesus unto them, Fear not: but go and say to my brethren that they depart into Galilee, and there they shall see 35 me. And those women returned, and told all that to the eleven, and to the rest of the disciples; and to those that had been with him, for they were saddened and 36 weeping. And those were Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, and the rest who were with them: and they were those that told the apostles. 37 And they, when they heard them say that he was alive and had appeared unto them, 38 did not believe them: and these sayings were before their eyes as the sayings of madness. 39 Arabic, And after that, he appeared to two of them, on that day, and while they p. 203 were going to the village which was named Emmaus, and whose distance 40 from Jerusalem was sixty furlongs.(5) And they were talking the one of them with the 41 other of all the things which had happened. And during the time of their talking and 42 inquiring with one another, Jesus came and reached them, and walked with them. But 43 their eyes were veiled that they should not know him. And he said unto them, What are these sayings which ye address the one of you to the other, as ye walk and are 44 sad? One of them, whose name was Cleopas, answered and said unto him, Art thou perchance alone a stranger to Jerusalem, since thou knowest not what was in 45 it in these days? He said unto them, What was? They said unto him, Concerning Jesus, he who was from Nazareth, a man who was a prophet, and powerful in 46 speech and deeds before God and before all the people: and the chief priests and 47 the elders delivered him up to the sentence of(6) death, and crucified him. But we supposed that he was the one who was to deliver Israel. And since all(7) these 48 things happened there have passed three days. But certain women of us also 49 informed us that they had come to the sepulchre; and when they found not his body, they came and told us that they had seen there the angels, and they(8) said 50 concerning him that he was alive. And some of us also went to the sepulchre, and found 51 the matter as the women had said: only they saw him not. Then said Jesus 52 unto them, Ye lacking in discernment, and heavy in heart to believe! Was it not in all the sayings of the prophets that the Messiah was to suffer these things, and to 53 Arabic, enter into his glory? And he began from Moses and from all the prophets, 54 p. 204 and interpreted to them concerning himself from all the scriptures. And they drew near unto the village, whither they were going: and he was leading them to 55 imagine that he was as if going to a distant region. And they pressed (9) him, and said unto him, Abide with us: for the day hath declined now to the darkness. And he went 56 in to abide with them. And when he sat with them, he took bread, and blessed, 57 and brake, and gave to them. And straightway their eyes were opened, and they 58 knew him; and he was taken away from them.(10) And they said the one to the other, Was not our heart heavy within us, while he was speaking to us in the way, and interpreting to us the scriptures?

59 And they rose in that hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven 60 gathered, and those that were with them, saying, Truly our Lord is risen, and hath 61 appeared to Simon. And they related what happened in the way, and how they knew him when he brake the bread. Neither believed they that also.

Mt. 28, 11b.

Mt. 28, 12.

Mt. 28, 13.

Mt. 28, 14.

Mt. 28, 15.

Jo. 20, 18.

Mt. 28, 8b.

Mt. 28, 9.

Mt. 28, 10.

Lk. 24, 9.

Mk. 16, 10b.

Lk. 24, 10.

Mk. 16, 11.

Lk. 24, 11a.

Mk. 16, 12a.

Lk. 24, 13b.

Lk. 24, 14.

Lk. 24, 15.

Lk. 24, 16.

Lk. 24, 17.

Lk. 24, 18.

Lk. 24, 19.

Lk. 24, 20.

Lk. 24, 21.

Lk. 24, 22.

Lk. 24, 23.

Lk. 24, 24.

Lk. 24, 25.

Lk. 24, 26.

Lk. 24, 27.

Lk. 24, 28.

Lk. 24, 29.

Lk. 24, 30.

Lk. 24, 31.

Lk. 24, 32.

Lk. 24, 33.

Lk. 24, 34.

Lk. 24, 35.

Mk. 16, 13b.

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SECTION LIV.

54 1 And while they talked together,(1) the evening of that day arrived which was the First-day; and the doors were shut where the disciples were, because of the fear of the 2 Jews; and Jesus came and stood among them, and said unto them, Peace be with you: I am he; fear not. But they were agitated, and became afraid, and supposed that they 3 saw a spirit. Jesus said unto them, Why are ye agitated? and why do thoughts rise 4 Arabic, in(2) your hearts? See my hands and my feet, that I am he: feel me, and p. 205 know that a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me having that. 5 And when he had said this, he shewed them his hands and his feet and his side.(3) 6 And they were until this time unbelieving, from their joy and their wonder. He 7 said unto them, Have ye anything here to eat? And they gave him a portion of broiled fish and of honey.(4) And he took it, and ate before them. 8 And he said unto them, These are the sayings which I spake unto you, while I was with you, that (5) everything must be fulfilled, which is written in the law of 9 Moses, and the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me. Then opened he their 10 heart, that they might understand the scriptures; and he said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it is necessary(6) that the Messiah suffer, and rise from among the 11 dead on the third day; and that repentance unto the forgiveness of sins be preached 12 in his name among all the peoples; and the beginning shall be from Jerusalem. And 13 ye shall be witnesses of that. And I send unto you the promise of my Father. And 14 when the disciples heard that, they were glad. And Jesus said unto them again, 15 Peace be with you: as my Father hath sent me, I also send you. And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and said unto them, Receive ye the Holy Spirit: 16 and if ye forgive sins to any man, they shall be forgiven him; and if ye retain them against any man, they shall be retained.

17 But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Thama, was not there with the disciples 18 when Jesus came. The disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen our Lord. But he said unto them, If I do not see in his hands the places of the nails, and put on them my fingers, and pass my hand over his side, I will not believe.

19 And after eight days, on the next First-day, the disciples were assembled again within, and Thomas with them. And Jesus came, the doors being shut, and stood 20 Arabic, in the midst, and said unto them, Peace be with you. And he said to p. 206 Thomas, Bring hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and bring hither 21 thy hand, and spread it on my side: and be not unbelieving, but believing. Thomas 22 answered and said unto him, My Lord and my God. Jesus said unto him, Now since thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen me, and have believed.

23 And many other signs did Jesus before his disciples, and they are they which 24 are not written in this book: but these that(7) are written also are that ye may believe in Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God; and that when ye have believed, ye may have in his name eternal life. 25 And after that, Jesus shewed himself again to his disciples at the sea of Tiberias; 26 and he shewed himself unto them thus. And there were together Simon Cephas, and Thomas which was called Twin,(8) and Nathanael who was of Cana of Galilee, 27 and the sons of Zebedee, and two other of the disciples. Simon Cephas said unto them, I go to catch fish. They said unto him, And we also come with thee. And they went forth, and went up into the boat; and in that night they caught nothing. 28 And when the morning arrived, Jesus stood on the shore of the sea: but the disciples 29 knew not that it was Jesus. And Jesus said unto them, Children, have ye anything to eat? They said unto him, No. He said unto them, Cast your net from the right side of the boat, and ye shall find.(9) And they threw, and they were not able 31 to draw the net for the abundance of the fish that were come(10) into it. And that

Lk. 24, 36a.

Jo. 20, 19.

Lk. 24, 36c.

Lk. 24, 37.

Lk. 24, 38.

Lk. 24, 39.

Lk. 24, 40.

Lk. 24, 41.

Lk. 24, 42.

Lk. 24, 43.

Lk. 24, 44.

Lk. 24, 45.

Lk. 24, 46.

Lk. 24, 47.

Lk. 24, 48.

Lk. 24, 49a.

Jo. 20, 20b.

Jo. 20, 21.

Jo. 20, 22.

Jo. 20, 23.

Jo. 20, 24.

Jo. 20, 25.

Jo. 20, 26.

Jo. 20, 27.

Jo. 20, 28.

Jo. 20, 29.

Jo. 20, 30.

Jo. 20, 31.

Jo. 21, 1.

Jo. 21, 2.

Jo. 21, 3.

Jo. 21, 4.

Jo. 21, 5.

Jo. 21, 6.

Jo. 21, 7.

128

54 disciple whom Jesus loved said to Cephas, This is our Lord. And Simon, when he heard that it was our Lord, took his tunic, and girded it on his waist (for he was 32 naked), and cast himself into the sea to come to Jesus. But some others of the disciples came in the boat(1) (and they were not far from the land, but about two 33 Arabic, hundred cubits), and drew that net of fish. And when they went up on the 34 p. 207 land, they saw live coals laid, and fish laid thereon, and bread. And Jesus 35 said unto them, Bring of this fish which ye have now caught. Simon Cephas therefore went up, and dragged the net to the land, full of great fish, a hundred and fifty-three 36 fishes: and with all this weight that net was not rent. And Jesus said unto them,. Come and sit down. And no man of the disciples dared to ask him who he was, for they knew that it was our Lord. But he did not appear to them in his own 37, 38 form. And Jesus came, and took bread and fish, and gave unto them. This is the third time that Jesus appeared to his disciples, when he had risen from among the dead.

39 And when they had breakfasted, Jesus said to Simon Cephas, Simon, son of Jonah, lovest thou me more than these? He said unto him, Yea, my Lord; thou 40 knowest that I love thee. Jesus said unto him, Feed for me my lambs. He said unto him again a second time, Simon, son of Jonah, lovest thou me? He said unto him, Yea, my Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He said unto him, Feed for 41 me my sheep.(2) He said unto him again the third time, Simon, son of Jonah, lovest thou me? And it grieved Cephas that he said unto him three times, Lovest thou me? He said unto him, My Lord, thou knowest everything; thou knowest that I 42 love thee. Jesus said unto him, Feed for me my sheep.(3) Verily, verily, I say unto thee, When thou wast a child, thou didst gird thy waist for thyself, and go whither

Arabic, thou wouldest: but when thou shall be old, thou shalt stretch out thy hands, p. 208 and another shall gird thy waist, and take thee whither thou wouldest not. 43 He said that to him to explain by what death he was to glorify God. And when he 44 had said that, he said unto him, Come after me. And Simon Cephas turned, and saw that disciple whom Jesus loved following him; he which at the supper leaned(4) on 45 Jesus' breast, and said, My Lord, who is it that betrayeth thee? When therefore Cephas saw him, he said to Jesus, My Lord, and this man, what shall be in his 46 case?(5) Jesus said unto him, If I will that this man remain until I come, what is 47 that to thee? follow thou me. And this word spread among the brethren, that that disciple should not die: but Jesus said not that he should not die; but, If I will that this man remain until I come, what is that to thee?

48 This is the disciple which bare witness of that, and wrote it: and we know that his witness is true.

Jo. 21, 8.

Jo. 21, 9.

Jo. 21, 10.

Jo. 21, 11.

Jo. 21, 12.

Jo. 21, 13.

Jo. 21, 14.

Jo. 21, 15.

Jo. 21, 16.

Jo. 21, 17.

Jo. 21, 18.

Jo. 21, 19.

Jo. 21, 20.

Jo. 21, 21.

Jo. 21, 22.

Jo. 21, 23.

Jo. 21, 24.

SECTION LV.

55 1 But the eleven disciples went into Galilee, to the mountain s where Jesus had 2 appointed them. And when they saw him, they worshipped him: but there were of 3 them who doubted. And while they sat there he appeared to them again, and upbraided them for their lack of faith and the hardness of their hearts, those that saw him when he was risen, and believed not.(7) 4 Arabic, Then said Jesus unto them, I have been given all authority in heaven 5 p. 209 and earth; and as my Father hath sent me, so I also send you. Go now into 6 all the world, and preach my gospel in all the creation; and teach(8) all the peoples, and 7 baptize them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit; and teach them to keep all whatsoever I commanded you: and lo, I am with you all the days, unto 8 the end of the world. For whosoever believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but 9 whosoever believeth not shall be rejected. And the signs(9) which shall attend those that believe in me are these: that they shall cast out devils in my name; and they 10 shall speak with new tongues; and they shall take up serpents, and if they drink"

Mt. 28, 16.

Mt. 28, 17.

Mk. 16, 14.

Mt. 28, 18b.

Jo. 20, 21b.

Mk. 16, 15b.

Mt. 28, 19b.

Mt. 28, 20.

Mk. 16, 16.

Mk. 16, 17.

Mk. 16, 18.

129

55 deadly poison,(1) it shall not injure them; and they shall lay their hands on the 11 diseased, and they shall be healed. But ye, abide in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be clothed with power from on high.

12 And our Lord Jesus, after speaking to them, took them out to Bethany: and he 13 lifted up his hands, and blessed them. And while he blessed them, he was separated from them, and ascended into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God. 14, 15 And they worshipped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy: and at all times they were in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.

16 And from thence they went forth, and preached in every place; and our Lord helped them, and confirmed their sayings by the signs which they did.(2)

17 And here are also many other things which Jesus did, which if they were written every one of them, not even the world, according to my opinion, would contain the books which should be written.(3)

Lk. 24, 49b.

Mk. 16, 19a.

Lk. 24, 50.

Lk. 24, 51.

Mk. 16, 19c.

Lk. 24, 52.

Lk. 24, 53.

Mk. 16, 20.

Jo. 21, 25.

130

SUBSCRIPTIONS

I. IN BORGIAN MS

Here endeth the Gospel which Tatianus compiled and named Diatessaron, i.e., The Fourfold, a compilation from the four Gospels of the holy Apostles, the excellent Evangelists (peace be upon them). It was translated by the excellent and learned priest, Abu'l Faraj 'Abdulla ibn-at-Tayyib(1) (may God grant him favour), from Syriac into Arabic, from an exemplar written by 'Isa (2) ibn-'Ali al-Motatabbib,(3) pupil of Honain ibn-Ishak (God have mercy on them both). Amen.

2. IN VATICAN MS.(4)

Here endeth, by the help of God, the holy Gospel that Titianus compiled from the four Gospels, which is known as Diatessaron. And praise be to God, as he is entitled to it and lord of it! And to him be the glory for ever.

THE REVELATION OF PETER

INTRODUCTION.

The fragment here translated was discovered in 1886 by the French Archaeological Mission in an ancient burying-place at Akhmim in Upper Egypt. It was published at Paris in 1892 (BOURIANT, Memoires publies par les membres de la Mission Archeologique Francaise au Caire, T. ix., fasc. 1, 1892). The MS. is now in the Gizeh Museum and has been held to be of a date between the eighth and twelfth centuries. Until the discovery of the fragment, the following was all that was known about the Revelation of Peter.

1. The so-called Muratorian Fragment, a list of sacred writings, first published by Muratori in 1740, and found by him in a seventh or eighth century MS. belonging to the Ambrosian Library in Milan, but which had previously belonged to the Columban Monastery of Bobbio, is assigned on internal evidence to the third quarter of the second century. ( Vide Westcott, Canon of the N.T., p. 514.) At line 69 it says: "the Apo, calypsos also of John and Peter only do we receive, which (latter) some among us would not have read in church."

2. Clement of Alexandria (fl. c. 200 A.D.) in his Hypotoposes, according to the testimony of Eusebius, H. E., vi., 14, gave "abridged accounts of all the canonical Scriptures, not even omitting those that are disputed, I mean the book of Jude and the other general epistles. Also the Epistle of Barnabas and that called the Revelation of Peter." Also in his Eclogoe Propheticoe, chapters 41, 48 and 49, he gives three, or as some think, four quotations from the Revelation of Peter, mentioning it twice by name.

3. The Catalogus Claromontanus, an Eastern list of Holy Scriptures, belonging to the third century, gives at the end the Revelation of Peter (v. Westcott, Canon, p. 555). This catalogue gives the length of the various books it enumerates measured in stichoi. Our book is said to have two hundred and seventy, which makes it rather longer than the Epistle to the Colossians which has two hundred and fifty-one.

4. Methodius, bishop of Olympus in Lycia in the beginning of the fourth century, in his Symposium, ii., 6, says, wherefore we have also learned from divinely inspired Scriptures that untimely births even if they are the offspring of adultery are delivered to care-taking angels." Though Peter is not here mentioned, the purport of the passage is the same as that of one of the quotations given by Clement of Alexandria.

5. Eusebius (+ c. 339 A.D.), in his Ecclesiastical History, iii., 25, expressly mentions the Revelation of Peter along with the Acts of Paul and the Pastor as spurious books, while at iii., 3, he says: "as to that which is called the Preaching and that called the Apocalypse of Peter, we know nothing of their being handed down as Catholic writings. Since neither among the ancients nor among the ecclesiastical writers of our own day, has there been anyone that has appealed to testimony taken from them."

6. Macarius Magnes (beginning of fifth century) in his Apocritica, iv., 6, quotes as from a heathen opponent of Christianity the following: "Let us by way of superfluity cite also that saying in the Apocalypse of Peter. It thus introduces the heaven as being about to undergo judgment along with the earth. ' The earth,' it says, ' shall present all men before God at the day of judgment, being itself also to be judged along with the heaven also which encompasses it.And at iv., 16, he examines this passage again, naming the Revelation of Peter, and supporting the doctrine of the passage by the authority of prophecy (Isaiah xxxiv., 4) and the Gospel (Matt. xxiv., 35).

142

7. Sozomen (middle of fifth century), H. E., vii., 19, says: "For instance, the so-called Apocalypse of Peter which was esteemed as entirely spurious by the ancients, we have discovered to be read in certain churches of Palestine up to the present day, once a year, on the day of preparation, during which the people most religiously fast in commemoration of the Saviour's Passion" (i.e., on Good Friday). It is to be noted that Sozomen himself belonged to Palestine.

8. In the list of the Sixty Books which is assigned to the fifth or sixth century the Revelation of Peter is mentioned among the Apocrypha (v. Westcott, Canon, p. 551).

9. The so-called Stichometry of Nicephorus, a list of scriptures with notes of their extent, ascribed to Nicephorus, Patriarch, Patriarch of Constantinople, 806-814 A.D., includes the Revelation of Peter among the antilegomena or disputed writings of the New Testament, and gives it three hundred stichoi or thirty more than the above-mentioned Catalogue Claromontanus.

10. The Armenian annalist Mkhitan (thirteenth century) in a list of the New Testament antilegomena mentions the Revelation of Peter, after the Gospel of Thomas and before the Periodoi Pauli, and remarks that he has himself copied these books. (Cf. Harnack, Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur.)

Up till lately these facts represented all that was positively known of the Revelation of Peter. From them we gather that it must have been written before the middle of the second century (so as to be known at Rome and included in the Muratorian Canon), that it had a wide circulation, that it was for some time very popular, so that it would appear to have run a considerable chance of achieving a place in the canon, but that it was ultimately rejected and in the long run dropped out of knowledge altogether.

But even previously to the discovery at Akhmim, the general character of the book had been inferred from the scanty fragments preserved in ancient writers and from the common elements contained in other and later apocalyptic writings which seemed to require some such book as the Revelation of Peter as their ultimate source. Such writings are the (Christian) Apocalypse of Esdras, the Vision of Paul, the Passion of S. Perpetua and the visions contained in the History of Barlaam and Josaphat. (Cf. Robinson, Texts and Studies, i., 2, p. 37-43, and Robinson and James, The Gospel according to Peter and the Revelation of Peter, 1892.)

The Revelation of Peter affords the earliest embodiment in Christian literature of those pictorial presentations of heaven and hell which have exercised so widespread and enduring an influence. It has, in its imagery, little or no kinship with the Book of Daniel, the Book of Enoch, or the Revelation of S. John. Its only parallels in canonical scripture, with the notable exception of the Second Epistle of Peter, are to be found in Isaiah lxvi., 24, Mark ix., 44, 48, and the parable of Dives and Lazarus in Luke xvi., 19. It is indeed Judaic in the severity of its morality and even in its phraseology (cf. the frequent use of the word righteous, and the idea that God and not Christ will come to judge sinners). But the true parallels for, if not the sources of, its imagery of the rewards and punishments which await men after death are to be found in Greek beliefs which have left their traces in such passages as the Vision of Er at the end of Plato's Republic.

The heaven of the Petrine Apocalypse is akin to the Elysian Fields and the Islands of the Blest. In it the saints are crowned as with flowers and beautiful of countenance, singing songs of praise in the fragrant air, in a land all lighted up with the light of the sun.(1) We are reminded of "the Elysian Fields and the world's end where is Rhadamanthus of the fair hair, where life is easiest for men. No snow is there, nor yet great storm, nor any rain; but alway Ocean sendeth forth the breeze of the shrill West to blow cool on men" (Odyssey, iv.563), and of the garden of the gods on Olympus, which "is not shaken by winds, or ever wet with rain, nor doth the snow come nigh thereto, but most clear air is spread about it cloudless, and the white light floats over it" (Odyssey, vi., 43, Butcher and Lang's transl.). Perhaps the most striking parallel of all is afforded by the fragment of a dirge of Pindar: "For them shineth below the strength of the sun, while in our world it is night, and the space of crimson-flowered meadow before their city is full of the shade of frankincense trees, and of fruits of gold.And some in horses, and in bodily

1 Cf. "... the island valley of Avilon;

Where falls not rain or hail or any snow.

Nor ever wind blows loudly; but it lies

Deep-meadowed, happy, fair wish orchard lawns

And bowery hollows crowned with summer seas.

Tennyson, Passing of Arthur.

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feats, and some in dice, and some in harp-playing have delight; and among them thriveth all fair-flowering bliss; and fragrance streameth ever through the lovely land, as they mingle incense of every kind upon the altars of the gods" (Pindar, E. Myer's transl., p. 176). Beside this heaven the New Jerusalem of the canonical Apocalypse is austere. But it is the spiritual city. "For the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon to shine on it, for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb were in the midst of it and the Lamb was the light thereof."

So likewise in the case of the torments of the wicked as presented in the Revelation of Peter. We are not here in the Jewish Sheol, or among the fires of the valley of Hinnom, so much as among the tortures of Tartarus and the boiling mud of the Acherusian Lake (cf. Plato, Phaedo, p. 113; Aristophanes, Frogs, line 145), or where "wild men of fiery aspect ... seized and carried off several of them, and Ardiaeus and others, they bound head and foot and hand, and threw them down and flayed them with scourges, and dragged them along the road at the side, carding them on thorns like wool, and declaring to the passers-by what were their crimes, and that they were being taken away to be cast into hell "(Republic, x., p. 616, Jowett's transl.). It is not surprising that in later visions of the same kind the very names of the Greek under-world are ascribed to localities of hell. It is across the river Oceanus. It is called Tartarus. In it is the Acherusian Lake. Notice in this connection that the souls of innocent victims are present along with their murderers to accuse them.

The Revelation of Peter shows remarkable kinship in ideas with the Second Epistle of Peter. The parallels will be noted in the margin of the translation. It also presents notable parallels to the Sibylline Oracles (cf. Orac. Sib., ii., 255 sqq.), while its influence has been conjectured, almost with certainty, in the Acts of Perpetua and the visions narrated in the Acts of Thomas and the History of Barlaam and Josaphat. It certainly was one of the sources from which the writer of the Vision of Paul drew. And directly or indirectly it may be regarded as the parent of all the mediaeval visions of the other world.

The fragment begins in the middle of an eschatological discourse of Jesus, probably represented as delivered after the resurrection, for verse 5 implies that the disciples had begun to preach the Gospel. It ends abruptly in the course of a catalogue of sinners in hell and their punishments. The fragments preserved in the writings of Clement of Alexandria and Methodius probably belonged to the lost end of the book; that preserved by Macarius Magnes may have belonged to the eschatological discourse at the beginning. Taking the length of the whole at from two hundred and seventy to three hundred stichoi, the Akhmim fragment contains about the half.

The present translation is made from Harnack's edition of the text, 2d ed., Leipzig, 1893.

There is another and later Apocalypse of Peter in Arabic, of which MSS. exist in Rome and Oxford. It is called the Apocalypse of Peter, or the narrative of things revealed to him by Jesus Christ which had taken place from the beginning of the world and which shall take place till the end of the world or the second coming of Christ. The book is said to have been written by Clement, to whom Peter had communicated the secrets revealed to him. The writer himself calls the book Librum Perfectionis or Librum Completum. Judging from the analysis of its contents quoted by Tischendorf (Apocalypses Apocr.) it has no connection with the present work.

THE APOCALYPSE OF PETER

1. ... many of them will be false prophets,(1) and will teach divers ways and doctrines of perdition: but these will become sons of perdition.(2) 3. And then God will come unto my faithful ones who hunger and thirst and are afflicted and purify their souls in this life; and he will judge the sons of lawlessness.(3)

4. And furthermore the Lord said: Let us go into the mountain:(4) Let us pray.(5). And going with him, we, the twelve disciples, begged that he would show us one of our brethren, the righteous who are gone forth out of the world, in order that we might see of what manner of form they are, and having taken courage, might also encourage(5) the men who hear us.

6. And as we prayed, suddenly there appeared two men standing before the Lord towards the East, on whom we were not able to look;(6) 7, for there came forth from their countenance a ray as of the sun, and their raiment was shining, such as eye of man(7) never saw; for no mouth is able to express or heart to conceive the glory with which they were endued, and the beauty of their appearance. 8. And as we looked upon them, we were astounded; for their bodies were whiter than any snow and ruddier than any rose;(8) 9, and the red thereof was mingled with the white, and I am utterly unable to express their beauty; 10, for their hair was curly and bright and seemly both on their face and shoulders, as it were a wreath(9) woven of spikenard and divers-coloured flowers, or like a rainbow in the sky, such was their seemliness.

11. Seeing therefore their beauty we became astounded at them, since they appeared suddenly. 12. And I approached the Lord and said: Who are these? 13. He saith to me: These are your brethren the righteous, whose forms ye desired to see. 14. And I said to him: And where are all the righteous ones and what is the aeon in which they are and have this glory?

15. And the Lord showed me(10) a very great country outside of this world, exceeding bright with light, and the air there lighted with the rays of the sun, and the earth itself blooming with unfading flowers and full of spices and plants, fair-flowering and incorruptible and bearing blessed fruit. 16. And so great was the perfume that it(11) was borne thence even unto us. 17. And the dwellers in that place were clad in the raiment of shining angels and their raiment was like unto their country; and angels hovered about them there. 18. And the glory of the dwellers there was equal, and with one voice they sang praises alternately to the Lord God, rejoicing in that place. 19. The Lord saith to us: This is the place of your high-priests,(12) the righteous men.

20. And over against that place I saw another, squalid, and it was the place of punishment; and those who were punished there and the punishing angels had their raiment dark(13) like the air of the place.

21. And there were certain there hanging by the tongue: and these were the blasphemers of the way of righteousness; and under them lay fire,(14) burning and punishing them. 22. And there was a great lake, full of

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flaming mire, in which were certain men that pervert righteousness,(1) and tormenting angels afflicted them.

23. And there were also others, women, hanged by their hair over that mire that bubbled up: and these were they who adorned themselves for adultery; and the men who mingled with them in the defilement(2) of adultery, were hanging by the feet and their heads in that mire. And I said: I did not believe that I should come into this place.

24. And I saw the murderers and those who conspired with them, cast into a certain strait place, full of evil snakes, and smitten by those beasts, and thus turning to and fro in that punishment; and worms,(3) as it were clouds of darkness, afflicted them. And the souls of the murdered stood and looked upon the punishment of those murderers and said: O God, thy judgment is just.

25. And near that place I saw another strait place into which the gore and the filth of those who were being punished ran down and became there as it were a lake: and there sat women having the gore up to their necks, and over against them sat many children who were born to them out of due time, crying; and there came forth from them sparks of fire and smote the women in the eyes: and these were the accursed who conceived and caused abortion.

26. And other men and women were burning up to the middle and were cast into a dark place and were beaten by evil spirits, and their inwards were eaten by restless worms:(4) and these were they who persecuted the righteous and delivered them up.

27. And near those there were again women and men gnawing their own lips, and being punished and receiving a red-hot iron in their eyes: and these were they who blasphemed and slandered(5) the way of righteousness.

28. And over against these again other men and women gnawing their tongues and having flaming fire in their mouths: and these were the false witnesses.(6)

29. And in a certain other place there were pebbles sharper than swords or any spit, red-hot, and women and men in tattered and

filthy raiment rolled about on them in punishment: and these were the rich who trusted in their riches and had no pity for orphans and widows, and despised the commandment(7) of God.

30. And in another great lake, full of pitch and blood and mire bubbling up, there stood men and women up to their knees: and these were the usurers and those who take interest on interest.

31. And other men and women were being hurled down from a great cliff and reached the bottom, and again were driven by those who were set over them to climb up upon the cliff, and thence were hurled down again, and had no rest from this punishment: and these were they who defiled(8) their bodies acting as women; and the women who were with them were those who lay with one another as a man with a woman.

32. And alongside of that cliff there was a place full of much fire, and there stood men who with their own hands had made for themselves carven images instead of God. And alongside of these were other men and women, having rods and striking each other and never ceasing from such punishment.

33. And others again near them, women and men, burning and turning themselves and roasting: and these were they that leaving the way of God(9)

FRAGMENTS OF THE APOCALYPSE OF PETER.

1. CLEMENS ALEXANDRINUS, Eclog. 48. For instance, Peter in the Apocalypse says that the children who are born out of due time shall be of the better part: and that these are delivered over to a care-taking angel that they may attain a share of knowledge and gain the better abode [after suffering what they would have suffered if they had been in the body: but the others shall merely obtain salvation as injured beings to whom mercy is shown, and remain without punishment, receiving this as a reward].*

2. CLEM. ALEX. Eclog. 49. But the milk of the women running down from their breasts and congealing shall engender small flesh-

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eating beasts: and these run up upon them and devour them.(1)

3. MACARIUS MAGNES, Apocritica iv., 6 cf. 16. The earth, it (sc. the Apoc. of Peter) says, "shall present all men before God at the day of judgment, being itself also to be judged, with the heaven also which encompasses it."

4. CLEM. ALEX. Eclog. 41. The scripture says that infants that have been exposed are delivered to a care-taking angel, by whom they are educated and so grow up, and they will be, it says, as the faithful of a hundred years old are here.

5. METHODIUS, Conviv. ii., 6. Whence also we have received in divinely-inspired scriptures that untimely births are delivered to care-taking angels, even if they are the offspring of adultery.

THE VISION OF PAUL

HERE BEGINS THE VISION OF SAINT PAUL THE APOSTLE.

"But I will come to visions and revelations of the Lord: I know a man in Christ fourteen years ago (whether in the body, I know not; or out of the body, I know not, God knoweth) snatched up in this manner to the third heaven: and I know such a man, whether in the body or out of the body I know not, God knoweth; how that he was snatched up into Paradise and heard secret words which it is not lawful for men to speak; on behalf of such a one will I glory; but on mine own behalf I will not glory, save in my infirmities."--2 Cor. xii. 1-5.

1. At what time was this revelation made? In the consulship of Theodosius Augustus the Younger and Cynegius,(1) a certain nobleman then living in Tharsus, in the house which was that of Saint Paul, an angel appearing in the night revealed to him, saying that he should open the foundations of the house and should publish what he found, but he thought that these things were dreams.

2. But the angel coming for the third time beat him and forced him to open the foundation. And digging he found a marble box, inscribed on the sides; there was the revelation of Saint Paul, and his shoes in which he walked teaching the word of God. But he feared to open that box and brought it to the judge; when he had received it, the judge, because it was sealed with lead, sent it to the Emperor Theodosius, fearing lest it might be something else; which when he had received the emperor opened it, and found the revelation of Saint Paul; a copy of it he sent to Jerusalem, and retained the original himself.

3. While I was in the body in which I was snatched up to the third heaven, the word of the Lord came to me saying: speak to the people: until when will ye transgress, and heap sin upon sin, and tempt the Lord who made you? Ye are the sons of God, doing the works of the devil in the faith of Christ, on account of the impediments of the world. Remember therefore and know that while every creature serves God, the human race alone sins. But it reigns over every creature and sins more than all nature.

4. For indeed the sun, the great light, often addressed the Lord saying: Lord God Almighty, I look out upon the impieties and injustices of men; permit me and I shall do unto them what are my powers, that they may know that thou art God alone. And there came a voice saying to him: I know all these things, for mine eye sees and ear hears, but my patience bears them until they shall be converted and repent. But if they do not return to me I will judge them all.

5. For sometimes the moon and stars addressed the Lord saying: Lord God Almighty, to us thou hast given the power of the night; till when shall we look down upon the impieties and fornications and homicides done by the sons of men? Permit us to do unto them according to our powers, that they may know that thou art God alone. And there came a voice unto them saying: I know all these things, and mine eye looks forth and ear hears, but my patience bears with them until they shall be converted and repent. But if they do not return unto me I will judge them.

6. And frequently also the sea exclaimed saying: Lord God Almighty, men have defiled thy holy name in me; permit me to arise and cover every wood and orchard and the whole world, until I blot out all the sons of men from before thy face, that they may know that thou art God alone. And the voice came again and said: I know all things; mine eye seeth everything, and mine ear heareth, but my patience bears with them until they be converted and repent. But if they do not return, I will judge them. Sometimes the waters(2) also spoke against the sins of men saying: Lord God Almighty,

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all the sons of men have defiled thy holy name. And there came a voice saying: I know all things before they come to pass, for mine eye seeth and mine ear heareth all things, but my patience bears with them until they be converted. But if not I will judge them. Frequently also the earth(1) too exclaimed to the Lord against the sons of men saying: Lord God Almighty, I above every other creature of thine am harmed, supporting the fornications, adulteries, homicides, thefts, perjuries and magic and ill-doings of men and all the evil they do, so that the father rises up against the son, and the son upon the father, the alien against the alien, so that each one defiles his neighbour's wife. The father ascends upon the bed of his own son, and the son likewise ascends the couch of his own father; and in all these evils, they who offer the sacrifice to thy name have defiled thy holy place. Therefore I am injured above every creature, desiring not to shew my power to myself, and my fruits to the sons of men. Permit me and I will destroy the virtue of my fruits. And there came a voice and said: I know all things, and there is none who can hide himself from his sin. Moreover I know their impieties, but my holiness suffers them until they be converted and repent. But if they do not return unto me I will judge them.

7. Behold, ye sons of men, the creature is subject to God, but the human race alone sins. For this cause, therefore, ye sons of men, bless the Lord God unceasingly, every hour and every day: but more especially when the sun has set:(2) for at that hour all the angels proceed to the Lord to worship him and to present the works of men, which every man has wrought from the morning till the evening, whether good or evil. And there is a certain angel who proceeds rejoicing concerning the man in whom he dwells. When therefore the sun(3) has set in the first hour of night, in the same hour the angel of every people and every man and woman, who protect and preserve them, because man is the image of God: similarly also in the matin hour which is the twelfth of the night, all the angels of men and women, go up to God to worship God, and present every work which each man has wrought, whether good or evil. Moreover every day and night the angels show to God an account(4) of all the acts of the human race. To you, therefore, I say, ye

sons of men, bless the Lord God without fail all the days of your life.

8. Therefore at the appointed hour all the angels whatever, rejoicing at once together, proceed before God that they may meet to worship at the hour determined. And behold suddenly it became the hour of meeting, and the angels came to worship in the presence of God, and the spirit proceeded to meet them: and there came a voice and said: Whence come ye, our angels, bearing the burdens of tidings?

9. They answered and said: We come from those who have renounced this world for the sake of thy holy name, wandering as pilgrims, and in caves of the rocks, and weeping every hour in which they inhabited the earth, and hungering and thirsting because of thy name, with their loins girded, having in theist hands the incense of their hearts, and praying and blessing every hour, and restraining and overcoming themselves, weeping and wailing above the rest that inhabit the earth. And we indeed, their angels, mourn along with them: whither therefore it shall please thee, command us to go and minister, lest others also do it, but the destitute above the rest who are on earth. And there came the voice of God to them saying: Know ye that now henceforward my grace is appointed unto you, and my help, who is my well-beloved Son, shall be present with them, guiding them every hour; ministering also to them, never deserting them, since their place is his habitation.

10. When therefore these angels had retired, behold other angels came to adore in the presence of honour, in the assembly, who wept; and the spirit of God proceeded to meet them, and there came the voice of God and said: Whence come ye, our angels, bearing the burdens of the ministry of the tidings of the world? They answered and said in the presence of God: We have arrived from those who called upon thy name, and the impediments of the world made them wretched, devising many occasions every hour, not even making one pure prayer, nor out of their whole heart, in all the time of their life; what need, therefore, is there to be present with men who are sinners? And there came the voice of God to them: It is necessary that ye should minister to them, until they be converted and repent: but if they do not return to me I will judge them. Know therefore, sons of men, that whatever things are wrought by you, these angels relate to God, whether good or evil.

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11. And the angel answered and said unto me: Follow me, and I will show you the place of the just where they are led when they are deceased, and after these things taking thee into the abyss, I will show thee the souls of sinners and what sort of place they are led into when they have deceased. And I proceeded back after the angel, and he led me into heaven, and I looked back upon the firmament, and I saw in the same place power, and there was there oblivion which deceives and draws down to itself the hearts of men, and the spirit of detraction, and the spirit of fornication, and the spirit of madness, and the spirit of insolence, and there were there the princes of vices: these I saw under the firmament of heaven: and again I looked back, and I saw angels without mercy, having no pity, whose countenance was full of madness, and their teeth sticking out beyond the mouth: their eyes shone like the morning star of the east, and from the hairs of their head sparks of fire went out, or from their mouth. And I asked the angel saying: Sir, who are those? And the angel answered and said unto me: These are those who are destined to the souls of the impious in the hour of need, who did not believe that they had the Lord for their helper, nor hoped in him.

12. And I looked on high and I saw other angels whose countenance shone as the sun, their loins girded with golden girdles, having palms in their hands, and the sign of God, clothed with garments in which was written the name of the Son of God, filled moreover with all meekness and pity; and I asked the angels saying: Who are these, Lord, in so great beauty and pity? And the angel answered and said unto me: These are the angels of justice who are sent to lead up the souls of the just, in the hour of need, who believed that they had the Lord for their helper. And I said to him: Do the just and sinners necessarily meet witnesses when they have died? And the angel answered and said to me: There is one way by which all pass over to God, but the just having their helper with them are not confounded when they go to appear in the sight of God.

13. And I said to the angel: I wished to see the souls of the just and of sinners going out of the world. And the angel answered and said unto me: Look down upon the earth. And I looked down from heaven upon the earth, and saw the whole world, and it was nothing in my sight and I saw the sons of men as though they were naught, and a-wanting, and I wondered and said to the angel: Is this the greatness of men? And the angel answered and said unto me: It is, and these are they who do evil from morning till evening. And I looked and saw a great cloud of fire spread over the whole world, and I said to the angel: What is this, my Lord? and he said to me: This is injustice stirred up by the princes of sinners.

14. I indeed when I had heard this sighed and wept, and said to the angel: I wished to see the souls of the just and of sinners, and to see in what manner they go out of the body. And the angel answered and said unto me: Look again upon the earth. And I looked and saw all the world, and men were as naught and a-wanting: and I looked carefully and saw a certain man about to die, and the angel said to me: This one whom thou seest is a just man. And I looked again and saw all his works, whatever he had done for the sake of God's name, and all his desires, both what he remembered, and what he did not remember; they all stood in his sight in the hour of need; and I saw the just man advance and find refreshment and confidence, and before he went out of the world the holy and the impious angels both attended: and I saw them all, but the impious found no place of habitation in him, but the holy took possession of his soul, guiding it till it went out of the body: and they roused the soul saying: Soul, know thy body whence thou goest out, for it is necessary that thou shouldst return to the same body on the day of the resurrection, that thou mayest receive the things promised to all the just. Receiving therefore the soul from the body, they immediately kissed it as familiarly known to them, saying to it: Do manfully, for thou hast done the will of God while placed in the earth. And there came to meet him the angel who watched him every day, and said to him: Do manfully, soul; for I rejoice in thee, because thou hast done the will of God on earth: for I related to God all thy works, such as they were. Similarly also the spirit proceeded to meet him and said: Soul, fear not, nor be disturbed, until thou comest into a place which thou hast never known, but I will be a helper unto thee: for I found in thee a place of refreshment in the time when I dwelt in thee, while I was on earth. And his spirit strengthened him, and his angel received him, and led him into heaven: and an angel said: Whither runnest thou, O soul, and dost thou dare to enter into heaven? Wait and let us see if there is anything of ours in thee: and behold

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we find nothing in thee. I see also thy divine helper and angel, and the spirit is rejoicing along with thee, because thou hast done the will of God on earth. And they led him along till he should worship in the sight of God. And when they had ceased, immediately Michael and all the army of angels, with one voice, adored the footstool of his feet, and his doom, saying at the same time to the soul: This is your God of all things, who made you in his own image and likeness. Moreover the angel returns and points him out saying: God, remember his labours: for this is the soul, whose works I related to thee, doing according to thy judgment. And the spirit said likewise: I am the spirit of vivification inspiring him: for I had refreshment in him, in the time when I dwelt in him, doing according to thy judgment. And there came the voice of God and said: In as much as this man did not vex me, neither will I vex him; for according as he had pity, I also will have pity. Let him therefore be handed over to Michael, the angel of the Covenant, and let him lead him into the Paradise of joy, that he himself may become co-heir with all the saints. And after these things I heard the voices of a thousand thousand angels, and archangels, and cherubim, and twenty-four elders saying hymns, and glorifying the Lord and crying: thou art just, O Lord, and just are thy judgments, and there is no acceptance of persons with thee, but thou rewardest unto every man according to thy judgment. And the angel answered and said unto me: Hast thou believed and known, that whatever each man of you has done, he sees in the hour of need? And I said: Yes, sir.

15. And he saith to me: Look again down on the earth, and watch the soul of an impious man going out of the body, which vexed the Lord day and night, saying: I know nothing else in this world, I eat and drink, and enjoy what is in the world; for who is there who has descended into hell, and ascending has declared to us that there is judgment there! And again I looked carefully, and saw all the scorn of the sinner, and all that he did, and they stood together before him in the hour of need: and it was done to him in that hour, in which he was threatened about his body at the judgment, and I said: It were better for him if he hall not been born. And after these things, there came at the same time, the holy angels, and the malign, and the soul of the sinner and the holy angels did not find a place in it. Moreover the malign angels cursed it; and when they had drawn it out of the body, the angels admonished it a third time, saying: O wretched soul, look upon thy flesh, whence thou camest out: for it is necessary that thou shouldst return to thy flesh in the day of resurrection, that thou mayest receive the due for thy sins and thy impieties.

16. And when they had led it forth, the customary angel preceded it, and said to it: O wretched soul, I am the angel belonging to thee, relating daily to the Lord thy malign works, whatever thou didst by night or day: and if it were in my power, not for one day would I minister to thee, but none of these things was I able to do: the judge is pitiful and just, and he himself commanded us that we should not cease to minister to the soul, till you should repent, but thou hast lost the time of repentance. I indeed was strange to thee and thou to me. Let us go on then to the just judge: I will not dismiss thee, before I know from to-day why I was strange to thee. And the spirit confounded him, and the angel troubled him. When, therefore, they had arrived at the power, when he started to enter heaven, a labour was imposed upon him, above all other labour: error and oblivion and murmuring met him, and the spirit of fornication, and the rest of the powers, and said to him: Whither goest thou, wretched soul, and darest thou to rush into heaven? hold, that we may see if we have our qualities in thee, since we do not see that thou hast a holy helper. And after that I heard voices in the height of heaven saying: Present that wretched soul to God, that it may know that it is God that it despised. When, therefore, it had entered heaven, all the angels saw it, a thousand thousand exclaimed with one voice, all saying: Woe to thee, wretched soul, for the sake of thy works which thou didst on earth; what answer art thou about to give to God when thou shalt have approached to adore him? The angel who was with it answered and said: Weep with me, my beloved, for I have not found rest in this soul. And the angels answered him and said: Let such a soul be taken away from the midst of ours, for from the time he entered, the stink of him crosses to us angels. And after these things it was presented, that it might worship in the sight of God, and an angel of God showed him God who made him after his own image and likeness. Moreover his angel ran before him saying: Lord God Almighty, I am the angel of this soul, whose works I presented to thee day and night, not doing according to thy judg-

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ment. And the spirit likewise said: I am the spirit who dwelt in it from the time it was made, in itself moreover I know it, and it has not followed my will: judge it, Lord, according to thy judgment. And there came the voice of God to it and said: Where is thy fruit which thou has made worthy of the goods which thou hast received? Have I put a distance of one day between thee and the just man? Did I not make the sun to arise upon thee as upon the just? But the soul was silent, having nothing to answer: and again there came a voice saying: Just is the judgment of God, and there is no acceptance of persons with God, for whoever shall have done mercy, on them shall he have mercy, and whoever shall not have pitied neither shall God pity him. Let him therefore be handed over to the angel Tartaruch, who is set over the punishments, and let him place him in outer darkness, where there is weeping and gnashing of teeth, and let him be there till the great day of judgment. And after these things I heard the voice of angels and archangels saying: Thou art just, Lord, and thy judgment is just.

17. And again I saw, and behold a soul which was led forward by two angels, weeping and saying: Have pity on me, just God, God the judge, for to-day is seven days since I went out of my body, and I was handed over to these two angels, and they led me through to those places, which I had never seen. And God, the just judge, saith to him: What hast thou done? for thou never didst mercy, wherefore thou wast handed over to such angels as have no mercy, and because thou didst not do uprightly, so neither did they act piously with thee in the hour of thy need. Confess therefore thy sins which thou didst commit when placed in the world. And he answered and said: Lord, I did not sin. And the Lord, the just Lord, was angered in fury when it said: I did not sin, because it lied; and God said: Dost thou think thou art still in the world? if any one of you, sinning there, conceal and hide his sin from his neighbour, here indeed nothing whatever shall be hid: for when the souls come to adore in sight of the throne, both the good works and the sins of each one are made manifest. And hearing these things the soul was silent, having no answer. And I heard the Lord God, the just judge, again saying: Come, angel of this soul, and stand in the midst. And the angel of the sinful soul came, having in his hands a manuscript, and said: These, Lord, in my hands, are all the sins of this soul from his youth till to-day, from the tenth year of his birth: and if thou command, Lord, I will also relate his acts from the beginning of his fifteenth year. And the Lord God, the just judge, said: I say unto thee, angel, I do not expect of thee an account of him since he began to be fifteen years old, but state his sins for five years before he died and before he came hither. And again God, the just judge, said: For by myself I swear, and by my holy angels, and by my virtue, that if he had repented five years before he died, on account of one year's life, oblivion would now be thrown over all the evils which he sinned before, and he would have indulgence and remission of sins: now indeed he shall perish. And the angel of the sinful soul answered and said: Lord, command that angel to exhibit those souls.

18. And in that same hour the souls were exhibited in the midst, and the soul of the sinner knew them; and the Lord said to the soul of the sinner: I say unto thee, soul, confess thy work which thou wroughtest in these souls, whom thou seest, when they were in the world. And he answered and said: Lord, it is not yet a full year since I slew this one and poured his blood upon the ground, and with another (a woman) I committed fornication: not this alone, but I also greatly harmed her in taking away her goods. And the Lord God, the just judge, said: Either thou didst not know that he who does violence to another, if he dies first who sustains the violence, is kept in this place until the doer of hurt dies, and then both stand in the presence of the judge, and now each receives according to his deed. And I heard a voice of one saying: Let that soul be delivered into the hands of Tartarus, and led down into hell: he shall lead him into the lower prison and he shall be put in torments, and left there till the great day of judgment. And again I heard a thousand thousand angels saying hymns to the Lord, and crying: Thou art just, O Lord, and just are thy judgments.

19. The angel answered and said unto me: Hast thou perceived all these things? and I said, Yes, sir. And he said to me: Follow me again, and I will take thee, and show thee the places of the just. And I followed the angel, and he raised me to the third heaven, and placed me at the entry of the door: and looking carefully I saw, and the door was of gold, and two columns of gold, full above of golden letters, and the angel tuned again to me and said: Blessed weft thou, if thou hadst entered into these doors, for it is not allowed to any to enter except only to those who have

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goodness and innocence of body in all things. And I asked the angel about everything and said: Sir, tell me on what account these letters are put upon those tables? The angel answered and said unto me: These are the names of the just, serving God with their whole heart, who dwell on the earth. And again I said: Sir, therefore their names and countenance and the likeness of these who serve God are in heaven, and are known to the angels: for they know who are the servants of God with all their heart, before they go out of the world.

20. And when I had entered the interior of the gate of Paradise,(1) there came out to meet me an old man whose countenance shone as the sun; and when he had embraced me he said: Hail, Paul, beloved of God. And he kissed me with a cheerful countenance. He wept, and I said to him: Brother, why dost thou weep? And again sighing and lamenting he said: We are hurt by men, and they vex us greatly; for many are the good things which the Lord has prepared, and great is his promise, but many do not perceive them. And I asked the angel, and said: Sir, who is this? And he said to me: This is Enoch, the scribe of righteousness. And I entered into the interior of that place, and immediately I saw the sun,(2) and coming it saluted me laughing and rejoicing. And when it had seen (me), it turned away and wept, and said to me: Paul, would that thou shouldst receive thy labours which thou hast done in the human race. For me, indeed, I have seen the great and many good things, which God has prepared for the just, and the promises of God are great, but many do not perceive them; but even by many labours scarcely one or two enters into these places.

21. And the angel answered and said to me,(3) Whatever I now show thee here, and whatever thou shalt hear, tell it not to any one in the earth. And he led me and shewed me: and there I heard words which it is not lawful for a man to speak. And again he said, For now follow me, and I will shew thee what thou oughtest to narrate in public and relate.

And he took me down from the third heaven, and led me into the second heaven, and again he led me on to the firmament and from the firmament he led me over the doors of heaven: the beginning of its foundation was on the river which waters all the earth. And I asked the angel and said, Lord, what is this river of water? and he said to me, This is Oceanus! And suddenly I went out of heaven, and I understood that it is the light of heaven which lightens all the earth. For the land there is seven times brighter(4) than silver. And I said, Lord, what is this place? And he said to me, This is the land of promise. Hast thou never heard what is written: Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth? The souls therefore of the just, when they have gone out of the body, are meanwhile dismissed to this place. And I said to the angel, Then this land will be manifested before the time? The angel answered and said to me, When Christ, whom thou preachest, shall come to reign, then, by the sentence of God,(5) the first earth will be dissolved and this land of promise will then be revealed, and it will be like dew or cloud, and then the Lord Jesus Christ, the King Eternal, will be manifested and will come with all his saints to dwell in it, and he will reign over them a thousand years, and they will eat of the good things which I shall now show unto thee.

22. And I looked around upon that land and I saw a river flowing of milk and honey, and there were trees planted by the bank of that river, full of fruit: moreover each single tree bore twelve fruits in the year, having various and diverse fruits: and I saw the created things which are in that place and all the work of God, and I saw there palms of twenty cubits, but others of ten cubits: and that land was seven times brighter than silver. And there were trees full of fruits from the roots to the highest branches, of ten thousand fruits of palms upon ten thousand fruits. The grape-vines moreover had ten thousand plants.(6) Moreover in the single vines there were ten thousand thousand bunches and in each of these a thousand single grapes: moreover these single trees bore a thousand fruits. And I said to the angel, Why does each tree bear a thousand fruits? The angel answered and said unto me, Because the Lord God gives an abounding flood of gifts to the worthy, because they also of their own will afflicted themselves when they were placed in the world doing all things on account of his holy name. And again I said to the angel, Sir, are these the only promises which the Most Holy God makes? And he answered and said to me: No! there are seven times greater than these. But I say unto

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thee that when the just go out of the body they shall see the promises and the good things which God has prepared for them. Till then, they shall sigh, and lament saying: Have we emitted any word from our mouth to vex our neighbour even on one day? I asked and said again: Are these alone the promises of God? And the angel answered and said unto me: These whom you now see are the souls of the married(1) and those who kept the chastity of their nuptials, containing themselves. But to the virgins and those who hunger and thirst after righteousness and those who afflicted themselves for the sake of the name of God, God will give seven times greater than these, which I shall now show thee.

And then he took me up from that place where I saw these things and behold, a river, and its waters were greatly whiter than milk, and I said to the angel, What is this? And he said to me: This is the Acherousian Lake where is the City of Christ, but not every man is permitted to enter that city; for this is the journey which leads to God, and if anyone is a fornicator and impious, and is converted and shall repent and do fruits worthy of repentance, at first indeed when he shall have gone out of the body, he is led and adores God, and thence by command of the Lord he is delivered to the angel Michael and he baptizes him in the Acherousian Lake--thus he leads them into the City of Christ alongside of those who have never sinned. But I wondered and blessed the Lord God for all the things which I saw.

23. And the angel answered and said unto me: Follow me and I will lead thee into the City of Christ. And he was standing on the Acherousian Lake and he put me into a golden ship(2) and angels as it were three thousand were saying hymns before me till I arrived at the City of Christ. Moreover those who inhabited the City of Christ greatly rejoiced over me as I went to them, and I entered and saw the City of Christ, and it was all of gold, and twelve walls encircled it, and twelve interior towers, and each wall had between them single stadia in the circuit: And I said to the angel, Sir, how much is a stadium? The angel answered and said to me: As much as there is between the Lord God and the men who are on the earth, for the City of Christ is alone great. And there were twelve gates in the circuit of the city, of great beauty, and four rivers which encircled it. There was, moreover, a river of honey and a river of milk, and a river of wine and a river of oil. And I said to the angel: What are these rivers surrounding that city? And he saith to me: These are the four rivers which flow sufficiently for those who are in this land of promise, of which the names(3) are: the river of honey is called Fison, and the river of milk Euphrates, and the river of oil Gion, and the river of wine Tigris, such therefore they are for those who when placed in the world did not use the power of these things, but they hungered for these things and afflicted themselves for the sake of the Lord God: so that when these enter into this city, the Lord will assign them these things on high above all measure.

24. I indeed entering the gates saw trees great and very high before the doors of the city, having no fruit but leaves only, and I saw a few men scattered in the midst of the trees, and they lamented greatly when they saw anyone enter the city. And those trees were sorry for them and humbled themselves and bowed down and again erected themselves. And I saw and wept with them and I asked the angel and said: Sir, who are these who are not admitted to enter into the City of Christ? And he said to me: These are they who zealously abstained day and night in fasts, but they had a proud heart above other men, glorifying and praising themselves and doing nothing for their neighbours. For they gave some friendly greeting, but to others they did not even say hail! and indeed they shewed hospitality to those only whom they wished, and if they did anything whatever for their neighbour they were immoderately puffed up. And I said: What then, Sir? Did their pride prevent them from entering into the City of Christ? And the angel answered and said unto me: Pride is the root of all evils. Are they better than the Son of God who came to the Jews with much humility? And I asked him and said: Why is it that the trees humble themselves and erect themselves again? And the angel answered and said to me: The whole time which these men passed on earth zealously serving God, on account of the confusion and reproaches of men at the time, they blushed and humiliated themselves, but they were not saddened. nor did they repent that they should recede from their pride which was in them. This is why the trees humble themselves, and again

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are raised up. And I asked and said: For what cause were they admitted to the doors of the city? The angel answered and said unto me: Because of the great goodness of God, and because there is the entry of his holy men entering into this city: for this cause they are left in this place, but when Christ the King Eternal enters with his saints, as he enters just men may pray for these, and then they may enter into the city along with them: but yet none of them is able to have assurance such as they have who humbled themselves, serving the Lord God all their lives.

25. But I went on while the angel instructed me, and he carried me to the river of honey, and I saw there Isaiah and Jeremiah(1) and Ezekiel and Amos, and Micah and Zechariah, the minor and major prophets, and they saluted me in the city. I said to the angel: What way is this? And he said to me: This is the way of the prophets, every one who shall have afflicted his soul and not done his own will because of God, when he shall have gone out of the world and have been led to the Lord God and adored him, then by the command of God he is handed over to Michael, and he leads him into the city to this place of the prophets, and they salute him as their friend and neighbour because he did the will of God.

26. Again he led me where there is a river of milk, and I saw in that place all the infants whom Herod slew because of the name of Christ, and they saluted me, and the angel said to me: All who keep their chastity with purity, when they shall have come out of the body, after they adore the Lord God are delivered to Michael and are led to the infants and they salute them, saying that they are our brothers and friends and members; in themselves they shall inherit the promises of God.

27. Again he took me up and carried me to the north of the city and led me where there was a river of wine, and there I saw Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, Lot and Job and other saints,(2) and they saluted me: and I asked and said: What is this place, my Lord? The angel answered and said to me: All who are receivers of pilgrims, when they go out of the world, first adore the Lord God, and are delivered to Michael and by this way are led into the city, and all the just salute him as son and brother, and say unto him: Because thou hast observed humanity and the receiving of pilgrims, come, have an inheritance in the city of the Lord our God: every just man shall receive good things of God in the city, according to his own action.

28. And again he carried me near the river of oil on the east of the city. And I saw there men rejoicing and singing psalms, and I said: Who are those, my Lord? And the angel saith to me: Those are they who devoted themselves to God with their whole heart and had no pride in themselves. For all those who rejoice in the Lord God and sing psalms to the Lord with their whole heart are here led into this city.

29. And he carried me into the midst of the city near the twelve walls.(3) But there was in this place a higher wall, and I asked and said: Is there in the City of Christ a wall which in honour exceeds this place? And the angel answering said to me: There is a second better than the first, and similarly a third than the second, as each exceeds the other, unto the twelfth wall. And I said: Tell me, Sir, why one exceeds another in glory? And the angel answered and said unto me: All who have in themselves even a little detraction or zeal or pride, something of his glory would be made void even if he were in the city of Christ: look backward!

And turning round I saw golden thrones placed in each gate, and on them men having golden diadems and gems:(4) and I looked carefully and I saw inside between the twelve men thrones placed in another rank which appeared of much glory, so that no one is able to recount their praise. And I asked the angel and said: My lord, who is on the throne? And the angel answered and said unto me: Those thrones belong to those who had goodness and understanding of heart and made themselves fools for the sake of the Lord God, nor knew new Scriptures nor psalms, but, mindful of one chapter of the commands of God, and hearing what it contained they wrought thereby in much diligence and had s fight zeal before the Lord God, and the admiration of them will seize all the saints in presence of the Lord God, for talking with one another they say, Wait and see the unlearned who know nothing more: by which means they merited so great and such a garment and so great glory on account of their innocence.

And I saw in the midst of this city a great

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altar, very high, and there was one standing near the altar whose countenance shone as the sun, and he held in his hands a psaltery and harp, and he sang psalms, saying Halleluia! And his voice filled the whole city: at the same time when all they who were on the towers and gates heard him they responded Halleluia! so that the foundations of the city were shaken: and I asked the angel and said, Sir, who is this of so great power? And the angel said to me: This is David: this is the city of Jerusalem, for when Christ the King of Eternity shall come with the assurance of His kingdom, he again shall go before him that he may sing psalms, and all the just at the same time shall sing psalms responding Halleluia! And I said, Sir, how did David alone above the other saints make a beginning of psalm-singing? And the angel answered and said unto me: Because Christ the Son of God sits at the right hand of His Father, and this David sings psalms before him in the seventh heaven, and as is done in the heavens so also below, because the host may not be offered to God without David, but it is necessary that David should sing psalms in the hour of the oblation of the body and blood of Christ: as it is performed in heaven so also on earth.

30. And I said to the angel: Sir, what is Alleluia? And the angel answered and said to me: You ask questions about everything. And he said to me, Alleluia is said in the Hebrew language of God and angels, for the meaning of Alleluia is this: tecel cat. marith macha.(1) And I said, Sir, what is tecel cat. marith macha? And the angel answered and said unto me: Tecel cat. marith macha is: Let us all bless him together. I asked the angel and said, Sir, do all who say Alleluia bless the Lord? And the angel answered and said to me: It is so, and again, therefore, if any one sing Alleluia and those who are present do not sing at the same time, they commit sin because they do not sing along with him, And I said: My lord, does he also sin if he be hesitating or very old? The angel answered and said unto me: Not so, but he who is able and does not join in the singing, know such as a despiser of the Word, and it would be proud and unworthy that he should not bless the Lord God his maker.

31. Moreover when he had ceased speaking to me, he led me outside the city through the midst of the trees and far from the places of the land of the good, and put me across the river of milk and honey: and after that he led me over the ocean which supports the foundations of heaven.

The angel answered and said unto me: Dost thou understand why thou goest hence? And I said: Yes, sir. And he said to me Come and follow me, and I will show thee the souls of the impious and sinners, that thou mayest know what manner of place it is. And I proceeded with the angel and he carried me by the setting of the sun, and I saw the beginning of heaven rounded on a great river of water, and I asked: What is this river of water? And he said to me: This is Ocean which surrounds all the Earth. And when I was at the outer limit of Ocean I looked, and there was no light in that place, but darkness and sorrow and sadness: and I sighed.

And I saw there a fervent river of fire, and in it a multitude of men and women immersed. up to the knees, and other men up to the navel, others even up to the lips, others moreover up to the hair. And I asked the angel and said: Sir, who are those in the fiery river? And the angel answered and said to me: They are neither hot nor cold, because they were found neither in the number of the just nor in the number of the impious.(2) For those spent the time of their life on earth passing some days in prayer, but others in sins and fornications, until their death. And I asked him and said: Who are these, Sir, immersed up to their knees in fire? He answered and said to me: These are they who when they have gone out of church throw themselves into strange conversations to dispute. Those indeed who are immersed up to the navel are those who, when they have taken the body and blood of Christ go and fornicate and did not cease from their sins till they died. Those who are immersed up to the lips are the detractors of each other when they assemble in the church of God: those up to the eyebrows are those who nod approval of themselves and plot spite against their neighbour.(3)

32. And I saw on the north a place of various and diverse punishments full of men and women,(4) and a river of fire ran down into it. Moreover I observed and I saw pits great in depth, and in them several souls together, and the depth of that place was as it were three thousand cubits, and I saw them groaning

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and weeping and saying: Have pity on us, O Lord! and none had pity on them. And I asked the angel and said: Who are these, Sir? And the angel answered and said unto me: These are they who did not hope in the Lord, that they would be able to have him as their helper. And I asked and said: Sir, if these souls remain for thirty or forty generations thus one upon another, if they were sent deeper, the pits I believe would not hold them. And he said to me: The Abyss has no measure, for beyond(1) this it stretches down below him who is down in it: and so it is, that if perchance anyone should take a stone and throw it into a very deep well and after many hours it should reach the bottom, such is the abyss. For when the souls are thrown in there, they hardly reach the bottom in fifty years.

33. I, indeed, when I heard this, wept and groaned over the human race. The angel answered and said unto me: Why dost thou weep? Art thou more pitiful than God? For though God is good, He knows also that there are punishments, and He patiently bears with the human race, dismissing each one to work his own will in the time in which he dwells on the earth.

34. I further observed the fiery river and saw there a man being tortured by Tartaruchian angels having in their hands an iron with three hooks with which they pierced the bowels of that old man: and I asked the angel, and said: Sir, who is that old man on whom such torments are imposed? And the angel answered and said to me: He whom you see was a presbyter who did not perform well his ministry: when he had been eating and drinking and committing fornication he offered the host to the Lord at his holy altar.

35. And I saw not far away another old man led on by malign angels running with speed, and they pushed him into the fire up to his knees, and they struck him with stones and wounded his face like a storm, and did not allow him to say: Have pity on me! And I asked the angel and he said to me: He whom you see was a bishop, and did not perform well his episcopate, who indeed accepted the great name but did not enter into the witness of him who gave him the name in all his life, seeing that he did not do just judgment, and did not pity widows and orphans, but now he receives retribution according to his iniquity and his works.

36. And I saw another man in the fiery river up to his knees. Moreover his hands were stretched out and bloody, and worms proceeded from his mouth and nostrils and he was groaning and weeping, and crying he said: Have pity on me! for I am hurt above the rest who are in this punishment. And I asked, Sir, who is this? And he said to me: This man whom thou seest, was a deacon who devoured the oblations and committed fornications and did not right in the sight of God, for this cause he unceasingly pays this penalty.

And I looked closely and saw alongside of him another(2) man whom they delivered up with haste and cast into the fiery river, and he was (in it) up to the knees: and there came the angel who was set over the punishments having a great fiery razor, and with it he cut the lips of that man and the tongue likewise. And sighing, I lamented and asked: Who is that, sir. And he said to me, He whom thou seest was a reader and read to the people, but he himself did not keep the precepts of God: now he also pays the proper penalty.

37. And I saw another multitude of pits in the same place, and in the midst of it a river full of a multitude of men and women,(3) and worms(4) consumed them. But I lamented and sighing asked the angel and said: Sir, who are these? And he said to me: These are those who exacted interest(5) on interest and trusted in their riches and did not hope in God that He was their helper.

And after that I looked and saw another place, very narrow, and it was like a wall, and fire round about it. And I saw inside men and women gnawing(6) their tongues, and I asked: Sir, who are these. And he said to me: These are they who in church disparage the Word of God, not attending to it, but as it were make naught of God and His angels: for that cause they now likewise pay the proper penalty.

38. And I observed and saw another old man down in a pit and his countenance was like blood, and I asked and said, Sir, what is this place? And he said to me: Into that pit stream all the punishments. And I saw men and women immersed up to the lips and I asked, Sir, who are these? And he said to me: These are the magicians who prepared for men and women evil magic arts and did not find how to stop them till they died.

And again I saw men and women with very

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black faces in a pit of fire,(1) and I sighed and lamented and asked, Sir, who are these? And he said to me: These are fornicators and adulterers who committed adultery having wives of their own: likewise also the women committed adultery having husbands of their own: therefore they unceasingly suffer penalties.

39. And I saw there girls having black(2) raiment, and four terrible angels having in their hands burning chains, and they put them on the necks of the girls and led them into darkness: and I, again weeping, asked the angel: Who are these, Sir? And he said to me: These are they who, when they were virgins, defiled their virginity unknown to their parents; for which cause they unceasingly pay the proper penalties.

And again I observed there men and women with hands cut and their feet placed naked in a place of ice and snow, and worms devoured them. But seeing them I lamented and asked: Sir, who are these? And he said to me: These are they who harmed orphans and widows and the poor,(3) and did not hope in the Lord, for which cause they unceasingly pay the proper penalties.

And I observed and saw others hanging over a channel of water, and their tongues were very dry, and many fruits were placed in their sight, and they were not permitted to take of them, and I asked: Sir, who are these? And he said to me: These are they who break their fast(4) before the appointed hour, for this cause they unceasingly pay these penalties.

And I saw other men and women hanging by their eyebrows and their hair,(5) and a fiery river drew them, and I said: Who are these, my Lord? And he said to me:(6) These are they who join themselves not to their own husbands and wives but to whores, and therefore they unceasingly pay the proper penalties.

And I saw other men and women covered with dust, and their countenance was like blood, and they were in a pit of pitch and sulphur and running down into a fiery river, and I asked: Sir, who are these?(7) And he said to me: These are they who committed the iniquity of Sodom and Gomorrah, the male with the male, for which reason they unceasingly pay the penalties.

40. And(8) I observed and saw men and women clothed in bright garments, having their eyes blind, placed in a pit, and I asked: Sir, who are these? And he said to me: These are of the people who did alms, and knew not the Lord God, for which reason they unceasingly pay the proper penalties. And I observed and saw other men and women on an obelisk of fire, and beasts tearing them in pieces, and they were not allowed to say, Lord have pity on us! And I saw the angel(9) of penalties putting heavy punishments on them and saying: Acknowledge the Son of God; for this was predicted to you, when the divine Scriptures were read to you, and you did not attend; for which cause God's judgment is just, for your actions have apprehended you and brought you into these penalties. But I sighed and wept, and I asked and said: Who are these men and women who are strangled in fire and pay their penalties? And he answered me: These are women who defiled the image of God when bringing forth infants out of the womb, and these are the men who lay with them. And their infants addressed the Lord God and the angels who were set over the punishments, saying:(10) Cursed be the hour to our parents, for they defiled the image of God, having the name of God but not observing His precepts: they gave us for food to dogs and to be trodden down of swine: others they threw into the river. But their infants(11) were handed over to the angels of Tartarus who were set over the punishments, that they might lead them to a wide place of mercy: but their fathers and mothers were tortured in a perpetual punishment.

And after that I saw men and women clothed with rags full of pitch and fiery sulphur, and dragons were coiled about their necks and shoulders and feet, and angels having fiery horns restrained them and smote them, and closed their nostrils, saying to them: Why did ye not know the time in which it was right to repent and serve God, and did not do it? And I asked: Sir, who are these? And he said to me: These are they who seem to give up the world for God,(12) putting on our garb, but the impediments of the world made them wretched, not main-

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taining agapoe, and they did not pity widows and orphans: they did not receive the stranger and the pilgrim, nor did they offer the oblations, and they did not pity their neighbour. Moreover their prayer did not even on one day ascend pure to the Lord God, but many impediments of the world detained them, and they were not able to do right in the sight of God, and the angels enclosed them in the place of punishments. Moreover they saw those who were in punishments and said to them: We indeed when we lived in the world neglected God, and ye also did likewise: as we also truly when we were in the world knew that ye were sinners. But ye said: These are just and servants of God, now we know why ye were called by the name of the Lord: for which cause they also pay their own penalties.

And sighing I wept and said: Woe unto men, woe unto sinners! why were they born? And the angel answered and said unto me: Why dost thou lament?(1) Art thou more pitiful than the Lord God who is blessed forever, who established judgment and sent forth every man to choose good and evil in his own will and do what pleases him? Then I lamented again very greatly, and he said to me: Dost thou lament when as yet thou hast not seen greater punishments? Follow me and thou shalt see seven times greater than these.

41. And he carried me south and placed me above a well, and I found it sealed with seven seals: and answering, the angel who was with me said to the angel of that place: Open the mouth of the well that Paul, the well-beloved of God, may see, for authority is given him that he may see all the pains of hell. And the angel said to me: Stand afar off that thou mayest be able to bear the stench of this place. When therefore the well was opened, immediately there arose from it a certain hard and malign stench, which surpasses all punishments: and I looked into the well and I saw fiery masses glowing in every. part, and narrow places, and the mouth of the well was narrow so as to admit one man only. And the angel answered and said unto me: If any man shall have been put into this well of the abyss and it shall have been sealed over him, no remembrance of him shall ever be made in the sight of the Father and His Son and the holy angels. And I said: Who are these, Sir, who are put into this well? And he said to me: They are whoever shall not confess that Christ has come in the flesh and that the Virgin Mary brought him forth, and whoever says that the bread and cup of the Eucharist of blessing are not this body and blood of Christ.

42. And I looked to the south in the west and I saw there a(2) restless worm and in that place there was gnashing of teeth: moreover the worms were one cubit long, and had two heads, and there I saw men and women in cold and gnashing of teeth. And I asked and said, Sir, who are these in this place? And he said to me: These are they who say that Christ did not rise from the dead and that this flesh will not rise again. And I asked and said: Sir, is there no fire nor heat in this place? And he said to me: In this place there is nothing else but cold and snow:(2) and again he said to me: Even if the sun should rise upon them, they do not become warm on account of the superabundant cold of that place and the snow.

But hearing these things I stretched out my hands and wept, and sighing again, I said: It were better for us if we had not been born,(4) all of us who are sinners.

43. But when those who were in the same place saw me weeping with the angel, they themselves cried out and wept saying, Lord God have mercy upon us! And after these things I saw the heavens open, and Michael(5) the archangel descending from heaven, and with him was the whole army of angels, and they came to those who were placed in punishment and seeing him, again weeping, they cried out and said, Have pity on as! Michael the archangel, have pity on us and on the human race, for on account of thy prayers the earth standeth. We now see the judgment and acknowledge the Son of God! It was impossible for us before these things to pray for this, before we entered into this place: for we heard that there was a judgment before we went out of the world, but impediments and the life of the world did not allow us to repent. And Michael answered and said: Hear Michael speaking! I am he who stands in the sight of God every. hour: As the Lord liveth, in whose sight I stand, I do not intermit one day or one night praying incessantly for the human race, and I indeed pray for those who are on the earth: but they do not cease doing iniquity and fornications, and they do not bring to me any good while they are placed on earth: and ye have con-

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sumed in vanity the time in which ye ought to have repented. But I have always prayed thus and I now beseech that God may send dew and send forth rains upon the earth, and now I desire until the earth produce its fruits and verily I say, that if any have done but a little good, I will agonise for him, protecting him till he have escaped the judgment of penalties. Where therefore are your prayers? Where are your penances? Ye have lost your time contemptuously. But now weep and I will weep with you and the angels who are with me with the well-beloved Paul, if perchance the merciful God will have pity and give you refreshment. But hearing these words they cried out and wept greatly, and all said with one voice: Have pity on us, Son of God! And I, Paul, sighed and said: O Lord God! have pity on thy creature, have pity on the sons of men, have pity on thine image.

44. And I looked and saw the heaven move like a tree shaken by the wind. Suddenly, moreover, they threw, themselves on their faces in the sight of the throne. And I saw twenty-four elders and twenty-four thousand adoring God, and I saw an altar and veil and throne, and all were rejoicing; and the smoke of a good odour was raised near the altar of the throne of God, and I heard the voice of one saying: For the sake of what do ye our angels and ministers intercede? And they cried out saying: We intercede seeing thy many kindnesses to the human race. And after these things I saw the Son of God descending from heaven, and a diadem was on his head. And seeing him those who were placed in punishment exclaimed all with one voice saying: Have pity, Son of the High God! Thou art He who shewest refreshment for all in the heavens and on earth, and on us likewise have pity, for since we have seen Thee, we have refreshment. And a voice went out from the Son of God through all the punishments saying: And what work have ye done that ye demand refreshment from me? My blood was poured out for your sakes, and not even so did ye repent: for your sakes I wore the crown of thorns on my head: for you I received buffets on my cheeks, and not even so did ye repent. I asked water when hanging on the cross and they gave me vinegar mixed with gall, with a spear they opened my right side, for my name's sake they slew my prophets and just men, and in all these things I gave you a place of repentance and ye would not. Now, however, for the sake of Michael the archangel of my covenant and the angels who are with him, and because of Paul the well-beloved, whom I would not vex, for the sake of your brethren who are in the world and offer oblations, and for the sake of your sons, because my precepts are in them, and more for the sake of mine own kindness, on the day on which I rose from the dead, I give to you all who are in punishment a night and a day of refreshment forever. And they all cried out and said, We bless thee, Son of God, that Thou hast given us a night and a day of respite. For better to us is a refreshment of one day above all the time of our life which we were on earth, and if we had plainly known that this was intended for those who sin, we would have worked no other work, we would have done no business, and we would have done no iniquity: what need had we for pride in the world? For here our pride is crushed which ascended from our mouth against our neighbour: our plagues and excessive straitness and the tears and the worms which are under us, these are much worse to us than the pains which we have left behind us. When they said thus, the malign angels of the penalties were angered with them, saying: How long do ye lament and sigh? for ye had no pity. For this is the judgment of God who had no pity. But ye received this great grace of a day and a night's refreshment on the Lord's Day for the sake of Paul the well-beloved of God who descended to you.

45. And after that the angel said to me: Hast thou seen all these things? And I said: Yes, Sir. And he said to me: Follow me and I will lead thee into Paradise, that the just who are there may see thee, for lo! they hope to see thee, and they are ready to come to meet thee in joy and gladness. And I followed the angel by the impulse of the Holy Spirit, and he placed me in Paradise and said to me: This is Paradise in which Adam and his wife erred. Moreover I entered Paradise and saw the beginning of waters, and there was an angel making a sign to me and he said to me: Observe, said he, the waters, for this is the river of Physon which surrounds all the land of Evilla, and the second is Geon which surrounds all the land of Egypt and Ethiopia, and the third is Thigris which is over against the Assyrians, and another is Eufrates which waters all the land of Mesopotamia. And when I had gone inside I saw a tree planted from whose roots water flowed out, and from this beginning there were four rivers. And the spirit of God rested on that tree, and when the Spirit blew, the waters flowed forth,

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and I said: My Lord, is it this tree itself which makes the waters flow? And he said to me: That from the beginning, before the heavens and earth were manifested, and all things here invisible, the Spirit of God was borne upon the waters, but from the time when the command of God made the heavens and earth to appear, the Spirit rested upon this tree: wherefore whenever the Spirit blows, the waters flow forth from the tree. And he held me by the hand and led me near the tree of knowledge of good and evil, and he said: This is the tree by which death entered into the world, and receiving of it through his wife Adam ate and death entered into the world. And he shewed me another tree in the midst of Paradise, and saith to me: This is the tree of life.

46. While I was yet looking upon the tree, I saw a virgin coming from afar and two hundred angels before her saying hymns, and I asked and said: Sir, who is she who comes in so great glory? And he said to me: This is Mary the Virgin, the Mother of the Lord. And coming near she saluted me and said: Hail, Paul! well-beloved of God and angels and men. For all the saints prayed my Son Jesus who is my Lord that thou mightest come hither in the body that they might see thee before thou goest out of the world. And the Lord said to them: Bear and be patient: yet a little and ye shall see him and he shall be with you for ever: and again they all said to him together: Do not vex us, for we desire to see him in the flesh, for by him Thy name was greatly glorified in the world, and we have seen that he endured all the labours whether of the greater or of the less. This we learn from those who come hither. For when we say: Who is he who directed you in the world? they reply to us: There is one in the world whose name is Paul, he preaches and announces Christ, and we believe that many have entered into the kingdom through the virtue and sweetness of his speeches. Behold all the just men are behind me coming to meet thee, Paul, and I first come for this cause to meet them who did the will of my Son and my Lord Jesus Christ, I first advance to meet them and do not send them away to be as wanderers until they meet in peace.

47. When she had thus spoken, I saw three coming from afar, very beautiful in the likeness of Christ, and their forms were shining, and their angels, and I asked: Sir, who are these? And he said to me: Dost thou not know those? And I said: No, Sir. And he answered: These are the fathers of the people, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. And coming near they saluted me, and said: Hail, Paul, well-beloved of God and men; blessed is he who suffers violence for the Lord's sake. And Abraham answered me and said: This is my son Isaac, and Jacob my well-beloved, and we have known the Lord and followed him; blessed are all they who believed in thy word, that they may be able to inherit the Kingdom of God by labour, by renunciation, and sanctification, and humility, and charity, and meekness, and fight faith in the Lord; and we also have had devotion to the Lord whom thou preachest in the testament, that we might assist those who believed in him with their whole soul, and might minister unto them as fathers minister to their children.

When they had thus spoken, I saw other twelve coming from afar in honour, and I asked: Sir, who are these? And he said: These are the patriarchs. And coming near they saluted me and said: Hail, Paul, well-beloved of God and men: the Lord did not vex us, that we might see thee yet in the body, before thou goest out of the world. And each one of them reminded me of his name in order, from Ruben to Benjamin: and Joseph said to me: I am he who was sold; but I say to thee, Paul, that all the things, whatever my brothers did to me, in nothing did I act maliciously with them, nor in all the labour which they imposed on me, nor in any point was I hurt by them on that account from morning till evening: blessed is he who receives some hurt on account of the Lord, and bears it, for the Lord will repay it to him manifold, when he shall have gone out of the world.

48. When he had spoken thus far, I saw another beautiful one coming from afar, and his angels saying hymns, and I asked: Sir, who is this that is beautiful of countenance? And he saith to me: Dost thou not know him? And I said: No, Sir. And he said to me: This is Moses the law-giver, to whom God gave the law. And when he had come near me, he immediately wept, and after that he saluted me: and I said to him: What dost thou lament? for I have heard that thou excellest every. man in meekness. And he answered saying: I weep for those whom I planted with toil, because they did not bear fruit, nor did any profit by them; and I saw all the sheep whom I fed, that they were scattered and become as if they had no shepherd, and because all the toils which I

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endured for the sake of the sons of Israel were accounted as naught, and how greatso-ever virtues I did in the midst of them these they did not understand, and I wonder that strangers and uncircumcised and idol-wor-shippers have been converted and have entered into the promises of God, but Israel has not entered; and now I say unto thee, brother Paul, that in that hour when the people hanged Jesus whom thou preachest, that the Father, the God of all, who gave me the law, and Michael and all the angels and archangels, and Abraham and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the just wept over the Son of God hanging on the cross. In that hour all the saints attended on me looking (upon me) and they said to me: See, Moses, what men of thy people have done to the Son of God. Wherefore thou art blessed, Paul, and blessed the generation and race which believed in thy word.

49. When he had spoken thus far, there came other twelve, and seeing me said: Art thou Paul the glorified in heaven and on earth? And I answered and said: What are ye? The first answered and said: I am Esaias whom Manasses cut asunder with a wooden saw. And the second said likewise: I am Jeremias who was stoned by the children of Israel and slain. And the third said: I am Ezekiel whom the children of Israel dragged by the feet over a rock in a mountain till they knocked out my brains, and we endured all these toils, wishing to save the children of Israel: and I say unto thee that after the toils which they laid upon me, I cast myself on my face in the sight of the Lord praying for them, bending my knees until the second hour of the Lord's day, till Michael came and lifted me up from the earth. Blessed art thou, Paul, and blessed the nation which believed through thee.

And as these passed by, I saw another, beautiful of countenance, and I asked: Sir, Who is this? Who when he had seen me, rejoiced and said to me: This is Lot(1) who was found just in Sodom. And approaching(2) he saluted me and said: Blessed art thou, Paul, and blessed the generation to which thou didst minister. And I answered and said to him: Art thou Lot who wast found just in Sodom? And he said: I entertained angels, as travellers, and when they of the city wished to violate them, I offered them my two virgin daughters who had not yet known men, and gave them to them saying: use them as ye will, but only to these men ye shall do no evil; for this cause they entered under the roof of my house. For this cause, therefore, we ought to be confident and know that if anyone shall have done anything, God shall repay him manifold when they shall come to him. Blessed art thou, Paul, and blessed the nation which believed in thy word.

When, therefore, he had ceased talking to me, I saw another coming from a distance, very beautiful of countenance, and smiling, and his angels saying hymns: and I said to the angel who was with me: Has then each of the just an angel for companion? And he said to me: Each one of the saints has his own (angel) assisting him, and saying a hymn, and the one does not depart from the other. And I said: Who is this, Sir? And he said: This is Job. And approaching, he saluted me and said: Brother Paul, thou hast great praise with God and men. And I am Job, who laboured much for a period of thirty years from a plague in the blood; and verily in the beginning, the wounds which went forth from my body were like grains of wheat. But on the third day, they became as the foot of an ass; worms moreover which fell four digits in length: and on the third (day) the devil appeared and said to me: Say something against God and die. I said to him: If such be the will of God that I should remain under a plague all the time of my life till I die, I shall not cease from blessing the Lord, and I shall receive more reward. For I know that the labours of that world are nothing to the refreshment which is afterwards: for which cause blessed art thou, Paul, and blessed the nation which believed through thee.

50. When he had spoken thus far, another came calling from afar and saying: Blessed art thou, Paul, and blessed am I because I saw thee, the beloved of the Lord. And I asked the angel: Sir, who is this? And he answered and said unto me: This is Noe in the time of the deluge. And immediately we saluted each other: and greatly rejoicing he said to me: Thou art Paul the most beloved of God. And I asked him: Who art thou? And he said: I am Noe, who was in the time of the deluge. And I say to thee, Paul, that working for a hundred years, I made the ark, not putting off the tunic with which I was clad, nor did I cut the hair of my head. Till then also I cherished continence, not approaching my own wife: in those hundred years not a hair of my head grew in length, nor did my garments

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become soiled: and I besought men at all times saying: Repent, for a deluge of waters will come upon you. But they laughed at me, and mocked my words; and again they said to me: But this is the time of those who are able to play and sin freely, desiring her with whom it is possible to commit fornication frequently: for God does not regard this, and does not know what things are done by us men, and there is no flood of waters straightway coming upon this world. And they did not cease from their sins, till God destroyed all flesh which had the breath of life in it. Know then that God loveth one just man more than all the world of the impious. Wherefore, blessed art thou, Paul, and blessed is the nation which believes through thee.

51. And turning round, I saw other just ones coming from afar, and I asked the angel: Sir, who are those? And he answered me: These are Elias and Eliseus.(1) And they saluted me: and I said to them: Who are ye? And one of them answered and said: I am Elias, the prophet of God; I am Elias who prayed, and because of my word, the heaven did not rain for three years and six months, on account of the unrighteousness of men. God is just and true, who doeth the will of his servants: for the angels often besought the Lord for rain, and he said: Be patient till my servant Elias shall pray and petition for this and I will send rain on the earth.(2)

THE APOCALYPSE OF THE VIRGIN

The present translation of this Apocalypse(1) is made from the text as published by Mr. M. R. James in Texts and Studies, ii., 3, from a Ms. in the Bodleian Library, which he assigns to the eleventh century. The original he conjecturally assigns to the ninth century, and regards it as a late and clumsy compilation based on(1) the Assumption Legends and(2) the Apocalypse of Paul. Its main feature, intercession for the lost, it has in common with the Testament of Abraham, the Apocalypse of Paul, 4 Esdras, the Apocalypse of Baruch, the Apocalypse of Esdras and the Apocalypse of Sedrach. Parallels are pointed out in the notes.

THE APOCALYPSE OF THE HOLY MOTHER OF GOD CONCERNING THE CHASTISEMENTS

I. The all-holy mother of God was about to proceed to the Mount of Olives to pray; and praying to the Lord our God she said: In the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit; let the archangel Gabriel descend, that he may tell me concerning the chastisements and concerning things in heaven and on the earth and under the earth. And as she said the word the archangel Michael descended with the angels of the East and the West and angels of the South and the North, and they saluted the highly favoured one and said to her: Hail, reflection of the Father, hail dwelling of the Son, hail command of the Holy Spirit, hail firmament of the seven heavens, hail firmament of the eleven strongholds, hail worship of the angels, hail loftier than the prophets unto the throne of God. And the holy mother of God said to the angel: Hail Michael, commander-in-chief, the minister of the invisible Father, hail Michael, commander-in-chief, associate of my Son, hail Michael, commander-in-chief, most dread of the six-winged, hail Michael, commander-in-chief, who rules through all things and art worthy to stand beside the throne of the Lord, hail Michael, commander-in-chief, who art about to sound the trumpet and awaken those who have been asleep for ages: hail Michael, commander-in-chief, first of all unto the throne of God.

II. And having greeted all the angels in like manner, the highly favoured one prayed the commander-in-chief regarding the chastisements, saying: Tell to me all things on the earth. And the commander-in-chief said to her: If thou askest me, highly favoured one, I will tell thee. And the highly favoured one said to him: How many are the chastisements with which the race of man is chastised? And the archangel said to her: The chastisements are innumerable. And the highly favoured one said to him: Tell me the things in heaven and on the earth.

III. Then the commander-in-chief, Michael, commanded the Western angels that revelation should be made, and Hades opened, and she saw those who were chastised(1) in Hades: and there lay there a multitude of men and women, and there was a great lamentation. And the highly favoured one asked the commander-in-chief: Who are these and what is their sin? And the commander-in-chief said: These, all holy, are those who did not worship the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit and for this cause they are thus chastised here.

IV. And she saw in another place(2) a great darkness: and the all holy said: What is this darkness and who are they who are being chastised? And the commander-in-chief said: Many souls are lying in this darkness. And the all holy one said: Let this darkness be taken away in order that I may see this chastisement also. And the commander-in-chief said to the highly favoured one: It is not possible, all holy, that thou shouldst see this chastisement also. And the angels guarding them answered and said: We have a command from the invisible Father that they shall not see the light till thy blessed Son shall shine forth. And plunged in grief the all holy lifted up her eyes to the angels touching the undefiled word of the Father, and said: In the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit let the darkness be taken away, that I may see this chastisement also. And straightway that darkness was lifted up and covered the seven heavens: and there lay a great multitude of both men and women, and there arose

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a great lamentation and a great cry began. And seeing them the all holy wept and said to them: What are ye doing, wretched ones? Who are ye? And how are ye found there? and there was no voice or hearkening. And the angels guarding them said: Why do ye not speak to the highly favoured one? And those who were under chastisement said to her: O highly favoured one, from eternity we see not the light, and we are not able to keep off that up there. And splashing pitch flowed down upon them: and seeing them the all holy wept. And again those who were being chastised said to her: How dost thou ask concerning us, holy lady, Mother of God? Thy blessed Son came to The earth and did not make enquiry concerning us, neither Abraham the patriarch, nor John the Baptist, nor Moses the great prophet, nor the Apostle Paul, and unto us their light shone not: and now, all holy Mother of God, the armour of the Christians, the bringer of great comfort on account of the Christians, how dost thou ask concerning us? Then the all holy Mother of God said to Michael, the commander-in-chief: What is their sin? And Michael, the commander-in-chief, said: These are they who did not believe in the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, and did not confess thee(1) to be the Mother of God, and that the Lord Jesus Christ was born of thee and took flesh, and for this cause they are chastised there. And again weeping, the all holy Mother of God said to them: Why did ye so greatly err, wretched ones? Did ye not hear that the whole creation names my name? And having said these words the darkness felt over them as it was from the beginning.

V. And the commander-in-chief said: Whither wouldst thou go, highly favoured one? to the West or to the South? And the highly favoured answered: Let us go to the South. And immediately there appeared the cherubim and the seraphim and four hundred angels, and led out the highly favoured one to the South, where came out the river of fire,(2) and there there lay a multitude of men and women, some up to the girdle, others up to the neck, and others up to the crown of the head: and seeing them the all holy Mother of God cried out with a loud voice to the commander-in-chief and said: Who are these, and what is their sin who stand in the fire up to the girdle? And the commander-in-chief said: These, all holy one, are they who inherited the curse of father and mother, and for this cause they are thus chastised here as accursed.

VI. And the all holy one said: And who are these standing in the fire up to the breasts? And the commander-in-chief said: These are whosoever cast off their wives and defiled them in adultery, and for this cause they are thus chastised here.

VII. And the all holy one said to the commander-in-chief: Who are these standing up to the neck in the flame of the fire? And the commander-in-chief said: These, all holy one, are whosoever ate of the flesh of men. And the all holy one said: And how is it possible for one man to eat of the flesh of another? And the commander-in-chief said: Listen, all holy one, and I will tell thee: These are they whosoever brought down their own children out of their own wombs and cast them out(3) as food for dogs, and whosoever gave up their brothers in the presence of kings and governors, these ate the flesh of man, and for this cause they are thus chastised.

VIII. And the all holy one said: Who are these set in the fire up to the crown? And the commander-in-chief said: These, all holy one, are whosoever lay hold of the precious cross and swear to a lie: by the power of the cross of the Lord. The angels tremble and worship with fear, and men lay hold of it and swear to a lie and do not know what they testify: and for this cause they are thus chastised here.

IX. And in another place the all holy one saw a man hung by the feet,(4) and worms devoured him. And she asked the commander-in-chief: Who is this and what is his sin? And the commander-in-chief said: This is he who took usury(6) for his gold, and for this cause he is thus chastised here.

X. And she saw a woman hanging by her two ears, and all the beasts(8) came out of her mouth and gnawed her in pieces: and the highly favoured one asked the commander-in-chief: Who is she, and what is her sin? And the commander-in-chief said: She is she who turned aside into strange houses and those of her neighbours and spoke evil words to make strife, and for that cause she is thus chastised here.

XI. And seeing these things the all holy Mother of God wept and said to the commander-in-chief: It were well for man that he

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had not been born. And the commander-in-chief said: Verily, all holy one, thou hast not seen the great chastisements. And the all holy one said to the commander-in-chief: Come, Michael, great commander-in-chief, and lead me that I may see all the chastisements. And the commander-in-chief said: Where dost thou wish, all holy one, that we should go? And the highly favoured one answered: To the West: and straightway the cherubim appeared and led the highly favoured to the West.

XII. And she saw a cloud full of fire and in it there was a(1) multitude of men and women. And the all holy one said: What was their sin? And the commander-in-chief said: These, all holy one, are they who on the morning of the Lord's day sleep like the dead, and for that reason they are thus chastised here. And the all holy one said: If anyone cannot rise, what shall he do? And the commander-in-chief said: Listen, all holy one: if anyone's house is fastened on the four (sides?) and surrounds him and he cannot come out, he has forgiveness.

XIII. And she saw in another place burning benches of fire and on then, sat a multitude of men and women and burned on them. And the all holy one asked: Who are these and what is their sin? And the commander-in-chief said: These, all holy one, are they who do not rise up to the presbyter when they enter into the church of God, and for this cause they are thus chastised here.

XIV. And the all holy one saw in another place an iron tree and it had branches of iron, and on it there hung a multitude of men and women by their tongues? And seeing them the all holy one wept, and asked the commander-in-chief saying: Who are these and what was their sin? And the commander-in-chief said: These are perjurers, blasphemers, slanderers, whosoever divided brothers from brothers. And the all holy one said: How is it possible to divide brothers from brothers? And the commander-in-chief said: Listen, all holy one, and I will tell thee about this: When some from among the nations desired to be baptised, he would say to them one word: Thou foul-feeding, unbelieving Gentile; because he thus blasphemer, he shall receive ceaseless retribution.

XV. And in another place the all holy one saw a man hanging from his four extremities, and from his nails blood gushed vehemently, and his tongues was tied in a flame of fire, and he was unable to groan and say the Kyrie eleison me. And when she had seen him the all holy one wept and herself said the Kyrie eleison thrice: and after the saying of the prayer, came the angel who had authority over the scourge and loosed the man's tongue: and the all holy one asked the commander-in-chief: Who is this wretched one who has this chastisement? And the commander-in-chief said: This, all holy one, is the steward who did not the will of God, but ate the things of the church and said: "He who ministers to the altar shall be nourished from the altar":(4) and for this cause he is thus chastised here. And the all holy one said: Let it be unto him according to his faith. And again he tied his tongue.

XVI. And Michael, the commander-in-chief said: Come hither, all holy one, and I will show unto thee where the priests are chastised. And the all holy one came out and saw presbyters hanging by their twenty nails, and fire came out of their heads. And seeing them the all holy one asked the commander-in-chief: Who are these and what is their sin? And the commander-in-chief said: These, all holy one, are they who stand beside the throne of God, and when they sang of the body of our Lord Jesus Christ, the pearls fell out, and the awful throne of heaven shook and the footstool of our Lord Jesus Christ trembled, and they did not perceive it: and for this cause they are thus chastised here.

XVII. And the all holy one saw a man and a winged beast having three heads like flames of fire: the two heads were towards his eyes and the third head towards his mouth. And seeing him the all holy one asked the commander-in-chief: Who is this, that he cannot save himself from the mouth of the dragon? And the commander-in-chief said to her: This, all holy one, is the reader who does not practise in his own habits according to what is worthy of the holy Gospel: and for this cause he is thus chastised here.

XVIII. And the commander-in-chief said: Come hither, all holy one, and I will show thee where the angelic and archangelic form is chastised. She proceeded and saw(5) them lying in the fire and the sleepless worm gnawed them: and the all holy one said: Who are these, and what is their sin? And the commander-in-chief said: These, all holy one,

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are they who possessed the archangelic and apostolic form: hearken, all holy one, concerning this: on earth they were called patriarchs and bishops, and they were not worthy of their name: on earth they heard 'Bless (the Lord) ye saints,' and in heaven they were not called saints, because they did not act as bearers of the archangelic form: and for this cause they are thus chastised here.

XIX. And she saw women hanging by their nails, and a flame of fire came out of their mouth and burned them: and all the beasts(1) coming out of the fire gnawed them to pieces, and groaning they cried out: Have pity on us, have pity, for we are chastised worse than all those who are under chastisement. And seeing them the all holy one wept, and asked the commander-in-chief, Michael: Who are these and what is their sin? And the commander-in-chief said: These are the wives of presbyters who did not honour the presbyters, but after the death of the presbyter took husbands, and for this cause they are thus chastised here.

XX. And the all holy one saw after the same manner also a deaconess hanging iron, a crag and a beast with two heads devoured her breasts. And the all holy one asked: What is her sin? And the commander-in-chief said: She, all holy one, is an archdeaconess who defiled her body in fornication, and for this cause she is thus chastised here.

XXI. And she saw other women hanging over the fire, and all the beasts devoured them. And the all holy one asked the commander-in-chief: Who are these and what is their sin? And he said: These are they who did not do the will of God, lovers of money and those who took interest(2) on accounts, and the immodest.

XXII. And when she had heard these things the all holy one wept and said: Woe unto sinners. And the commander-in-chief said: Why dost thou lament, all holy one? Now verily thou hast not seen the great chastisements. And the highly favoured one said: Come, Michael, the great commander-in-chief of the powers above, tell me how I may see all the chastisements. And the commander-in-chief said: Where dost thou wish that we should go, all holy one? to the East or towards the left parts of Paradise? And the all holy one said: To the left parts of Paradise.

XXIII. And immediately when she had spoken, the cherubim and seraphim stood beside her and led the highly favoured one out to the left parts of Paradise. And behold, there was a great river, and the appearance of the river was blacker than pitch, and in it there were a multitude(3) of men and women: it boiled like a furnace of forges, and its waves were like a wild sea over the sinners: and when the waves rose, they sank the sinners ten thousand cubits and they were unable to keep it off and say: Have mercy on us, thou just judge: for the sleepless worm devoured them, and there was no reckoning of the number of those who devoured them. And seeing the all holy Mother of God the angels(4) who chastised them cried out with one voice: Holy is God who has compassion on account of the Mother of God: we give thee thanks, O Son of God, that from eternity we did not see the light, and to-day through the Mother of God we have seen the light: and again they shouted with one voice, saying: Hail, highly favoured Mother of God: Hail, lamp of the inaccessible light: Hail to thee also, Michael, the commander-in-chief, thou that art ambassador from the whole creation: for we, seeing the chastisement of sinners are greatly grieved. And the all holy one, when she saw the angels humbled on account of the sinners, lamented and said: Woe to sinners and their neighbours. And the all holy one said: Let us see the sinners. And the highly favoured one, coming with the archangel Michael and all the armies of the angels lifted up one voice saying: Lord have mercy. And after the making of the prayer earnestly, the wave of the river rested and the fiery waves grew calm, and the sinners appeared as a grain of mustard-seed: and seeing them the all holy one lamented and said: What is this river, and what are its waves? And the commander-in-chief said: This river is the outer fire, and those who are being tortured are the Jews who crucified our Lord Jesus Christ the Son of God, and who refused holy baptism, and those who commit fornication and sin against the sweet and passionless perfume of marriage, and he who debauches mother and daughter, and the poisoners and those who slay with the sword, and the women who strangle their offspring. And the all holy one said: According to their faith so be it unto them. And straightway the waves rose over the sinners and the darkness

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covered them. And the commander-in-chief said: Hearken, thou highly favoured one: if anyone shall be cast into this darkness,(1) his remembrance shall never be in the sight of God. And the all holy Mother of God said: Woe to sinners, because the flame of the fire is everlasting.

XXIV. And the commander-in-chief said: Come hither, all holy one, and I will show unto thee the lake of fire: and see thou where the race of the Christians is chastised.(2) And the all holy one proceeded and saw: and some she heard, but others she did not see: and she asked the commander-in-chief: Who are these, and what is their sin? And the commander-in-chief said: These, all holy one, are those who were baptised and arrayed under the oracle of Christ, but worked the works of the devil and wasted the time of their repentance: and for this cause they are thus chastised here.

XXV. And she said: I pray, one request will I make of thee, let me also be chastised with the Christians, because they are the children of my son. And the commander-in-chief said: Rest thou in Paradise, holy lady, Mother of God. And the all holy one said: I pray thee, move the fourteen firmaments and the seven heavens, and let us pray for the Christians that the Lord our God may hearken unto us and have mercy on them.(3) And the commander-in-chief said: As the Lord God liveth, the great name, seven times a day and seven times a night, when we lead up the hymn of the Lord, we make remembrance for the sake of sinners, and the Lord accounts us as naught.

XXVI. And the all holy one said: I pray thee, commander-in-chief, command the armies of the angels and let them place me on the height of heaven and let me into the presence of the invisible Father. And immediately the commander-in-chief commanded, and the chariot of the cherubim and seraphim appeared, and they exalted the highly favoured one to the height of heaven and placed her in the presence of the invisible Father: And she stretched forth her hands to the undefiled throne of the Father and said: Have mercy, O Lord, on the Christian sinners, for I saw them being chastised and I cannot bear their complaint. Let me go forth and be chastised myself for the Christians. I do not pray, O Lord, for the unbelieving Jews, but for the Christians I entreat thy compassion. And there came a second voice from the invisible Father saying: How can I have mercy on them, when they did not have mercy on their own brothers?(4) And the all holy one said: Lord, have mercy on the sinners: behold the chastisements, for every creature on the earth calls upon my name: and when the soul comes forth out of the body, it cries saying, "Holy Lady, Mother of God." Then the Lord said to her: Hearken, all holy Mother of God, if anyone names and calls upon thy name, I will not forsake him, either in heaven or on earth.

XXVII. And the all holy one said: Where is Moses? Where are all the prophets and fathers who never sinned? Where art thou, holy Paul of God? where is the holy Lord's Day, the boast of the Christians? where is the power of the precious and life-giving cross, which delivered Adam and Eve from the ancient curse? Then Michael and all the angels raised one voice saying: Lord, have mercy on the sinners. Then Moses also cried: Have mercy, Lord, on those to whom I gave thy law. Then John also called: Have mercy, Lord, on those to whom I gave thy Gospel. Then Paul cried: Have mercy, Lord, on those to whom I brought thy epistles in the Church. And the Lord God said: Hearken, all ye righteous: if according to the law which Moses gave, and according to the Gospel which John gave, and according to the epistles which Paul carried, they thus be judged. And they had nothing to say except, Have mercy, O just judge.

XXVIII. And the all holy Mother of God said: Have mercy, Lord, on the Christians, because they kept thy law and gave heed to thy gospel, but they were simple ones. Then the Lord said to her: Hearken, all holy one: if anyone did evil to them and they did not requite him the evil, thou sayest well that they attended to both my law and my gospel, but if he did not do them wrong and they requited him evil, how may I say that these are holy men? now they shall be rewarded according to their wrongdoing. Then all hearing the voice of the Lord had nothing to answer; and the all holy one, when she saw that the saints were at a loss, and their Lord did not hear, and his mercy was hidden from them, then the all holy one said: Where is Gabriel, who announced unto me the "Hail, thou that from eternity shalt conceive him who is without beginning like the Father," and now does not look upon sinners? Where

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is the great commander-in-chief? come hither, all ye saints whom God justified, and let us fall down in the presence of the invisible Father, in order that the Lord God may hear us, and have mercy on sinners. Then Michael, the commander-in-chief, and all the saints fell on their faces in the presence of the invisible Father, saying: Have mercy, Lord, on the Christian sinners.

XXIX. Then the Lord, seeing the prayer of the saints, had compassion and said: Go down, my beloved son, and because of the prayer of the saints let thy face shine on earth to sinners. Then the Lord came down from his undefiled throne: and when they saw Him, those who were under chastisement raised one voice saying: Have mercy on us, King of ages. Then the Lord of all things said: Hearken, all ye sinners and righteous men: I made paradise and made man after my image: but he transgressed, and for his own sins was delivered to death: but I did not suffer the works of my hands to be tyrannized over by the serpent: wherefore I bowed the heavens and came down and was born of Mary, the holy undefiled Mother of God, that I might set you free: I was baptised in Jordan in order that I might save the creature (nature) which had grown old under sin: I was nailed to the cross(1) to free you from the ancient curse: I asked for water and ye gave me vinegar mingled with gall: I was laid in the grave: I trampled on the enemy: I raised up mine elect, and even thus ye would not hear me. But now, because(2) of the prayer of my mother Mary, because she has wept much for your sake, and because of Michael my archangel, and because of the multitude of my saints, I grant you to have rest on the day of Pentecost to glorify the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit.

XXX. Then all the angels and archangels, thrones, lordships, authorities, governments, powers, and the many-eyed cherubim and the six-winged seraphim and all the apostles and prophets and martyrs and all the saints raised one voice, saying: Glory to thee, O Lord: glory to thee, lover of men: glory to thee, King of ages: glory be to thy compassion: glory be to thy long suffering: glory be to thy unspeakable justice of judgment, because thou hast been long-suffering with sinners and impious men: Thine is it to pity and to save. To him be the glory and the power to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit for ever and ever. Amen.

THE APOCALYPSE OF SEDRACH

THE translation is from Mr. M. R. James's text in Texts and Studies, ii. 3, p. 130 ff., published from a fifteenth century MS. in the Bodleian Library. The original, Mr. James conjecturally assigns to the tenth or eleventh century. It is notable for its close resemblance in several passages to 4 Esdras, to the Greek original of which the author seems to have had direct access.

Like the Apocalypse of Esdras it deals with the subject of intercession for sinners and the reluctance of the seer to die. The parallel passages m 4 Esdras and the Apocalypse of Esdras are pointed out in the margin of the translation.

Chapter I. consists of a few lines from the beginning and end of a homily on love which appears in the MS. at the beginning of the Apocalypse, but which Mr. James regards as "quite unimportant and quite irrelevant."

THE APOCALYPSE OF SEDRACH

THE Word of the holy and blessed Sedrach concerning love and concerning repentance and Orthodox Christians, and concerning the Second Coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. Lord give thy blessing.

I. Beloved, let us prefer nothing in honour except sincere love: for in many things we stumble every day and night and hour. And for this cause let us gain love, for it covereth a multitude of sins: for what is the profit, my children, if we have all things, and have not saving love ...

O blessed love, supplier of all good things. Blessed is the man who has gained the true faith and sincere love, according as the Master said, there is no greater love than this that a man should lay down his life for his friend. Cf. JOhn xv. 13.

II. And invisibly he received a voice in his ears: Come hither, Sedrach, since thou wishest and desirest to converse with God and ask of him that he may reveal unto thee whatever thou wishest to ask. And Sedrach said: What, Sir? And the voice said to him: I was sent to thee to raise thee here into heaven. And he said: I desired to speak mouth to mouth with God: I am not fit, Sir, to come into heaven. And stretching out his wings he took him up and he came into heaven to the very flame, and he set him as high as the third heaven, and in it stood the flame of the divinity.

III. And the Lord saith to him: Welcome, my beloved Sedrach: What suit hast thou against God who created thee, that thou saidst, I desired to speak face to face with God? Sedrach saith to him:(1) Yea, verily, the son hath a suit with the Father: my Lord, why didst thou make the earth? The Lord saith to him: For man's sake. Sedrach saith: And why didst Thou make the sea? Why didst Thou scatter every good thing on the earth? The Lord saith to him: For man's sake. Sedrach saith to him:(2) If thou didst these things,(3) why wilt Thou destroy him? And the Lord said: Man is my work and the creature of my hands, and I discipline him as I find good.

IV. Sedrach saith to him: Chastisement and fire are thy discipline: they are bitter, my Lord:(4) it were well for man if he had not been born: why then didst thou make him, my Lord? Why didst thou weary thine undefiled hands(5) and create man, since thou didst not intend to have mercy on him? God saith to him: I made Adam the first creature and placed him in Paradise in the midst of the tree of life and said to him: Eat of all the fruits, but beware of the tree of life: for if thou eat of it, thou shalt die the death. But he transgressed my commandment, and being beguiled by the devil ate of the tree.

V. Sedrach saith to him: Of thy will Adam was beguiled, my Lord: Thou commandest thine(6) angels to make approach to Adam, and the first of the angels himself transgressed thy commandment and did not make approach to him, and Thou didst banish him, because he transgressed thy commandment and did not make any approach to the work of thine hands: if thou lovedst man, why didst Thou not slay the devil, the worker of unrighteousness? Who is able to fight an invisible spirit? And he as a smoke enters into the hearts of men and teaches them every sin: he fights against thee, the immortal God, and what can wretched man then do to him? But have mercy, O Lord, and stop the chastisements: but if not, count me also with the sinners: if thou wilt have no mercy on the sinners, where are thy mercies, where is thy(7) compassion, O Lord?

VI. God saith to him: Be it known unto thee that I ordered all things to be placable

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to him: I gave him understanding and made him the heir of heaven and earth, and I subjected all things to him, and every living thing flees from him and from before his face: but he, having received of mine, became alien, adulterous, and sinful: tell me, what father, having given his son his portion, when he takes his substance and leaves his father and goes away and becomes an alien and serves an alien, when the father sees that the son has deserted him, does not darken his heart, and does not the father go and take his substance and banish him from his glory because he deserted his father? And how have I, the wonderful and jealous God, given him everything, and he having received these things has become an adulterer and a sinner?

VII. Sedrach saith to him: Thou, O Lord, didst create man. Thou knewest of what sort of mind he was and of what sort of knowledge we are, and thou makest it a cause for chastisement: but cast him forth; for shall not I alone fill up the heavenly places? But if that is not to be so save man too, O Lord. He failed by thy will, wretched man. Why dost thou waste words on me, Sedrach? I created Adam and his wife and the sun and said: Behold each other how bright he is, and the wife of Adam is brighter in the beauty of the moon and he was the giver of her life.(1) Sedrach saith: but of what profit are beauties if they die away into the earth? How didst thou say, O Lord, Thou shalt not return evil for evil? How is it, O Lord? the word of Thy divinity never lies, and why dost Thou retaliate on man? or dost thou not in so doing render evil for evil? I know that among the quadrupeds there is no other so wily and unreasonable as the mule. But we strike it with the bridle when we wish: and thou hast angels: send them forth to guard them, and when man inclines towards sin, to take hold of his foot and not let him go whither he would.

VIII. God saith to him: If I catch him by the foot, he will say, Thou hast given me no joy in the world. But I have left him to his own will because I loved him. Wherefore I sent forth my righteous angels to guard him night and day. Sedrach saith:(2) I know, O Lord, that of all thy creatures Thou chiefly lovedst man, of the quadrupeds the sheep, of woods the olive, of fruits the vine, of flying things the bee, of rivers the Jordan, of cities Jerusalem. And all these man also loves, my Lord. God saith to Sedrach: I will ask thee one thing, Sedrach: if thou answerest me, then I may fitly help thee, even though thou hast tempted thy creator. Sedrach saith: Speak.(3) The Lord God saith: Since I made all things, how many men were born and how many died, and how many are to die and how many hairs have they? Tell me, Sedrach,(4) since the heaven was created and the earth, how many trees grew in the world, and how many fell, and how many are to fall, and how many are to arise, and how many leaves have they? Tell me, Sedrach, since I made the sea, how many waves arose and how many fell, and how many are to arise, and how many winds blow along the margin of the sea? Tell me, Sedrach, from the creation of the world of the aeons, when the air rained, how many drops fell upon the world, and how many are to fall? And Sedrach said: Thou alone knowest all these things, O Lord; thou only understandest all these things: only, I pray thee, deliver man from chastisement, and I shall not be separated from our race.

IX. And God said to his only begotten Son: Go,(5) take the soul of Sedrach my beloved, and place it in Paradise. The only begotten Son saith to Sedrach: Give me the trust which our Father deposited in the womb of thy mother in the holy tabernacle of thy body from a child. Sedrach saith: I will not give thee my soul. God saith to him: And wherefore was I sent to come hither, and thou pleadest against me? For I was commanded by my Father not to take thy soul with violence; but if not, (then) give ate thy most greatly desired soul.

X. And Sedrach saith to God: And whence dost Thou intend to take my soul, and from which limb? And God saith to him: Dost thou not know that it is placed in the midst of thy lungs and thy heart and is dispersed into all thy limbs? It is brought up through the throat and gullet and the mouth and at whatever hour it is predestined to come forth, it is scattered, and brought together from the points of the nails and from all the limbs, and there is a great necessity that it should be separated from the body and parted from the heart. When Sedrach had heard all these things and had considered the memory of death he was greatly astounded, and Sedrach said to God: O Lord,

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give me a little respite that I may weep, for I have heard that tears are able to do much and much remedy comes to the lowly body of thy creature.

XI. And weeping and bewailing he began to say: O marvellous head of heavenly adornment: O radiant as the sun which shines on heaven and earth: thy hairs are known from Teman, thine eyes from Bosor, thine ears from thunder, thy tongue from a trumpet, and thy brain is a small creation, thy head the energy of the whole body: O friendly and most fair beloved by all, and now falling into the earth it must become forgotten. O hands, mild, fair-fingered, worn with toil by which the body is nourished: O hands, deftest of all, heaping up from all quarters ye made ready houses. O fingers adorned and decked with gold and silver (rings): and great worlds are led by the fingers: the three joints enfold the palms, and heap up beautiful things: and now ye must become aliens to the world. O feet, skilfully walking about, self-running, most swift, unconquerable: O knees, fitted together, because without you the body does not move: the feet run along with the sun and the moon in the night and in the day, heaping up all things, foods and drinks, and nourishing the body: O feet, most swift and fair runners, moving on the face of the earth, getting ready the house with every good thing: O feet which bear up the whole body, that run up to the temples, making repentance and calling on the saints, and now ye are to remain motionless. O head and hands and feet, until now I have kept you. O soul, what sent thee into the humble and wretched body? and now being separated from it, thou art going up where the Lord calleth thee, and the wretched body goes away to judgment. O body well-adorned, hair clothed with stars, head of heavenly adornment and dress: O face well-anointed, light-bringing eyes, voice trumpet-like, tongue placable, chin fairly adorned, hairs like the stars, head high as heaven, body decked out, light-bringing eves that know all things--and now you shall fall into the earth and under the earth your beauty shall disappear.

XII. Christ saith to him: Stay, Sedrach; how long dost thou weep and groan? Paradise is opened to thee, and, dying, thou shall live. Sedrach saith to him: Once more I will speak unto thee, O Lord: How long shall I live before I die? and do not disregard my prayer. The Lord saith to him: Speak, O Sedrach. Sedrach saith: If a man shall live eighty or ninety or an hundred years, and live these years in sin, and again shall turn, and the man live in repentance, in how many days dost thou forgive him his sins? God saith to him: If he shall live an hundred or eighty years and shall turn and repent for three years and do the fruit of righteousness, and death shall overtake him, I will not remember all his sins.

XIII. Sedrach saith to him: The three years are a long time, my Lord, lest death overtake him and he fulfil not his repentance: have mercy, Lord, on thine image and have compassion, for the three years are many. God saith to him: If a man live an hundred years and remember his death and confess before men and I find him, after a time I will forgive all his sins. Sedrach saith again: I will again beseech thy compassion for thy creature. The time is long lest death overtake him and snatch him suddenly. The Saviour saith to him: I will ask thee one word, Sedrach, my beloved, then thou shall ask me in turn: if the man shall repent for forty days I will not remember all his sins which he did.

XIV. And Sedrach saith(1) to the archangel Michael: Hearken to me, O powerful chief, and help thou me and be my envoy that God may have mercy on the world. And filling on their faces, they besought the Lord and said: O Lord, teach us how and by what sort of repentance and by what labour man shall be saved. God saith: By repentances, by intercessions, by liturgies, by tears in streams, in hot groanings. Dost thou not know that my prophet David was saved by tears, and the rest were saved in one moment? Thou knowest, Sedrach, that there are nations which have not the law and which do the works of the law: for if they are unbaptized and my divine spirit come unto them and they turn to my baptism, I also receive them with my righteous ones into Abraham's bosom. And there are some who have been baptized with my baptism and who have shared in my divine part and become reprobate in complete reprobation and will not repent: and I suffer them with much compassion and much pity and wealth(2) in order that they may repent, but they do the things which my divinity hates, and did not hearken to the wise man asking (them), saying, we by no means justify a sinner. Dost thou not most certainly know that it is written: And those who repent never see chastisement? And they did not hearken to the Apostles or to my word in the Gospels, and they

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grieve my angels, and verily they do not attend to my messenger in the assemblies (for communion) and in my services, and they do not stand in my holy churches, but they stand and do not fall down and worship in fear and trembling, but boast things which I do not accept, or my holy angels.

XV. Sedrach saith to God: O Lord, Thou alone art sinless and very compassionate, having compassion and pity for sinners, but thy divinity said: I am not come to call the righteous but sinners to repentance. And the Lord said to Sedrach: Dost thou not know, Sedrach, that the thief was saved in one moment to repent? Dost thou not know that my apostle and evangelist was saved in one moment? "Peccatores enim non salvantur," for their hearts are like rotten stone: these are they who walk in impious ways and who shall be destroyed with Antichrist. Sedrach saith: O my Lord, Thou also saidst: My divine spirit entered into the nations which, not having the law, do the things of the law. So also the thief and the apostle and evangelist and the rest of those who have already got into thy Kingdom. O my Lord; so likewise do Thou pardon those who have sinned to the last: for life is very toilsome and there is no time for repentance.

XVI. The Lord saith to Sedrach: I made man in three stages: when he is young, I overlooked his stumblings as he was young: and again when he was a man I considered his purpose: and again when he grows old, I watch him fill he repent. Sedrach saith: O Lord, Thou knowest and understandest all these things: but have sympathy for sinners. The Lord saith to him: Sedrach, my beloved, I promise to have sympathy and bring down the forty days to twenty: and whosoever shall remember thy name shall not see the place of chastisement, but shall be with the just in a place of refreshment and rest: and if anyone shall record this wonderful word his sins shall not be reckoned against him for ever and ever.(1) And Sedrach saith: O Lord, and if anyone shall bring enlightenment to thy servant, save him, O Lord, from all evil. And Sedrach, the servant of the Lord, saith: Now take my soul, O Lord. And God took him and placed him in Paradise with all the saints. To whom be the glory and the power for ever and ever. Amen.

THE TESTAMENT OF ABRAHAM

I. Abraham lived the measure of his life, nine hundred and ninety-five years, and having lived all the years of his life in quietness, gentleness, and righteousness, the righteous one was exceeding hospitable; for, pitching his tent in the cross-ways at the oak of Mamre, he received every one, both rich and poor, kings and rulers, the maimed and the helpless, friends and strangers, neighbours and travellers, all alike did the devout, all-holy, righteous, and hospitable Abraham entertain. Even upon him, however, there came the common, inexorable, bitter lot of death, and the uncertain end of life. Therefore the Lord God, summoning his archangel Michael, said to him: Go down, chief- captain(1) Michael, to Abraham and speak to him concerning his death, that he may set his affairs in order, for I have blessed him as the stars of heaven, and as the sand by the sea-shore, and he is in abundance of long life and many possessions, and is becoming exceeding rich. Beyond all men, moreover, he is righteous in every goodness, hospitable and loving to the end of his life; but do thou, archangel Michael, go to Abraham, my beloved friend, and announce to him his death and assure him thus: Thou shalt at this time depart from this vain world, and shalt quit the body, and go to thine own Lord among the good.

II. And the chief-captain departed from before the face of God, and went down to Abraham to the oak of Mamre, and found the righteous Abraham in the field close by, sitting beside yokes of oxen for ploughing, together with the sons of Masek and other servants, to the number of twelve. And behold the chief-captain came to him, and Abraham, seeing the chief-captain Michael coming from afar, like to a very comely warrior, arose and met him as was his custom, meeting and entertaining all strangers. And the chief-captain saluted him and said: Hail, most honoured father, righteous soul chosen

I. It came to pass, when the days of the death of Abraham drew near, that the Lord said to Michael: Arise and go to Abraham, my servant, and say to him, Thou shall depart from life, for lo! the days of thy temporal life are fulfilled: so that he may set his house in order before he die.

II. And Michael went and came to Abraham, and found him sitting before his oxen for ploughing, and he was exceeding. old in appearance, and had his son in his arms. Abraham, therefore, seeing the archangel Michael, rose from the ground and saluted him, not knowing who he was, and said to him: The Lord preserve thee. May thy journey be prosperous with thee. And Michael answered him: Thou art kind, good father. Abraham answered and said to him: Come, draw near to me, brother, and sit down a little while, that I may order a beast to be brought that we may go to my house, and thou mayest rest with me, for it is toward evening, and in the morning arise and go

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of God, true son of the heavenly one. Abraham said to the chief-captain: Hail, most honoured warrior, bright as the sun and most beautiful above all the sons of men; thou art welcome; therefore I beseech thy presence, tell me whence the youth of thy age has come; teach me, thy suppliant, whence and from what army and from what journey thy beauty has come hither. The chief-captain said: I, O righteous Abraham, come from the great city. I have been sent by the great king to take the place of a good friend of his, for the king has summoned him. And Abraham said, Come, my lord, go with me as far as my field. The chief-captain said: I come; and going into the field of the ploughing, they sat down beside the company. And Abraham said to his servants, the sons of Masek: Go ye to the herd of horses, and bring two horses, quiet, and gentle and tame, so that I and this stranger may sit thereon. But the chief-captain said, Nay, my lord, Abraham, let them not bring horses, for I abstain from ever sitting upon any four-footed beast. Is not my king rich in much merchandise, having power both over men and all kinds of cattle? but I abstain from ever slitting upon any four-footed beast. Let us go, then, O righteous soul, walking lightly until we reach thy house. And Abraham said, Amen, be it so.

III. And as they went on from the field toward his house, beside that way there stood a cypress tree, and by the command of the Lord the tree cried out with a human voice, saying, Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God that calls himself to those that love him; but Abraham hid the mystery, thinking that the chief-captain had not heard the voice of the tree. And coming nigh to the house they sat down in the court, and Isaac seeing the face of the angel said to Sarah his mother, My lady mother, behold, the man sitting with my father Abraham is not a son of the race of those that dwell on the earth. And Isaac ran, and saluted him, and fell at the feet of the Incorporeal, and the Incorporeal blessed him and said, The Lord God will grant thee his promise that he made to thy father Abraham and to his seed, and will also grant thee the precious prayer of thy father and thy mother. Abraham said to Isaac his son, My son Isaac, draw water from the well, and bring it me in the vessel, that we may wash the feet of this stranger, for he is tired, having come to us from off a long journey. And Isaac ran to the well and drew water in the vessel and brought it to them, and Abraham went up and washed

whithersoever thou wilt, lest some evil beast meet thee and do thee hurt. And Michael enquired of Abraham, saying: Tell me thy name, before I enter thy house, lest I be burdensome to thee. Abraham answered and said, My parents called me Abram, and the Lord named me Abraham, saying: Arise and depart from thy house, and from thy kindred, and go into the land which I shall show unto thee. And when I went away into the land which the Lord showed me, he said to me: Thy name shall no more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham. Michael answered and said to him: Pardon me, my father, experienced man of God, for I am a stranger, and I have heard of thee that thou didst go forty furlongs and didst bring a goat and slay it, entertaining angels in thy house, that they might rest there. Thus speaking together, they arose and went towards the house. And Abraham called one of his servants, and said to him: Go, bring me a beast that the stranger may sit upon it, for he is wearied with his journey. And Michael said: Trouble not the youth, but let us go lightly until we reach the house, for I love thy company.

III. And arising they went on, and as they drew nigh to the city, about three furlongs from it, they found a great tree having three hundred branches, like to a tamarisk tree. And they heard a voice from its branches singing, "Holy art thou, because thou hast kept the purpose for which thou wast sent." And Abraham heard the voice, and hid the mystery in his heart, saying within himself, What is the mystery that I have heard? As he came into the house, Abraham said to his servants, Arise, go out to the flocks, and bring three sheep, and slay them quickly, and make them ready that we may eat and drink, for this day is a feast for us. And the servants brought the sheep, and Abraham called his son Isaac, and said to him, My son Isaac, arise and put water in the vessel that we may wash the feet of this stranger. And he brought it as he was commanded, and Abraham said, I perceive, and so it shall be, that in this basin I shall never again wash the feet of any man coming to us as a guest. And Isaac hearing his father say this wept, and said to him, My father what is this that thou sayest, This is my last time to wash the feet of a stranger? And Abraham seeing his son weeping, also wept ex-

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the feet of the chief captain Michael, and the heart of Abraham was moved, and he wept over the stranger. And Isaac, seeing his father weeping, wept also, and the chief captain, seeing them weeping, also wept with them, and the tears of the chief captain fell upon the vessel into the water of the basin and became precious stones. And Abraham seeing the marvel, and being astonished, took the stones secretly, and hid the mystery, keeping it by himself in his heart.

IV. And Abraham said to Isaac his son: Go, my beloved son, into the inner chamber of the house and beautify it. Spread for us there two couches, one for me and one for this man that is guest with us this day. Prepare for us there a seat and a candlestick and a table with abundance of every good thing. Beautify the chamber, my son, and spread under us linen and purple and fine linen. Burn there every precious and excellent incense, and bring sweet-smelling plants from the garden and fill our house with them. Kindle seven lamps full of oil, so that we may rejoice, for this man that is our guest this day is more glorious than kings or rulers, and his appearance surpasses all the sons of men. And Isaac prepared all things well, and Abraham taking the archangel Michael went into the chamber, and they both eat down upon the couches, and between them he placed a table with abundance of every good thing. Then the chief captain arose and went out, as if by constraint of his belly to make issue of water, and ascended to heaven in the twinkling of an eye, and stood before the Lord, and said to him: Lord and Master, let thy power know that I am unable to remind that righteous man of his death, for I have not seen upon the earth a man like him, pitiful, hospitable, righteous, truthful, devout, refraining from every evil deed. And now know, Lord, that I cannot remind him of his death. And the Lord said: Go down, chief-captain Michael, to my friend Abraham, and whatever he say to thee, that do thou also, and whatever he eat, eat thou also with him. And I will send my holy spirit upon his son Isaac, and will put the remembrance of his death into the heart of Isaac, so that even he in a dream may see the death of his father, and Isaac will relate the dream, and thou shalt interpret it, and he himself will know his end. And the chief-captain said, Lord, all the heavenly spirits are incorporeal, and neither eat nor drink, and this man has set before me a table with abundance of all good things earthly and corruptible. Now, Lord, what shall I do? How shall I escape him,

ceedingly, and Michael seeing them weeping, wept also, and the tears of Michael fell upon the vessel and became a precious stone.

IV. When Sarah, being inside in her house, heard their weeping, she came out and said to Abraham, Lord, why is it that ye thus weep? Abraham answered, and mid to her, It is no evil. Go into thy house, and do thy own work, lest we be troublesome to the man. And Sarah went away, being about to prepare the supper. And the sun came near to setting, and Michael went out of the house, and was taken up into the heavens to worship before God, for at sunset all the angels worship God and Michael himself is the first of the angels. And they all worshipped him, and went each to his own place, but Michael spoke before the Lord and said, Lord, command me to be questioned before thy holy glory! And the Lord said to Michael, Announce whatsoever thou wilt! And the Archangel answered and said, Lord, thou didst send me to Abraham to say to him, Depart from thy body, and leave this world; the Lord calls thee; and I dare not, Lord, reveal myself to him, for he is thy friend, and a righteous man, and one that receives strangers. But I beseech thee, Lord, command the remembrance of the death of Abraham to enter into his own heart, and bid not me tell it him, for it is great abruptness to say, Leave the world, and especially to leave one's own body, for thou didst create him from the beginning to have pity on the souls of all men. Then the Lord said to Michael, Arise and go to Abraham, and lodge with him, and whatever thou seest him eat, eat thou also, and where-ever he shall sleep, sleep thou there also. For I will cast the thought of the death of Abraham into the heart of Isaac his son in a dream.

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sitting at one table with him? The Lord said: Go down to him, and take no thought for this, for when thou sittest down with him, I will send upon thee a devouring spirit, and it will consume out of thy hands and through thy mouth all that is on the table. Rejoice together with him in everything, only thou shalt interpret well the things of the vision, that Abraham may know the sickle of death and the uncertain end of life, and may make disposal of all his possessions, for I have blessed him above the sand of the sea and as the stars of heaven.

V. Then the chief captain went down to the house of Abraham, and sat down with him at the table, and Isaac served them. And when the supper was ended, Abraham prayed after his custom, and the chief-captain prayed together with him, and each lay down to sleep upon his couch. And Isaac said to his father, Father, I too would fain sleep with you in this chamber, that I also may hear your discourse, for I love to hear the excellence of the conversation of this virtuous man. Abraham said, Nay, my son, but go to thy own chamber and sleep on thy own couch, lest we be troublesome to this man. Then Isaac, having received the prayer from them, and having blessed them, went to his own chamber and lay down upon Iris couch. But the Lord east the thought of death into the heart of Isaac as in a dream, and about the third hour of the night Isaac awoke and rose up from his couch, and came running to the chamber where his father was sleeping together with the archangel. Isaac, therefore, on reaching the door cried out, saying, My father Abraham, arise and open to me quickly, that I may enter and hang upon thy neck, and embrace thee before they take thee away from me. Abraham therefore arose and opened to him, and Isaac entered and hung upon his neck, and began to weep with a loud voice. Abraham therefore being moved at heart, also wept with a loud voice, and the chief-captain, seeing them weeping, wept also. Sarah being in her room, heard their weeping, and came running to them, and found them embracing and weeping. And Sarah said with weeping, My lord Abraham, what is this that ye weep? Tell me, my lord, has this brother that has been entertained by us this day brought thee tidings of Lot, thy brother's son, that he is dead? is it for this that ye grieve thus? The chief-captain answered and said to her, Nay, my sister Sarah, it is not as thou sayest, but thy son Isaac, methinks, beheld a dream, and came to us weeping, and we seeing him were moved in our hearts and wept.

V. Then Michael went into the house of Abraham on that evening, and found them preparing the supper, and they ate and drank and were merry. And Abraham said to his son Isaac, Arise, my son, and spread the man's couch that he may sleep, and set the lamp upon the stand. And Isaac did as his father commanded him, and Isaac said to his father, I too am coming to sleep beside you. Abraham answered him, Nay, my son, lest we be troublesome to this man, but go to thy own chamber and sleep. And Isaac not wishing to disobey his father's command, went away and slept in his own chamber.

VI. And it happened about the seventh hour of the night Isaac awoke, and came to the door of his father's chamber, crying out and saying, Open, father, that I may touch thee before they take thee away from me. Abraham arose and opened to him, and Isaac entered and hung upon his father's neck weeping, and kissed him with lamentations. And Abraham wept together with his son, and Michael saw them weeping and wept likewise. And Sarah hearing them weeping called from her bed-chamber, saying, My lord Abraham, why is this weeping? Has the stranger told thee of thy brother's son Lot that he is dead? or has aught else befallen us? Michael answered and said to Sarah, Nay, Sarah, I have brought no tidings of Lot, but I knew of all your kindness of heart, that therein ye excel all men upon earth, and the Lord has remembered you.

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VI. Then Sarah, hearing the excellence of the conversation of the chief-captain, straightway knew that it was an angel of the Lord that spoke. Sarah therefore signified to Abraham to come out towards the door, and said to him, My lord Abraham, knowest thou who this man is? Abraham said, I know not. Sarah said, Thou knowest, my lord, the three men from heaven that were entertained by us in our tent beside the oak of Mamre, when thou didst kill the kid without blemish, and set a table before them. After the flesh had been eaten, the kid rose again, and sucked its mother with great joy. owest thou not, my lord Abraham, that by promise they gave to us Isaac as the fruit of the womb? Of these three holy men this is one. Abraham said, O Sarah, in this thou speakest the truth. Glory and praise from our God and the Father. For late in the evening when I washed his feet in the basin I said in my heart, These are the feet of one of the three men that I washed then; and his tears that fell into the basin then became precious stones. And shaking them out from his lap he gave them to Sarah, saying, If thou believest me not, look now at these. And Sarah receiving them bowed down and saluted and said, Glory be to God that showeth us wonderful things. And now know, my lord Abraham, that there is among us the revelation of some thing, whether it be evil or good!

VII. And Abraham left Sarah, and went into the chamber, and said to Isaac, Come hither, my beloved son, tell me the truth, what it was thou sawest and what befell thee that thou camest so hastily to us. And Isaac answering began to say, I saw, my lord, in this night the sun and the moon above my head, surrounding me with its rays and giving me light. As I gazed at this and rejoiced, I saw the heaven opened, and a man bearing light descend from it, shining more than seven suns. And this man like the sun came and took away the sun from my head, and went up into the heavens from whence he came, but I was greatly grieved that he took away the sun from me. After a little, as I was still sorrowing and sore troubled, I saw this man come forth from heaven a second time, and he took away from me the moon also from off my head, and I wept greatly and called upon that man of light, and said, Do not, my lord, take away my glory from me; pity me and hear me, and if thou takest away the sun from me, then leave the moon to me. He said, Suffer them to be taken up to the king above, for he wishes them there. And he took them away from me, but he left the

Then Sarah said to Abraham, How durst thou weep when the man of God has come in to thee, and why have thy eyes(1) shed tears for to-day there is great rejoicing? Abraham said to her, How knowest thou that this is a man of God? Sarah answered and said, Because I say and declare that this is one of the three men who were entertained by us at the oak of Mamre, when one of the servants went and brought a kid and thou didst kill it, and didst say to me, Arise, make ready that we may eat with these men in our house. Abraham answered and said, Thou has perceived well, O woman, for I too, when I washed his feet knew in my heart that these were the feet which I had washed at the oak of Mamre, and when I began to enquire concerning his journey, he said to me, I go to preserve Lot thy brother from the men of Sodom, and then I knew the mystery.

VII. And Abraham said to Michael, Tell me, man of God, and show to me why thou hast come hither. And Michael said. Thy son Isaac will show thee. And Abraham said to his son, My beloved son, tell me what thou hast seen in thy dream to-day, and wast frightened. Relate it to me. Isaac answered his father, I saw in my dream the sun and the moon, and there was a crown upon my head, and there came from heaven a man of great size, and shining as the light that is called the father of light. He took the sun from my head, and yet left the rays behind with me. And I wept and said, I beseech thee, my lord, take not away the glory of my head, and the light of my house, and all my glory. And the sun and the moon and the stars lamented, saying, Take not away the glory of our power. And that shining man answered and said to me, Weep not that I take the light of thy house, for it is taken up from troubles into rest, from a low estate to a high one; they lift him up from a narrow to a wide place; they raise him from darkness to light. And I said to him, I beseech thee, Lord, take also the

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rays upon me. The chief-captain said, Hear, O righteous Abraham; the sun which thy son saw is thou his father, and the moon likewise is Sarah his mother. The man bearing light who descended from heaven, this is the one sent from God who is to take thy righteous soul from thee. And now know, O most honored Abraham, that at this time thou shalt leave this worldly life, and remove to God. Abraham said to the chief captain O strangest of marvels! and now art thou he that shall take my soul from me? The chief-captain said to him, I am the chief-captain Michael, that stands before the lord, and I was sent to thee to remind thee of thy death, and then I shall depart to him as I was commanded. Abraham said, Now I know that thou art an angel of the Lord, and wast sent to take my soul, but I will not go with thee; but do thou whatever thou art commanded.

VIII. The chief-captain hearing these words immediately vanished, and ascending into heaven stood before God, and told all that he had seen in the house of Abraham; and the chief-captain said this also to his Lord, Thus says thy friend Abraham, I will not go with thee, but do thou whatever thou art commanded; and now, O Lord Almighty, doth thy glory and immortal kingdom order aught? God said to the chief-captain Michael, Go to my friend Abraham yet once again, and speak to him thus, Thus saith the Lord thy God, he that brought thee into the land of promise, that blessed thee above the sand of the sea and above the stars of heaven, that opened the womb of barrenness of Sarah, and granted thee Isaac as the fruit of the womb in old age, Verily I say unto thee that blessing I will bless thee, and multiplying I will multiply thy seed, and I will give thee all that thou shalt ask from me, for I am the Lord thy God, and besides me there is no other. Tell me why thou hast rebelled against me, and why there is grief in thee, and why thou rebelled against my archangel Michael? Knowest thou not that all who have come from Adam and Eve have died, and that none of the prophets has escaped death? None of those that rule as kings is immortal; none of thy forefathers has escaped the mystery of death. They have all died, they have all departed into Hades, they are all gathered by the sickle of death. But upon thee I have not sent death, I have not suffered any deadly disease to come upon thee, I have not permitted the sickle of death to meet thee, I have not allowed the nets of Hades to enfold thee, I have never wished thee to meet with any evil. But for good comfort I have sent my

rays with it. He said to me, There are twelve hours of the day, and then I shall take all the rays. As the shining man said this, I saw the sun of my house ascending into heaven, but that crown I saw no more, and that sun was like thee my father. And Michael said to Abraham, Thy son Isaac has spoken truth, for thou shalt go, and be taken up into the heavens, but thy body shall remain on earth, until seven thousand ages are fulfilled, for then all flesh shall arise. Now therefore, Abraham, set thy house in order, and thy children, for thou hast heard fully what is decreed concerning thee.

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chief-captain Michael to thee, that thou mayst know thy departure from the world, and set thy house in order, and all that belongs to thee, and bless Isaac thy beloved son. And now know that I have done this not wishing to grieve thee. Wherefore then hast thou said to my chief-captain, I will not go with thee? Wherefore hast thou spoken thus? Knowest thou not that if I give leave to death and he comes upon thee, then I should see whether thou wouldst come or not?

IX. And the chief-captain receiving the exhortations of the Lord went down to Abraham, and seeing him the righteous one fell upon his face to the ground as one dead, and the chief-captain told him all that he had heard from the Most High. Then the holy and just Abraham rising with many tears fell at the feet of the Incorporeal, and besought him, saying, I beseech thee, chief-captain of the hosts above, since thou hast wholly deigned to come thyself to me a sinner and in all things thy unworthy servant, I beseech thee even now, O chief-captain, to carry my word yet again to the Most High, and thou shalt say to him, Thus saith Abraham thy servant, Lord, Lord, in every work and word which I have asked of thee thou hast heard me, and hast fulfilled all my counsel. Now, Lord, I resist not thy power, for I too know that I am not immortal but mortal. Since therefore to thy command all things yield, and fear and tremble at the face of thy power, I also fear, but I ask one:request of thee, and now, Lord and Master, hear my prayer, for while still in this body I desire to see all the inhabited earth, and all the creations which thou didst establish by one word, and when I see these, then if I shall depart from life I shall be without sorrow. So the chief-captain went back again, and stood before God, and told him all, saying, Thus saith thy friend Abraham, I desired to behold all the earth in my lifetime before I died. And the Most High hearing this, again commanded the chief-captain Michael, and said to him, Take a cloud of light, and the angels that have power over the chariots, and go down, take the righteous Abraham upon a chariot of the cherubim, and exalt him into the air of heaven that he may behold all the earth.

X. And the archangel Michael went down and took Abraham upon a chariot of the cherubim, and exalted him into the air of heaven, and led him upon the cloud together with sixty angels, and Abraham ascended upon the chariot over all the earth. And Abraham saw the world as it was in that day, some ploughing, others driving wains, in one place men herding flocks, and in another

Abraham answered and said to Michael, I beseech thee, lord, if I shall depart from my body, I have desired to be taken up in my body that I may see the creatures that the Lord my God has created in heaven and on earth. Michael answered and said, This is not for me to do, but I shall go and tell the Lord of this, and if I am commanded I shall show thee all these things.

VIII. And Michael went up into heaven, and spoke before the Lord concerning Abraham, and the Lord answered Michael, Go and take up Abraham in the body, and show him all things, and whatsoever he shall say to thee do to him as to my friend. So Michael went forth and took up Abraham in the body on a cloud, and brought him to the river of Ocean.

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watching them by night, and dancing and playing and harping, in another place men striving and contending at law, elsewhere men weeping and having the dead in remembrance. He saw also the newly-wedded received with honour, and in a word he saw all things that are done in the world, both good and bad. Abraham therefore passing over them saw men bearing swords, wielding in their hands sharpened swords, and Abraham asked the chief-captain, Who are these? The chief-captain said, These are thieves, who intend to commit murder, and to steal and burn and destroy. Abraham said, Lord, Lord, hear my voice, and command that wild beasts may come out of the wood and devour them. And even as he spoke there came wild beasts out of the wood and devoured them. And he saw in another place a man with a woman committing fornication with each other, and said, Lord, Lord, command that the earth may open and swallow them, and straightway the earth was cleft and swallowed them. And he saw in another place men digging through a house, and carrying away other men's possessions, and he said, Lord, Lord, command that fire may come down from heaven and consume them. And even as he spoke, fire came down from heaven and consumed them. And straightway there came a voice from heaven to the chief-captain, saying thus, O chief-captain Michael, command the chariot to stop, and turn Abraham away that he may not see all the earth, for if he behold all that live in wickedness, he will destroy all creation. For behold, Abraham has not sinned, and has no pity on sinners, but I have made the world, and desire not to destroy any one of them, but wait for the death of the sinner, till he be converted and live. But take Abraham up to the first gate of heaven, that he may see there the judgments and recompenses, and repent of the souls of the sinners that he has destroyed.

XI. So Michael turned the chariot and brought Abraham to the east, to the first gate of heaven; and Abraham saw two ways, the one narrow and contracted, the other broad and spacious, and there he saw two gates, the one broad on the broad way, and the other narrow on the narrow way. And outside the two gates there he saw a man sitting upon a gilded throne, and the appearance of that man was terrible, as of the Lord.(1) And they saw many souls driven by angels and led in through the broad gate, and other souls, few in number, that were taken by the angels through the narrow gate. And when the

XII. And after Abraham had seen the place of judgment, the cloud took him down upon the firmament below, and Abraham, looking down upon the earth, saw a man committing adultery with a wedded woman. And Abraham turning said to Michael, Seest thou this wickedness? but, Lord, send fire from heaven to consume them. And straightway there came down fire and consumed them, for the Lord had said to Michael, Whatsoever Abraham shall ask thee to do for him, do thou. Abraham looked again, and saw other men railing at their companions, and said, Let the earth open and swallow them, and as he spoke the earth swallowed them alive. Again the cloud led him to another place, and Abraham saw some going into a desert place to commit murder, and he said to Michael, Seest thou this wickedness? but let wild beasts come out of the desert, and tear them in pieces, and that same hour wild beasts came out of the desert, and devoured them. Then the Lord God spoke to Michael saying, Turn away Abraham to his own house, and let him not go round all the creation that I have made, because he has no compassion on sinners, but I have compassion on sinners that they may turn and live, and repent of their sins and be saved.

(VIII.) And Abraham looked and saw two gates, the one small and the other large, and between the two gates sat a man upon a throne of great glory, and a multitude of angels round about him, and he was weeping, and again laughing, but his weeping exceeded his laughter seven-fold. And Abraham said to Michael, Who is this that sits between the two gates in great glory; sometimes he laughs, and sometimes he weeps, and his weeping exceeds his laughter seven-fold? And Michael said to Abraham, Knowest thou not who it is? And he said, No, lord. And Michael said to Abraham, Seest thou these two gates, the small and the great? These are they which

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wonderful one who sat upon the golden throne saw few entering through the narrow gate, and many entering through the broad one, straightway that wonderful one tore the hairs of his head and the sides of his beard, and threw himself on the ground from his throne, weeping and lamenting. But when he saw many souls entering through the narrow gate, then he arose from the ground and sat upon his throne in great joy, rejoicing and exulting. And Abraham asked the chief-captain, My lord chief-captain, who is this most marvelous man, adorned with such glory, and sometimes he weeps and laments, and sometimes he rejoices and exults? The incorporeal one said: This is the first-created Adam who is in such glory, and he looks upon the world because all are born from him, and when he sees many souls going through the narrow gate, then he arises and sits upon his throne rejoicing and exulting in joy, because this narrow gate is that of the just, that leads to life, and they that enter through it go into Paradise. For this, then, the first-created Adam rejoices, because he sees the souls being saved. But when he sees many souls entering through the broad gate, then he pulls out the hairs of his head, and casts himself on the ground weeping and lamenting bitterly, for the broad gate is that of sinners, which leads to destruction and eternal punishment. And for this the first-formed Adam falls from his throne weeping and lamenting for the destruction of sinners, for they are many that are lost, and they are few that are saved, for in seven thousand there is scarcely found one soul saved, being righteous and undefiled.

XII. While he was yet saying these things to me, behold two angels, fiery in aspect, and pitiless in mind, and severe in look, and they drove on thousands of souls, pitilessly lashing them with fiery thongs. The angel laid hold of one soul, and they drove all the souls in at the broad gate to destruction. So we also went along with the angels, and came within that broad gate, and between the two gates stood a throne terrible of aspect, of terrible crystal, gleaming as fire, and upon it sat a wondrous man bright as the sun, like to the Son of God. Before him stood a table like crystal, all of gold and fine linen, and upon the table there was lying a book, the thickness of it six cubits, and the breadth of it ten cubits, and on the right and left of it stood two angels holding paper and ink and pen. Before the table sat an angel of light, holding in his hand a balance, and on his left sat an angel all fiery, pitiless, and severe, holding in his hand a trumpet, having within it

lead to life and to destruction. This man that sits between them is Adam, the first man whom the Lord created, and set him in this place to see every soul that departs from the body, seeing that all are from him. When, therefore, thou seest him weeping, know that he has seen many souls being led to destruction, but when thou seest him laughing, he has seen many souls being led into life. Seest thou how his weeping exceeds his laughter? Since he sees the greater part of the world being led away through the broad gate to destruction, therefore his weeping exceeds his laughter seven-fold.

IX. And Abraham said, And he that cannot enter through the narrow gate, can he not enter into life? Then Abraham wept, saying, Woe is me, what shall I do? for I am a man broad of body, and how shall I be able to enter by the narrow gate, by which a boy of fifteen years cannot enter? Michael answered and said to Abraham, Fear not, father, nor grieve, for thou shalt enter by it unhindered, and all those who are like thee.

And as Abraham stood and marveled. behold an angel of the Lord driving sixty thousand souls of sinners to destruction, And Abraham said to Michael, Do all these go into destruction? And Michael said to him, Yea, but lat us go and search among these souls, if there is among them even one righteous. And when they went, they found an angel holding in his hand one soul of a woman from among these sixty thousand, because he had found her sins weighing equally with all her works, and they were neither in motion nor at rest, but in a state between; but the other souls he led away to destruction. Abraham said to Michael, Lord, is this the angel that removes the souls from the body or not? Michael answered and said, This is death, and he leads them into the place of judgment, that the judge may try them.

X. And Abraham said, My lord, I beseech thee to lead me to the place of judgment so

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all-consuming fire with which to try the sinners. The wondrous man who sat upon the throne himself judged and sentenced the souls, and the two angels on the right and on the left wrote down, the one on the right the righteousness and the one on the left the wickedness. The one before the table, who held the balance, weighed the souls, and the fiery angel, who held the fire, tried the souls. And Abraham asked the chief-captain Michael, What is this that we behold? And the chief-captain said, These things that thou seest, holy Abraham, airs the judgment and recompense. And behold the angel holding the soul in his hand, and he brought it before the judge, and the judge said to one of the angels that served him, Open me this book, and find me the sins of this soul. And opening the book he found its sins and its righteousness equally balanced, and he neither gave it to the tormentors, nor to those that were saved, but set it in the midst.

XIII. And Abraham said, My lord chief-captain, who is this most wondrous judge? and who are the angels that write down? and who is the angel like the sun, holding the balance? and who is the fiery angel holding the fire? The chief-captain said, "Seest thou, most holy Abraham, the terrible man sitting upon the throne? This is the son of the first created Adam, who is called Abel, whom the wicked Cain killed, and he sits thus to judge all creation, and examines righteous men and sinners. For God has said, I shall not judge you, but every man born of man shall be judged. Therefore he has given to him judgment, to judge the world until his great and glorious coming, and then, O righteous Abraham, is the perfect judgment and recompense, eternal and unchangeable, which no one can alter. For every man has come from the first-created, and therefore they are first judged here by his son, and at the second coming they shall be judged by the twelve tribes of Israel,

that I too may see how they are judged. Then Michael took Abraham upon a cloud, and led him into Paradise, and when he came to the place where the judge was, the angel came and gave that soul to the judge. And the soul said, Lord have mercy on me. And the judge said, How shall I have mercy upon thee, when thou hadst no mercy upon thy daughter which thou hadst, the fruit of thy womb? Wherefore didst thou slay her? It answered, Nay, Lord, slaughter has not been done by me, but my daughter has lied upon me. But the judge commanded him to come that wrote down the records, and behold cherubim carrying two books. And there was with them a man of exceeding great stature, having on his head three crowns, and the one crown was higher than the other two. These are called the crowns of witness. And the man had in his hand a golden pen, and the judge said to him, Exhibit the sin of this soul. And that man. opening one of the books of the cherubim, sought out the sin of the woman's soul and found it. And the judge said, O wretched soul, why sayest thou that thou hast not done murder? Didst thou not, after the death of thy husband, go and commit adultery with thy daughter's husband, and kill her? And he convicted her also of her other sins, whatsoever she had done from her youth. Hearing these things the woman cried out, saying, Woe is me, all the sins that I did in the world I forgot, but here they were not forgotten. Then they took her away also and gave her over to the tormentors.

XI. And Abraham said to Michael, Lord, who is this judge, and who is the other, who convicts the sins? And Michael said to Abraham, Seest thou the judge? This is Abel, who first testified, and God brought him hither to judge, and he that bears witness here is the teacher of heaven and earth, and the scribe of righteousness, Enoch, for the Lord sent them hither to write down the sins and righteousnesses of each one. Abraham said, And how can Enoch bear the weight of the souls, not having seen death? or how can he give sentence to all the souls? Michael said, If he gives sentence concerning the souls, it is not permitted; but Enoch himself does not give sentence, but it is the Lord who does so, and he has no more to do than only to write. For Enoch prayed to the Lord saying, I desire not, Lord, to give sentence on the souls, lest I be grievous to anyone; and the Lord said to Enoch, I shall command thee to write down the sins of the soul that makes atonement and it shall enter

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every breath and every creature. But the third time they shall be judged by the Lord God of all, and then, indeed, the end of that judgment is near, and the sentence terrible, and there is none to deliver. And now by three tribunals the judgment of the world and the recompense is made, and for this reason a matter is not finally confirmed by one or two witnesses, but by three witnesses shall everything be established. The two angels on the right hand and on the left, these are they that write down the sins and the righteousness, the one on the right hand writes down the righteousness, and the one on the left the sins. The angel like the sun, holding the balance in his hand, is the archangel, Dokiel the just weigher, and he weighs the righteousnesses and sins with the righteousness of God. The fiery and pitiless angel, holding the fire in his hand, is the archangel Puruel, who has power over fire, and tries the works of men through fire, and if the fire consume the work of any man, the angel of judgment immediately seizes him, and carries him away to the place of sinners, a most bitter place of punishment. But if the fire approves the work of anyone, and does not seize upon it, that man is justified, and the angel of righteousness takes him and carries him up to be saved in the lot of the just. And thus, most righteous Abraham, all things in all men are tried by fire and the balance."

XIV. And Abraham said to the chief-captain, My lord the chief-captain, the soul which the angel held in his hand, why was it adjudged to be set in the midst? The chief-captain said, Listen, righteous Abraham. Because the judge found its sins. and its righteousnesses equal, he neither committed it to judgment nor to be saved, until the judge of all shall come. Abraham said to the chief-captain, And what yet is wanting for the soul to be saved? The chief-captain said, If it obtains one righteousness above its sins, it enters into salvation. Abraham said to the chief-captain, Come hither, chief-captain Michael, let us make prayer for this soul, and see whether God will hear us. The chief-captain said, Amen, be it so; and they made prayer and entreaty for the soul, and God heard them, and when they rose up from their prayer they did not see the soul standing there. And Abraham said to the angel, Where is the soul that thou didst hold in the midst? And the angel answered, It has been saved by thy righteous prayer, and behold an angel of light has taken it and carried it up into Paradise. Abraham said, I glorify the name of God, the Most High, and his immeasurable mercy. And Abra-

into life, and if the soul make not atonement and repent, thou shalt find its sins written down and it shall be cast into punishment.

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ham said to the chief-captain, I beseech thee, archangel, hearken to my prayer, and let us yet call upon the Lord, and supplicate his compassion, and entreat his mercy for the souls of the sinners whom I formerly, in my anger, cursed and destroyed, whom the earth devoured, and the wild beasts tore in pieces, and the fire consumed through my words. Now I know that I have sinned before the Lord our God. Come then, O Michael, chief-captain of the hosts above, come, let us call upon God with tears that he may forgive me my sin, and grant them to me. And the chief-captain heard him, and they made entreaty before the Lord, and when they had called upon him for a long space, there came a voice from heaven saying, Abraham, Abraham, I have hearkened to thy voice and thy prayer, and forgive thee thy sin, and those whom thou thinkest that I destroyed I have called up and brought them into life by my exceeding kindness, because for a season I have requited them in judgment, and those whom I destroy living upon earth, I will not requite in death.

XV. And the voice of the Lord said also to the chief-captain Michael, Michael, my servant, turn back Abraham to his house, for behold his end has come nigh, and the measure of his life is fulfilled, that he may set all things in order, and then take him and bring him to me. So the chief-captain, turning the chariot and the cloud, brought Abraham to his house, and going into his chamber he sat upon his couch. And Sarah his wife came and embraced the feet of the Incorporeal, and spoke humbly, saying, I give thee thanks, my lord, that thou hast brought my lord Abraham, for behold we thought he had been taken up from us. And his son Isaac also came and fell upon his neck, and in the same way all his men-slaves and women-slaves surrounded Abraham and embraced him, glorifying God. And the Incorporeal one said to them, Hearken, righteous Abraham. Behold thy wife Sarah, behold also thy beloved son Isaac, behold also all thy men-servants and maid-servants round about thee. Make disposition of all that thou hast, for the day has come nigh in which thou shalt depart from the body and go to the Lord once for all. Abraham said, Has the Lord said it, or sayest thou this of thyself? The chief-captain answered, Hearken, righteous Abraham. The Lord has commanded, and I tell it thee. Abraham said, I will not go with thee. The chief-captain, hearing these words, straightway went forth from the presence of Abraham, and went up into the heavens, and

And about the ninth hour Michael brought Abraham back to his house. But Sarah his wife, not seeing what had become of Abraham, was consumed with grief, and gave up the ghost, and after the return of Abraham he found her dead, and buried her.

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stood before God the Most High, and said, Lord Almighty, behold I have hearkened to Thy friend Abraham in all he has said to Thee, and have fulfilled his requests. I have shown to him Thy power, and all the earth and sea that is under heaven. I have shown to him judgment and recompense by means of cloud and chariots, and again he says, I will not go with thee. And the Most High said to the angel, Does my friend Abraham say thus again, I will not go with thee? The archangel said, Lord Almighty, he says thus, and I refrain from laying hands on him, because from the beginning he is Thy friend, and has done all things pleasing in Thy sight. There is no man like him on earth, not even Job the wondrous man, and therefore I refrain from laying hands on him. Command, therefore, Immortal King, what shall be done.

XVI. Then the Most High said, Call me hither Death that is called the shameless countenance and the pitiless look. And Michael the Incorporeal went and said to Death, Come hither; the lord of creation, the immortal king, calls thee. And Death, hearing this, shivered and trembled, being possessed with great terror, and coming with great fear it stood before the invisible father, shivering, groaning and trembling, awaiting the command of the Lord. Therefore the invisible God said to Death, Come hither, thou bitter and fierce name of the world, hide thy fierceness, cover thy corruption, and cast away thy bitterness from thee, and put on thy beauty and all thy glory, and go down to Abraham my friend, and take him and bring him to me. But now also I tell thee not to terrify him, but bring him with fair speech, for he is my own friend. Having heard this, Death went out from the presence of the Most High, and put on a robe of great brightness, and made his appearance like the sun, and became fair and beautiful above the sons of men, assuming the form of an archangel, having his cheeks flaming with fire, and he departed to Abraham. Now the righteous Abraham went out of his chamber, and sat under the trees of Mamre, holding his chin in his hand, and awaiting the coming of the archangel Michael. And behold, a smell of sweet odor came to him, and a flashing of light, and Abraham turned and saw Death coming towards him in great glory and beauty, And Abraham arose and went to meet him, thinking that it was the chief-captain of God, and Death beholding him saluted him, saying, Rejoice, precious Abraham, righteous soul, true friend of the Most High God, and companion of the holy angels.

XIII. But when the day of the death of Abraham drew nigh, the Lord God said to Michael, Death will not dare to go near to take away the soul of my servant, because he is my friend, but go thou and adorn Death with great beauty, and send him thus to Abraham, that he may see him with his eyes. And Michael straightway, as he was commanded, adorned Death with great beauty, and sent him thus to Abraham that he might see him. And he sat down near to Abraham, and Abraham seeing Death sitting near to him was afraid with a great fear. And Death said to Abraham, Hail, holy soul! hail, friend of the Lord God! hail, consolation and entertainment of travelers! And Abraham said, Thou art welcome, servant of the Most High God. I beseech thee, tell me who thou art; and entering into my house partake of food and drink, and depart from me, for since I have seen thee sitting near to me my soul has been troubled. For I am not at all worthy to come near thee, for thou art an exalted spirit and I am flesh and blood, and therefore I cannot bear thy glory, for I see that thy beauty is not of this world. And Death said to Abraham, I tell thee, in all the creation that God has made, there has not been found one like thee, for even the Lord himself by searching has not found such an one upon the whole earth. And Abraham said to Death, How durst thou lie? for I see that thy

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Abraham said to Death, Hail thou of appearance and form like the sun, most glorious helper, bringer of light, wondrous man, from whence does thy glory come to us, and who art thou, and whence comest thou? Then Death said, Most righteous Abraham, behold I tell thee the truth. I am the bitter lot of death. Abraham said to him, Nay, but thou art the comeliness of the world, thou art the glory and beauty of angels and men, thou art fairer in form than every other, and sayest thou, I am the bitter lot of death, and not rather, I am fairer than every good thing. Death said, I tell thee the truth. What the Lord has named me, that also I tell thee. Abraham said, For what art thou come hither? Death said, For thy holy soul am I come. Then Abraham said, I know what thou meanest, but I will not go with thee; and Death was silent and answered him not a word.

XVII. Then Abraham arose, and went into his house, and Death also accompanied him thither. And Abraham went up into his chamber, and Death went up with him. And Abraham lay down upon his couch, and Death came and sat by his feet. Then Abraham said, Depart, depart from me, for I desire to rest upon my couch. Death said, I will not depart until I take thy spirit from thee. Abraham said to him, By the immortal God I charge thee to tell me the truth. Art thou death? Death said to him, I am Death. I am the destroyer of the world. Abraham said, I beseech thee, since thou art Death, tell me if thou comest thus to all in such fairness and glory and beauty? Death said, Nay, my lord Abraham, for thy righteousnesses, and the boundless sea of thy hospitality, and the greatness of thy love towards God has become a crown upon my head, and in beauty and great peace and gentleness I approach the righteous, but to sinners I come in great corruption and fierceness and the greatest bitterness and with fierce and pitiless look. Abraham said, I beseech thee, hearken to me, and show me thy fierceness and all thy corruption and bitterness. And Death said, Thou canst not behold my fierceness, most righteous Abraham. Abraham said, Yes, I shall be able to behold all thy fierceness by means of the name of the living God, for the might of my God that is in heaven is with me. Then Death put off all his comeliness and beauty, and all his glory and the form like the sun with which he was clothed, and put upon himself a tyrant's robe, and made his appearance gloomy and fiercer than all kind of wild beasts, and more unclean than all uncleanness. And he showed to Abraham seven

beauty is not of this world. And Death said to Abraham, Think not, Abraham, that this beauty is mine, or that I come thus to every man. Nay, but if any one is righteous like thee, I thus take crowns and come to him, but if it is a sinner I come in great corruption, and out of their sin I make a crown for my head, and I shake them with great fear, so that they are dismayed. Abraham therefore said to him, And whence comes thy beauty? And Death said, There is none other more full of corruption than I am. Abraham said to him, And art thou indeed he that is called Death? He answered him and said, I am the bitter name. I am weeping....

XIV. And Abraham said to Death, Show us thy corruption. And Death made manifest his corruption; and he had two heads, the one had the face of a serpent and by it some die at once by asps, and the other bead was like a sword; by it some die by the sword as by bows.

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fiery heads of serpents and fourteen faces, (one) of flaming fire and of great fierceness, and a face of darkness, and a most gloomy face of a viper, and a face of a most terrible precipice, and a face fiercer than an asp, and a face of a terrible lion, and a face of a cerastes and basilisk. He showed him also a face of a fiery scimitar, and a sword-bearing face, and a face of lightning, lightening terribly, and a noise of dreadful thunder. He showed him also another face of a fierce stormy sea, and a fierce rushing river, and a terrible three-headed serpent, and a cup mingled with poisons, and in short he showed to him great fierceness and unendurable bitterness, and every mortal disease as of the odour of Death. And from the great bitterness and fierceness there died servants and maid-servants in number about seven thousand, and the righteous Abraham came into indifference of death so that his spirit failed him.

XVIII. And the all-holy Abraham, seeing these things thus, said to Death, I beseech thee, all-destroying Death, hide thy fierceness, and put on thy beauty and the shape which thou hadst before. And straightway Death hid his fierceness, and put on his beauty which he had before. And Abraham said to Death, Why hast thou done this, that thou hast slain all my servants and maidservants? Has God sent thee hither for this end this day? Death said, Nay, my lord Abraham, it is not as thou sayest, but on thy account was I sent hither. Abraham said to Death, How then have these died? Has the Lord not spoken it? Death said, Believe thou, most righteous Abraham, that this also is wonderful, that thou also wast not taken away with them. Nevertheless I tell thee the truth, for if the right hand of God had not been with thee at that time, thou also wouldst have had to depart from this life. The righteous Abraham said, Now I know that I have come into indifference of death, so that my spirit fails, but I beseech thee, all-destroying Death, since my servants have died before their time, come let us pray to the Lord our God that he may hear us and raise up those who died by thy fierceness before their time. And death said, Amen, be it so. Therefore Abraham arose and fell upon the face of the ground in prayer, and Death together with him, and the Lord sent a spirit of life upon those that were dead and they were made alive again. Then the righteous Abraham gave glory to God.

XIX. And going up into his chamber he lay down, and Death came and stood before him. And Abraham said to him, Depart from me, for I desire to rest, because my

In that day the servants of Abraham died through fear of Death, and Abraham seeing them prayed to the Lord, and he raised them up.

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spirit is in indifference. Death said, I will not depart from thee until I take thy soul. And Abraham with an austere countenance and angry look said to Death, Who has ordered thee to say this? Thou sayest these words of thyself boastfully, and I will not go with thee until the chief-captain Michael come to me, and I shall go with him. But this also I tell thee, if thou desirest that I shall accompany thee, explain to me all thy changes, the seven fiery heads of serpents and what the face of the precipice is, and what the sharp sword, and what the loud-roaring river, and what the tempestuous sea that rages so fiercely. Teach me also the unendurable thunder, and the terrible lightning, and the evil-smelling cup mingled with poisons. Teach me concerning all these. And Death answered, Listen, righteous Abraham. For seven ages I destroy the world and lead all down to Hades, kings and rulers, rich and poor, slaves and free men, I convoy to the bottom of Hades, and for this I showed thee the seven heads of serpents. The face of fire I showed thee because many die consumed by fire, and behold death through a face of fire. The face of the precipice I showed thee, because many men die descending from the tops of trees or terrible precipices and losing their life, and see death in the shape of a terrible precipice. The face of the sword I showed thee because many are slain in wars by the sword, and see death as a sword. The face of the great rushing river I showed thee because many are drowned and perish snatched away by the crossing of many waters and carried off by great rivers, and see death before their time. The face of the angry raging sea I showed thee because many in the sea falling into great surges and becoming shipwrecked are swallowed up and behold death as the sea. The unendurable thunder and the terrible lightning I showed thee because many men in the moment of anger meet with unendurable thunder and terrible lightning coming to seize upon men, and see death thus. I showed thee also the poisonous wild beasts, asps and basilisks, leopards and lions and lions' whelps, bears and vipers, and in short the face of every wild beast I showed thee, most righteous one, because many men are destroyed by wild beasts, and others by poisonous snakes, serpents and asps and cerastes and basilisks and vipers, breathe out their life and die. I showed thee also the destroying cups mingled with poison, because many men being given poison to drink by other men straightway depart unexpectedly.

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XX. Abraham said, I beseech thee, is there also an unexpected death? Tell me. Death said, Verily, verily, I tell thee in the truth of God that there are seventy-two deaths. One is the just death, buying its fixed time, and many men in one hour enter into death being given over to the grave. Behold, I have told thee all that thou hast asked, now I tell thee, most righteous Abraham, to dismiss all counsel, and cease from asking anything once for all, and come, go with me, as the God and judge of all has commanded me. Abraham said to Death, Depart from me yet a little, that I may rest on my couch, for I am very faint at heart, for since I have seen thee with my eyes my strength has failed me, all the limbs of my flesh seem to me a weight as of lead, and my spirit is distressed exceedingly. Depart for a little; for I have said I cannot bear to see thy shape. Then Isaac his son came and fell upon his breast weeping, and his wife Sarah came and embraced his feet, lamenting bitterly. There came also his men slaves and women slaves and surrounded his couch, lamenting greatly. And Abraham came into indifference of death, and Death said to Abraham, Come, take my right hand, and may cheerfulness and life and strength come to thee. For Death deceived Abraham, and he took his right hand, and straightway his soul adhered to the hand of Death. And immediately the archangel Michael came with a multitude of angels and took up his precious soul in his hands in a divinely woven linen cloth, and they tended the body of the just Abraham with divine ointments and perfumes until the third day after his death, and buried him in the land of promise, the oak of Mamre, but the angels received his precious soul, and ascended into heaven, singing the hymn of "thrice holy" to the Lord the God of all, and they set it there to worship the God and Father. And after great praise and glory had been given to the Lord, and Abraham bowed down to worship, there came the undefiled voice of the God and Father saying thus, Take therefore my friend Abraham into Paradise, where are the tabernacles of my righteous ones, and the abodes of my saints isaac and Jacob in his bosom, where there is no trouble, nor grief, nor sighing, but peace and rejoicing and life unending. (And let us, too, my beloved brethren, imitate the hospitality of the patriarch Abraham, and attain to his virtuous way of life, that we may be thought worthy of the life eternal, glorifying the Father, Son and Holy Ghost; to whom be glory and power forever. Amen.)

But God returned and removed the soul of Abraham as in a dream, and the archangel Michael took it up into the heavens. And Isaac buried his father beside his mother Sarah, glorifying and praising God, for to him is due glory, honour and worship, of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, now and always and to all eternity. Amen.

LIFE AND CONDUCT OF THE HOLY WOMEN XANTHIPPE, POLYXENA, AND REBECCA

I. When the blessed Paul was at Rome through the word of the Lord, it happened that a certain servant of a ruler of Spain came to Rome with letters of his master's, and heard the word of God from Paul, the truly golden and beautiful nightingale. This servant being greatly touched, and being unable to remain and be filled with the divine word because he was hastened by the letters, returned into Spain in great grief, and being unable to show his desire to any one, because his master was an idolater, he was always pained at heart and sighing greatly. Now this servant was honoured and faithful to his masters, and as time went past, the servant tell sick and grew lean of flesh, which his master perceiving said to him, What has happened to thee that thou art thus fallen together in countenance? The servant said, here is a great pain in my heart, and I can in no way find rest. His master said to him, And what is the pain that cannot receive healing from my chief physician? The servant said, While I was still in Rome, this pain and its recurring mishap made itself known to me. His master said, And knowest thou not of any who have fallen into this disease and been healed? The servant said, Yes, but where that physician is I know not, for I left him in Rome. So many as have been attended by that physician and have gone through the water m his hands, have received healing immediately. His master said, I ought not to grudge to send thee yet again to Rome, if perchance thou mightest obtain healing.

II. And while they spoke thus, behold his mistress, by name Xanthippe, overhearing these words, and learning of the teaching of Paul, said, What is the name of that physician, and what is the healing to ward off such a disease? The servant said to her, The calling upon a new name, and anointing with oil and washing with water. By this treatment I have seen many that had incurable

pains receive healings. As he said this, the images of the idols that stood in the house began to be shaken and fall down. And his mistress beckoned to him, saying, Seest thou, brother, the images of the idols being shaken, how they cannot endure the power of the word? And his master, by name Probus, arose from his mid-day sleep with a very gloomy countenance, for the Devil had greatly disturbed him, because the knowledge of God had come into his house. And he questioned the servant of everything in order, and the servant having been seized by sickness by the foreknowledge of God, disclosed to him the life of man, and Xanthippe was incurable in her soul concerning this teaching. So Probus too was grieved for Xanthippe, because from that time she was wasting herself away with waking and abstinence and other austerities.

III. And Xanthippe going away to her couch and groaning, said, Woe is me, wretched one, lying in darkness, that I have not learned the name of the new teacher, that I might summon his prayer to help me, and what to say I know not. Shall I call upon him by the name of his God? but I cannot say, The God that is preached by such a one. Nevertheless I shall say thus by conjecture, O God, giving light in Hades, and guiding those in darkness, Lord of free men and kings, and preached by worthy servants in all the world, called upon as a brother by sinful men and quick to hear, to whom not even archangels can send up worthy songs of praise, who hast shown to me, humble and unworthy, the ever-living and abiding seed (though my ignorance permits me not to receive it), hasten also the things that concern me, Lord, since by thy will thou hast made thyself heard by me, and in thy compassion show me the proclamation of thy herald, that I may learn of him what is pleasing to thee. Yea, I beseech thee look upon my ignorance, O God, and enlighten me with the light of thy countenance, thou

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that never overlookest any of those that call upon thee in truth. Probus, her husband said to her, Why troublest thou thyself so much, lady, and dost not at all turn to sleep? Xanthippe said, I cannot sleep, for there is in me an incurable pain. Probus said to her, And what is thy pain or grief, O lady, that I am not sufficient to comfort thee? All that thou hast wished unto this day I have served thee in, and now what is it that thou hast, and dost not tell me? Xanthippe says to him, I beseech thee this thing only, my lord, permit me for a little and for this day only to sleep apart from thee. And Probus said to her, Be it as thou wilt, lady; only leave off thy groaning.

IV. Then entering into her bed-chamber alone, she spoke thus with tears, In what way, my God, I shall act, or what counsel I shall take, I know not. Shall I declare the thought that has come upon me? I fear the madness and disorder of the city. Shall I fly from this impious city? I fear the contrivance of the devil for seizing the sheep. Shall I await the mercy and swiftness of the Lord? Again I fear the untimely snatching away of life, for the death of sinners has no warning. Shall I depart and flee away to Rome? I fear the length of the journey, being unable to go on foot. But while I say these things by conjecture, constrained by my desire (for I cannot speak with surety), may I find pardon with thee, my God, and do thou fulfil my desire with excess of right words, and think me but worthy to hear thy preacher, for if I say, to see his face, I ask a great thing. Blessed is he that is found in the company of thy preachers, and is satisfied with their precious countenances. Blessed are they that are yoked under the preaching of thy commandments. Blessed are they that keep thy commandments; but where now, Lord, are thy mercies to our fathers, that we also may be their successors in love toward thee and heirs of faith. But behold now, Lord, I cannot find any one that has love for thee, that communing with him I might even a little refresh my soul. Speed therefore, Lord, to yoke me in desire for thee, and keep me under the shadow of thy wings, for thou alone art God, glorified to all eternity. Amen.

V. Therefore Xanthippe saying these words and others like them, groaned continually all the night, and Probus heard her and was greatly distressed, and arising from his couch when the morning came he went in to her, and seeing her eyes inflamed with tears, he said, Wherefore, lady, dost thou thus vex me, and wilt not tell me thy pain?

Tell it me, that I may do whatever is pleasing to thee, and distress me not with thy trouble. Xanthippe says to him, Be of good cheer rather, my lord, and be not vexed, for my trouble shall not harm thee, but if I have found favour before thee, go forth now to the salutation, and allow me to indulge myself in it as I will, for it is not possible for man to take from me the insatiable pain. And listening to her he went out immediately to receive the salutations of the men of the city, for he was the great man among them, and was also known to Nero, the Emperor. And sitting down, great grief appeared in his countenance, and being asked the reason of his grief by the chief met, of the city, he said to them that he had fallen into many and unfounded charges.

VI. And Xanthippe went out into the garden, that she might await there looking closely for certainty of her husband, and she saw the delight of the trees, and the various warbling of the birds, and said, groaning, O beauty of the world! for that which we hitherto thought to come of itself, we know now that all things are beautifully fashioned by the beautiful One. O power and invention of wisdom! for not only has he placed in men a thousand leagues, but also in birds he has distinguished various voices, as if from anthems and responses to receive sweet-voiced and heart-stirring hymns from his own works. O delightfulness of the air, declaring the inimitable creator! Who shall turn my sorrow into rejoicing? And again she said, God to whom praise is sung by all, give me peace and comfort. As she said these things, Probus also came up from the street to break his fast, and when he saw her countenance altered by tears, he began to pull out the hairs of his head, but he dared not speak to her then so as not to mingle other trouble with her trouble. So he went and fell upon his couch, and said, groaning, Alas, that I had not even the consolation of a child from her, but only acquire grief upon grief. Two years are not yet full since I was wedded to her, and already she meditates divorce.

VII. But Xanthippe was always keeping watch through the doors into the streets of the city, and the blessed Paul, the preacher and teacher and illuminator of the world, left Rome and came even into Spain by the fore-knowledge of God. And coming up to the gates of the city he stood and prayed, and crossing himself entered the city. When Xanthippe saw the blessed Paul walking quietly and equally, and adorned with all virtue and understanding, she was greatly

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delighted in him and her heart leaped continually, and as possessed with an unexpected joy she said with herself, Why does my heart beat vehemently at the sight of this man? Why is his walk quiet and equable, as of one who expects to take in his arms one that is pursued? Why is his countenance kindly, as of one that tends the sick? Why does he look so lovingly hither and thither, as one who desires to assist those who are seeking to flee from the mouths of dragons? Who shall tell me that this is one from the flock of preachers? If it were possible for me, I should wish to touch the hem of his garments, that I may behold his kindness and readiness to receive and sweet odour; for the servant had told her this also, that the hems of his garments had the odour of precious perfumes.

VIII. Now Probus heard her words, and straightway ran out by himself into the street, and laying hold of Paul's hand said to him, Man, who thou art I know not, but deign to enter into my house; perchance thou mayest be to me a cause of salvation. Paul said to him, It will be well with thee, son, after thy request! And they went in together to Xanthippe. When Xanthippe therefore saw the great Paul, the intellectual eyes of her heart were uncovered, and she read upon his forehead, having as it were golden seals, these words, PAUL THE PREACHER OF GOD. Then exulting and rejoicing she threw herself at his feet, and twisting her hair together she wiped his feet, saying, Welcome, O man of God, to us humble ones, that live as shadows among shadows. For thou hast looked upon those who were running into Hades as into something beautiful, who addressed the crooked serpent and destroyer as provider and protector, who were running into the dark Hades as to their father, those that were fashioned with a rational nature but have become like irrational creatures. Thou hast sought me, lowly one, having the sun of righteousness in my heart. Now the poison is stayed, when I have seen thy precious face. Now he that troubled me is flown away, when thy most beautiful counsel has appeared to me. Now I shall be considered worthy of repentance, when I have received the seal of the preacher of the Lord. Before now I have deemed many happy who met with you, but I say boldly that from this time forth I myself shall be called happy by others, because I have touched thy hem, because I have received thy prayers, because I have enjoyed thy sweet and honeyed teaching. Thou hast not hesitated to come to us,

thou that fishest the dry land in thy course, and gatherest the fish that fall in thy way into the net of the kingdom of heaven.

IX. The great Paul said to her, Arise, daughter, and look not upon me as having been sought out of thy ignorance by my foresight. For Christ, the provider of the world, the searcher out of sinners and the lost, who has not only called to mind those upon earth, but also by his own presence has redeemed those in Hades, he himself has pitied thee, and sent me hither that he might visit and pity many others together with thee. For this mercy and visitation are not of us, but are his injunction and command, even as we also have received mercy and been saved by him. Probus hearing this was astonished at their words, for he was altogether ignorant of these things. But Paul by force raised up Xanthippe from his feet, and she running set a new gilded chair for Paul to sit down upon. The great Paul said to her, My daughter Xanthippe, do not thus. for ye have not yet accorded to the faith of Christ, but wait a little, till the Lord shall set in order what is necessary! Xanthippe said to Paul, Sayest thou this to try me, O preacher of God, or hast thou any foreknowledge? Paul said, No, daughter, but the devil, who hates the servants of God, sows wickedness in the hearts of his own servants, to oppose those that labour for Christ in preaching, for his wickedness has extended to the apostles and ever, to the Lord himself. Therefore it is fitting to approach the unbelievers gently and kindly! Xanthippe said to Paul, I beseech thee, if thou lovest thy servants, make prayer for Probus, and let me see if he that is hated by thee can work in him; let me see if he can even stand against thy prayer. And Paul rejoiced exceedingly at the words of her faith, and said to her, Believe me, daughter, that by his suggestion and working I have not passed a single hour without chains and blows. Xanthippe said to him, But thou sufferest these things by thy own free will, since thou hast not neglected thy preaching even to scourging, but this again I tell thee, that thy bonds shall be the defeat of the prompter, and thy humiliation their overthrow.

X. Now the report of his presence ran through the whole city and the country round about, for some of that city having been at Rome had seen the signs and wonders that were done by the blessed Paul, and came to see if this was he. Many therefore came into the house of Probus, and he began to be annoyed and to say, I will not suffer

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my house to be made an inn. Xanthippe knowing that the face of Probus had begun to be estranged, and that he spoke thus, was greatly distressed, saying, Alas, wretched me, that we are not thought fully worthy to keep this man in our house; for if Paul goes hence, the church also will be held elsewhere. Then Xanthippe, considering these matters, put her hand on the foot of Paul, and taking dust she called Probus to her, and placing her hand on his breast mid, O Lord, my God, who hast sought out me, lowly one and ignorant of thee, send what is fitting into this heart. And Paul perceived her prayer, and made the sign of the cross, and for several days the people entered unhindered, and as many as had sick and vexed by unclean spirits brought them, and all were healed.

XI. And Xanthippe said to Paul, Teacher, my heart is greatly consumed because I have not as yet received baptism. And after this Probus being again moved by the devil, cast Paul out of the house and shut up Xanthippe in her chamber. Then one of the chief men, Philotheus by name, besought the great Paul to come into his house, but the great Paul was unwilling to do so, saying, Lest Probus trouble thy house on my account. Philotheus said to him, Nay, father, I am not at all subject to him, for in no other thing is he greater than me, except in rank, and that because the parents of Xanthippe are above me. But if Probus come to me, I am above him in riches and in war. Then Paul, the great apostle of the Lord, was persuaded, anti went into the house of Philotheus the ex-prefect. All this was done by the Evil one that Xanthippe might receive holy baptism with tribulation, and be faint-hearted concerning the commandments of Christ.

XII. Xanthippe therefore, with tears, mid to her servants, Have ye learned where Paul is gone to? They said, Yea, in the house of Philotheus the ex-prefect, and Xanthippe rejoiced greatly that Philotheus also believed, being able, as she said, to persuade Probus also. Then Probus called Xanthippe to supper, and when she consented not, Probus said, Think not that in bed also thou wilt keep away from me. But when he lay down to supper, Xanthippe bending her knees, prayed to the Lord, saying, Eternal and immortal God, that didst take dust from the ground, and didst not value it according to the nature of its creation, but didst call it the son of immortality, thou who didst come from the heart of the father to the heart of the earth for our sake, on whom the cherubim dare not fix their gaze, and for us wast

hidden in the womb that by taking up thy abode in a mother thou mightest make good the offence of Eve. Thou that didst drink gall and vinegar, and wast pierced in the side by a spear, that thou mightest heal the wound given by the rib to Adam. For Eve being his rib wrought a blow for Adam, and through him for all the world. Thou that gavest a sleep without perception to the serpent, so that he might not know thy Incarnation, remember also my groaning and tears, and grant fulfilment to my sleep,(1) and bring sleep upon Probus until I shall be deemed worthy of the gift of holy baptism, for I vehemently desire to obtain this, to the glory and praise of thy holy name.

XIII. But Probus, while still at supper, commanded the doors of their house to be secured by cruel and wicked soldiers, and having given these orders, he straightway fell asleep upon the couch. Then the servants came and announced this to Xanthippe that he might be awakened, but she said, Put out the lights, my children, and leave him thus. And in the first sleep, taking three hundred pieces of gold, she went to the doors, saying with herself, Perchance the porter will be persuaded by the amount of money. But he, being evil and froward, would not be persuaded to do this, and she. loosing also her girdle, which was set with precious stones and worth two hundred pieces of gold, gave it to him and went out saying, Lord, I win over my own slaves with money, that thy preacher Paul may not be oppressed by Probus. And Xanthippe went on to the house of Philotheus the ex-prefect, as to a great and incredible work, running and praising God. As she therefore passed through a certain place, the demons pursued her with fiery torches and lightnings, and she, turning, saw behind her this terrible sight, and being possessed with great fear said, What has happened to thee now, wretched soul? Thou hast been deprived of thy desire. Thou wast running to salvation, thou wast running to baptism, and thou hast fallen into the serpent and his ministers, and these things thy sins have prepared for thee. Speaking thus she was even fainting at heart from great despair, but the great Paul being forewarned by God of the assault of the demons, immediately stood beside her, being also preceded by a beautiful youth. And straightway the vision of the demons disappeared, and Paul said to her, Arise, daughter Xanthippe, and behold the Lord desired by thee, by whose flame the heavens are

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shaken and the deep is dried up, coming to thee and pitying and saving thee. Behold him that accepts thy prayers and straightway gives ear. See him coming in the shape of a man, and take courage against the demons. Then she rising from the ground said to him, Master, why hast thou left me solitary? Even now make haste to seal me, so that if death come upon me I may depart to him who is full of compassion and has no arrogance.

XIV. Therefore the great Paul straightway taking her hand, went into the house of Philotheus, and baptised her in the name of the Father and of the Son and the Holy Ghost. Then taking bread also he gave her the eucharist saying, Let this be to thee for a remission of sins and for a renewing of thy soul. Then the blessed Xanthippe, receiving the divine grace of holy baptism, returned to her own house, rejoicing and praising the Lord. The porter seeing her complained loudly in violent words, that her going out might be deemed to have been without his will if Probus should notice it; but he that gave her light along with Paul kept the whole house, together with Probus, in a deep sleep, and they did not hear his words at all. Then she went running into her bed-chamber, saying, What shall I say of thee, searcher out of sinners, who art most present with us in tribulations. Thy goodness does these things, since for the sake of man whom thou didst make thou didst go down even to death, for, however much man stir thee to anger many times, yet thou, Lord, pourest out thy mercies upon him. O depth of compassion and wealth of mercy; O immeasurable goodness and incomparable kindness; O treasure of good things, and giver of mercy, and enricher of all that believe in thee! If, therefore, one who loves thee say, Be near me, Lord, thou hast already anticipated him. If he say, I give thee thanks; hear my words, before they are spoken, thou understandest. And as for those that ask of thee, thou givest to each after his asking. Thy goodness seeks out those that know thee not, and thou runnest to sinners. O cheerful look, filling the ways of sinners with mercy; O excellent watching and exhortation of the ignorant! Who shall tell my lord Paul of the salvation that has now befallen me, that he might come and give words of thanksgiving for me to this protector of sinners? Come many and behold and know the Lord, who hates sin, but has mercy on sinners. Come, now, O Paul, preacher of God, for with thee even now I sit under instruction, and give words of thanksgiving for me, for I desire to keep silence, since human reason makes me afraid, lest I have not the grace of eloquence. I desire to keep silence, and am compelled to speak, for some one inflames and sweetens me within. If I say, I will shut my mouth, there is some one that murmurs in me. Shall I say a great thing? Is it not that teacher that is in Paul, without arrogance, filling the heavens, speaking within and waiting without, sitting on the throne with the father and stretched upon the cross by man. What, therefore, I shall do I know not. My worthless mind delights me, and is not unfolded to the end. Thou that hadst thy hands fixed with nails and thy side pierced with the spear, thou star out of Jacob and lion's whelp out of Judah, thou rod out of Jesse, and man and God out of Mary, thou invisible God in the bosom of the Father, and that canst not be looked upon by cherubim, and art mocked in Israel, glory be to thee, who didst appear on the earth and wast taken by the people, hung upon the tree and by the report of the wicked falsely said to be stolen, and that hast bought us all together.

XV. While she was still speaking thus, there appeared a cross on the eastern wall, and straightway there entered through it a beautiful youth, having round about him trembling rays, and under him an extended light, on which also he walked. And as he entered within, all the foundations of that house shook and sounded with a great trembling. Xanthippe seeing him cried out and fell to the ground as if dead; but he being pitiful and kind, changing immediately into the shape of Paul, raised her up, saying, Arise, Xanthippe, and fear not, for the servants of God are thus glorified. Then Xanthippe arising, gazed upon him, and thinking it to be Paul said, How art thou come in hither, preacher of God, seeing that I have given five hundred pieces of gold to the porter, and that although he is my slave, while thou hast no money? The Lord said to her, My servant Paul is richer than all wealth, for whatsoever treasure he acquires here he sends it before him into the kingdom of heaven, that departing thither he may rest in the unending and eternal rest. This is the treasure of Paul, thou and thy like. Then Xanthippe gazing upon him, desirous to say something, saw his face shining as the light; and being greatly amazed, and putting both her hands over her face she threw herself to the ground, and said, Hide thyself, Lord, from my bodily eyes and enlighten my understanding, for I know now who thou art. Thou art he whose precursor was the cross, the only begotten son of the Father alone

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above, and only son of the Virgin alone below. Thou art he who was pierced in the hands and who rent the rocks. Thou art he whom none other can carry except the bosom of the Father.

XVI. And as she spoke thus the Lord was again hidden from her, and Xanthippe, coming to herself, said, Woe is me wretched one, that no one has told me what is the gratitude of slaves towards their master. If Paul the preacher of the Lord were here, how could e give praise? But perchance in the face of such favors and gifts they are silent, possessed only with tears, for it is not possible worthily to praise any one according to his favour. Saying this she was seized with great faintness from lack of food, for having been strongly possessed with desire for Christ she had forgotten to take nourishment. Therefore, being greatly exhausted by abstinence and the vision and want of sleep and other austerities, she was unable to rise from the ground.

XVII. And Probus arose from his couch with a very gloomy countenance, for in his sleep he had seen a dream, and was greatly troubled concerning it. But the porter seeing him about to issue to the market-place, having his countenance thus troubled, was greatly afraid, Lest, said he, he know what has happened, and will miserably destroy me. Probus, however, having gone forth and signified to those in the market what was fitting for the day and season, speedily returned into the house, and said to his servants, Call me quickly the wise men Barandus and Gnosteas. When they were summoned he said to them, I have seen a very terrible vision, and what appeared in it is difficult for our power to interpret. This, however, do ye disclose to me, as being the most excellent of all the world. Expound it to me when I tell it you. Barandus says to him, If the vision can be interpreted by our wisdom, we shall explain it to thee, but if it be of the faith that is now spoken of we cannot expound it to thee, for it is of another wisdom and understanding. However, let our lord and master tell the dream, and let us see if there is any explanation for it. Probus says to Gnosteas, Wherefore answerest thou nothing? Gnosteas said, I have not heard the dream, and what can I say but whatever it may be, if it is by reason of Paul? Tell me now, and thou wilt find it so. Probus said, I thought I was standing in a certain unknown and strange country, and that there sat there an Ethiop king, who ruled over all the earth and seemed never to have any successor. There stood beside him multitudes of servants, and all hastened to destruction and had mastery far and wide. And when that Ethiop seemed to have gained his purpose, there arose a raven and standing above him croaked with a pitiful voice. And straightway there arose from the eastern parts an eagle, and seized his kingdom, and his power was made vain, and those standing by him fled to the eagle. Then that king strove against those that fled to the eagle, but the eagle carried it up into heaven, and, behold, there came a helper to those that fled to the eagle and left his staff to them. Then they laying hold of it were not overcome by the violence of that king. So many as ran to those who had the staff, he washed them in pure water, and they that were washed had power over his kingdom. And by that staff the enemies of the king were put to flight, therefore capable men laying hold of the staff turned to themselves great multitudes. And that king strove against them, and had no might at all, but he hindered many from believing in him that sent out the men into the world to bear witness, and for that reason many were grieved. Nevertheless, this one did not constrain any like the other, for he himself was ruler of all light. This then was the end.

XVIII. Then the wise Barandus said, By the grace of God I shall tell the things sent into the world by the Lord. The king whom thou sawest is the Devil, and the multitudes of his servants are the demons, and the throngs about him are they that worship the gods. Whereas he thought to have no successor, he looked not for the coming of Christ. The raven betokened the weakness of his kingdom, for the raven kept not obedience to the righteous Noah, but loved pitiful things. The eagle that arose and took away his kingdom and carried it up into heaven, and that there came a protector of those that fled to the eagle, having a staff, that is the Lord Jesus Christ, who left to them his staff, that is, his precious cross; and that he washed those that fled to him signifies the invulnerable breast-plate of baptism, and therefore they were not overcome. The capable men sent into the world with the cross are the preachers of God like Paul who is now with us, against whom that king has no power. This was made known to thee because even on those who are hard of belief God has compassion in some way. See therefore whether even thou wilt be able to injure Paul though thou desirest, for the mighty power that shields him has been shown thee by the Lord. Therefore,

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understand what has been said to thee by me, and serve not that king of darkness, for as thou sawest his kingdom vanish away, so shall all his servants perish with him. Come now, therefore, my Lord, let us go to Paul and receive baptism from him, lest Satan have mastery over us also. Probus said, Let us first go to Xanthippe and see whether she still lives, for behold there are twenty-nine days since she has tasted anything; for I saw her face in the even, ing, and it was as of one prepared to depart.

XIX. And as they went into the chamber, they heard her singing.

Praise the Lord ye sinners also, because he accepts your prayers also. Alleluia.

Praise the Lord ye that have despaired like me, for many are his mercies. Alleluia.

Praise him ye ungodly, because for you he was crucified. Alleluia.

Praise him ye that strive for the salvation of sinners, because God loves you. Alleluia.

Praise him, ye that rejoice at the calling of sinners, because ye are fellow-citizens with the saints. Alleluia.

As she said these words and more than these with tears, the wise men Barandus and Gnosteas opening the door entered and fell at her feet, saying, Pray for us lowly ones, O servant of Christ, that he may bring us also into thy number. But she said to them, Brethren, I am not Paul who remits sins, but neither is he far from you. Therefore fall not before my knees, but go to him, who is also more able to benefit you. Then they came running to the house of Philotheus to Paul, and found him teaching a great multitude. And Probus also came to hear Paul, and Xanthippe entered along with him to salute him, and coming near to Paul and bending her knees she did him reverence. Probus seeing this marvelled that her so proud spirit had changed to so great humility, for she sat beside the feet of Paul on the ground humbly and as one of the worthless. And Probus was greatly grieved, not yet attending to the hearing of the word, but was ever gazing and fixing his attention on Xanthippe.

XX. The great Paul was teaching thus, Let those that burn in the flesh observe lawful marriage, avoiding fornication, especially that with another's wife, and let those that are united keep to one another. Probus heard this teaching with delight, and said, O Paul, how excellently and wisely thou employest this teaching. Why then has Xanthippe withdrawn from me? And Paul said, My son Probus, they that foresee that the works of men shall be tried with fire, and that have always in their mind the inexorableness of death, cast out all desire that cleaves to the flesh. But woe when the desire shall judge him that desired, then he shall gnash his teeth to no effect and in vain, for the amendment of repentance is past. Hearing this Probus went up into his house marvelling, and tasted nothing that day, but went and lay down upon his bed. And about the third hour of the night he arose and said, Alas, how wretched was the day in which I was wedded to Xanthippe. Would that I had died and not seen her. Saying this he arose and said, I shall pray to the God of Paul. Perchance he will do to me also what is fitting, that I may not become a reproach in the world, being rejected by her. And straightway falling upon the ground he said, O God of Paul, if, as I have heard from Xanthippe, thou dost seek after the ignorant and turn back those that are astray, do to me also what is fitting; for thou art the king of life and death, as I have heard, and hast dominion over things in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and over all the thoughts and desires of men, and to thee alone belongs glory to all eternity. Amen.

XXI. Then Probus arising from the ground fell again upon the couch, and arising early he came to Paul, and finding him baptising many in the name of the life-giving Trinity, he said, My lord Paul, if only I were worthy to receive baptism, behold the hour. Paul said to him, Son, behold the water is ready for the cleansing of those that come to Christ. Therefore immediately taking, off his garments, and Paul laying hold of him, he leapt into the water, saying, Jesus Christ, son of God, and everlasting God, let all my sins be taken away by this water. And Paul said, We baptise thee in the name of the Father and Son and Holy Ghost. After this he made him to receive the eucharist of Christ. Then Xanthippe, being greatly rejoiced, began in the house toward evening together with her husband to give good cheer to all those in the house, and to prepare a feast, and when they came, after flying orders for the supper to be magnificent she herself went up to the chamber. And behold on the stairs a demon coming in the likeness of one of the actors, and standing in a dark corner, was desirous to frighten and terrify Xanthippe. But she thinking it to be the actor that she ordinarily had, said in anger, Many a time have I said to him that I no longer care for toys, and he despises me as being a woman; and straightway seizing an iron lamp-stand, she hurled it at his

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face, and crushed all his features. Then the demon cried out, saying, O violence, from this destroyer even women have received power to strike us. But Xanthippe was greatly afraid.

XXII. After supper then Probus went forth to hear the word, but Xanthippe sitting in her bed-chamber was reading the prophets, her sister Polyxena lying upon the couch. Xanthippe loved Polyxena exceedingly, because she was younger than herself, and beautiful in appearance, and Probus also loved her greatly. And as Polyxena lay upon the couch she saw this dream, that a dragon, hideous in appearance, came and signified to her to come to him, and when she did not obey him to go to him, he came running and swallowed her. From fear of this the girl leapt up trembling, and Xanthippe running to her said, What has happened to thee, dearest, that thou hast leapt up thus suddenly? She for a long time was unable to speak; then coming to herself she said, Alas, my sister Xanthippe, what danger or tribulation awaits me, I know not; for I saw in my dream that a hideous dragon came and signed to me to go to him, and, when I would not go, he came running and swallowed me, beginning at my feet. While I was terrified at this, there suddenly spoke out of the air, in the light of the sun, a beautiful youth, whom I thought to be the brother of Paul, saying, Verily, thou hast no power. Who also took me by, the hand and straightway drew me out of him, and straightway the dragon disappeared. And behold his hand was full of sweet odour as of balsam or aught else for fragrance. Xanthippe said to her, Truly thou must be greatly troubled, my sister Polyxena, but God has thee dear, seeing that he has shown thee strange and marvellous things. Therefore arise quickly in the morning and receive the holy baptism, and ask in the baptism to be delivered from the snares of the dragon.

XXIII. Xanthippe, having said this to Polyxena, and having made a cross of wood, went to Paul, but Polyxena remained alone in the bed-chamber, her nurse having gone together with Xanthippe. And about the middle of the night, a certain man, powerful in wealth and assistance, finding the doors open and using magical arts, entered within, desiring to carry away Polyxena. She discovering this fled into the mill, but the magicians led by the demons found her. And she, not finding any door to escape by, said, Alas that I am given over to this destroyer; for she had heard that he was at enmity with her suitor, and he did this to assail and vex him, being a man who was a robber and exceeding cruel. Therefore seizing her they went out of the city, dragging her to the sea. She looked round this way and that, but there was none to deliver her, and groaning she said, Alas, my sister Xanthippe, thou didst send seven hundred pieces of gold to Rome and buy books, that through them thou mightest prophesy by me; for this evening thou didst read, I looked to my right hand and beheld, but there was no one that knew me; flight perished from me and there is no one that seeketh out my soul.(1)

XXIV. While she said these words, those that were dragging her away walked in haste, and coming to the shore they hired a ship and sailed for Babylonia, for he that carried her off had a brother there, a ruler of a district. But the wind blew against them, so that they could not proceed by reason of it, and as they were rowing on the sea, behold the great apostle of the Lord, Peter, was sailing past in a ship, being urged by a dream to go to Rome, because when Paul departed for Spain there had entered into Rome a certain deceiver and magician, Simon by name, and had broken up the church which Paul had established. And, behold, as he journeyed he heard a voice from heaven saying to him, Peter, to-morrow there will meet thee a ship coming from Spain; arise, therefore, and pray for the soul that is troubled in it. As soon therefore as Peter saw the ship, remembering the dream, he said, O Jesus, that hast care for the troubled, whom the tribulation of those in a strange land moves to compassion, whom the weeping of those in captivity made to come upon the earth, who givest us at all time whatsoever we desire, and never turnest away from our request, show now also pity and assistance to the soul that is tossed about in that ship, because thou, O Lord, pitiest at all time those in pain. The demons then, perceiving his prayer, said to the magicians, Avoid ye the course of that ship, for if we meet with it, we cannot move.

XXV. But the loving God taking care for Polyxena, the vessel arrived in Greece, the blessed Philip being there, and having come down to the shore by a vision, and there accompanied him also great multitudes of those who were being taught by him. And behold the vessel wherein was Polyxena appeared, terribly tossed about. And the blessed Philip said, Behold the vessel on account of which we came down here, in which there is a soul in trouble. When the vessel arrived and all had disembarked upon the dry land, they lay as half dead, because they had been greatly

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tossed about in the sea. But the apostle Philip ordered Polyxena to be lifted and taken to the place where he was lodging, and the rest to be looked to. But he that had carried off Polyxena, recovering from the disorder of the sea, was desirous to take her again, for Philip, having entrusted Polyxena to one of those that were taught by him, went on his way rejoicing. But he that had her said, She was committed to me by a holy man, and I cannot give her up to thee. He, however, giving no heed to him and finding there a kinsman of his, a nobleman, prepared for war, gathering eight thousand men. Polyxena, knowing this, went forth by night and departed, but he that had charge of Polyxena said, Taking the tunic of Philip, I shall go forth alone to meet them; but as he said this it was announced to him that the maid was not there. Then he, leaving all thought of the war, ran into the bed-chamber, and not finding the maid threw himself on the ground, saying, Woe is me, wretched one, that have become an enemy of Philip. What shall I answer him, when he asks the maiden from me? His servants came and said to him, Arise, our lord, from the ground, for the forces have surrounded thy house, and the maid cannot be found. He said, Leave me thus to die on her account. Perhaps, even by this, Philip the servant of Christ may be fully satisfied, since I shall be found despising his command. Then the servants, seeing that he heeded them not, took counsel to flee from the enemies, but again after a little, being moved by the fore-knowledge of God, they said, It is not right for our master to die. Come, let us go forth to meet them, raising the sign of the cross. Then raising the precious cross they went forth, about thirty men, upon the enemy, and slew five thousand, and the rest fled. And they returned with victory to their master, praising God and saying, What God is so great as our God, who has not suffered his servant to be slain by the wicked? And coming upon their lord, still weeping, they said to him, Arise, lord, and weep not, for it befits it to be not as we will, but as the Lord wills.

XXVI. Polyxena, however, going out of the city, and not knowing by what way she should walk, found herself in desert places of the hills, and sitting down said thus with tears, Woe is me, outcast and captive, that I cannot find even a wild beast's den to rest in. Woe is me, left desolate, that not even Hades, that no one escapes, has devoured me. Woe is me, who at one time showed myself not even to my servants, and now display myself to demons. Woe is me, that I am now made manifest to all those by whom I disdained to be seen. Alas for me that was formerly devoted to idols; for this now even the mercy of God has passed me in silence. Whom, then, shall I call upon to help me? The God of Paul whom I have constantly offended? But who shall help me now? No one sees or heeds or hears my groaning. Verily I shall beseech Him that sees the hidden things, for who is more pitiful and compassionate than He who always keeps watch over the oppressed? But because my mouth is unclean and defiled, I dare not ask help from Him. Would that I were as one of the wild beasts that I ,night not know what captivity is. Would that I had been drowned in the sea; perhaps having received the divine baptism I should have gone where no one is made captive. What then shall I do, for death delays, and night has come on, and there is no help anywhere. Having said thus, she arose and began to walk onwards, and passing through a small defile she fell into a wood very thick and large, and finding there a hollow in a tree, which was the den of a lioness, she sat down there, for the lioness had gone forth for her food. And sitting down she said, O wretched begetting, O grievous hour in which I, unhappy one, came into this world; O mother that bore me, why, foreseeing my troubles and wanderings, didst thou name me Polyxena? Has any other ever fallen into such tribulations and misfortunes? Truly, my sister Xanthippe, didst thou read concerning me, unhappy one, saying, I have suffered affliction and been utterly bowed down (--Psalm xxxviii. 6). These words thou didst utter with grief, while I lay upon the couch, thinking not at all of my sorrows. On this account I have now come into the depths of evils, and pass the night in deserts like a wild beast. But the beasts live with others of their kind, while I am left solitary, as not being of one race with mankind.

XXVII. And as she was saying these words, and more than these, the morning dawned, and the lioness came from her hunting. Polyxena, seeing the wild beast, trembled and said, By the God of Paul, O wild beast, have compassion on me and tear me not until I receive baptism. And the wild beast, fearing the adjuration, immediately went away, and standing afar off gazed at her. And she said, Behold, the beast has obeyed me; I will also retire from its dwelling. And immediately she began to journey towards the east, and the beast went before her until she was come out of the wood. Then Polyxena said, What shall I give to thee in return,

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O beast? The God of Paul will repay thee this kindness; and the wild beast, hearing her prayer, immediately returned to its place. Then she, descending, found a public road, and standing on it wept, not knowing whither she should go, and though many went past, she turned to none of them, but said, Perchance the God of Paul will remember me, and whoever shall have pity upon me, to him will I go.

XXVIII. As she said this, Andrew, the apostle of the Lord, also came journeying to that place, and as he drew near to Polyxena he felt in his heart some commotion arising in himself. Standing, therefore, to pray, and folding his arms in the shape of the cross, he said, Lord Jesus Christ, partaker of light and knower of things hidden, from whom nothing on earth is hid, do unto me kindness and mercy, and make clear to me this commotion of heart, and calm my reason, thou that makest peace always with those that love peace. Then Polyxena ran to him, and Andrew, the apostle of the Lord, said to her, Approach me not, daughter, but tell me who and whence thou art. Polyxena said, My lord, I am a stranger here, but I see thy face is gracious, and thy words as the words of Paul, and I suppose thee to be of the same God. Andrew understood that she spoke of the apostle Paul, and said to her, And whence dost thou know of Paul? She said, From my own country, for I left him in Spain. Andrew said to her, And how happenest thou to be here, the country being far distant? She said, Because it was thus appointed for me, and came to pass; but I beseech thee and fall at thy feet, seal me, as Paul seals, by the baptism of regeneration, so that even I, lowly one, may be known by our God, for the kind God, seeing my tribulation and distress, sent thee to pity me. Andrew, the great apostle of tim Lord, said to her, Let us go, daughter, where there is water.

XXIX. And when they had gone no long way, they came to a well most transparent and pure. And as the blessed Andrew stood to pray beside the well, behold a certain maiden named Rebecca, of the tribe of Israel, brought as a captive to that country, came to draw water at the well, and seeing the blessed Andrew, knew him by his appearance. For Rebecca said, This is the appearance of a Prophet, and this is one of the apostles. And bowing down to him she said, Have mercy on me, servant of the true God, who am captive and sold for the third time, who was once honored by prophets, and am now insulted by idolaters, and recall me, lowly one, thou that wast sent to call back many sinners. Andrew, the apostle of Christ, said, God will care for thee also, daughter, as well as for this stranger. Therefore, receive ye now baptism, and be ye as of one people, glorifying God always.

XXX. Therefore the apostle standing prayed, and, behold, the lioness came running, and stood gazing upon him. And Andrew the apostle of the Lord said, What then does this beast wish? The lioness opening her mouth spoke with a human voice, Andrew, apostle of Christ, the prayer of her, that stands on thy right hand, has overtaken me. Therefore confirm thou and instruct and admonish them in the right and true faith of Christ, for they greatly desire the name of the Lord. And, behold, the wonderful condescension of God, that even on irrational and untamable beasts he has poured out his mercy. The blessed Andrew weeping said, What shall I say or what shall I speak concerning thy mercy, O God, that thus thou at all times cleavest to the lowly, and takest care for those in ignorance, being without arrogance and full of mercy? And having completed the prayer he baptised the maidens in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost. Then the lioness immediately set off to the mountain, and the Apostle Andrew said to the maidens, Be zealous, daughters, to be of good repute before God by living well in a strange land, and separate not from each other, and God, that is always present to those that call upon him, keep you in holiness, driving away from you the Evil One. And pray ye also for me. Polyxena said, We will follow thee whithersoever thou goest. The Apostle Andrew said, This was not made known to me by the Lord, daughters; therefore remain with peace, hoping in the Lord, and he will preserve you to the end.

XXXI. And Andrew went his way rejoicing and glorifying God. Then said Polyxena, Whither shall we go, sister:? Rebecca said, Let us depart whither thou wilt, lest my mistress send and separate us. Polyxena said, Come, let us depart into the mountain to the lioness. Rebecca said, It is indeed better for us to live with wild beasts and perish of hunger than to be compelled by Greeks and idolaters to fall into the filth of marriage. So they began to journey, and, behold, by the providence of God, they met a man driving asses, who seeing them said, Ye are not of this country, and, as I see, ye wear not its dress. Command therefore of your servant to eat bread and receive one piece of silver that ye may remember your servant

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when ye buy bread. And he made haste and took the sacks off his asses and spread them on the ground, and made the maidens to sit upon them and said to them, Seeing that the wine which your servant carries is gathered by Greeks, tell me of what faith ye are, that thus we may taste of it. Polyxena said, We, brother, taste no wine, and are of the God of Paul. The ass-driver said. Is this God upon earth? Polyxena said to him, God is everywhere, both in heaven and on earth. The ass-driver, being desirous to learn clearly, said, Does this Paul then have the same God that is preached by Philip? Polyxena, learning that he was a Christian, said, Yea, brother, this is the God of all, whom Paul and Philip preach.

XXXII. The ass-driver hearing this wept unceasingly, and Polyxena said, Has then the providence of God overtaken thee, that thou weepest thus? The ass-driver said, If thou art desirous to learn wherefore I weep, hear the truth, for one ought not to grudge to tell the things of Christ. I was a disciple of Philip, the apostle of Christ, and seeing how all his thought was towards the poor, I took all that I had and sold it. And taking the price, I bought bread and wine, and divided them throughout the cities to those that had need, when therefore I had done this for some time in the neighbouring city, a certain maimed person cried out, saying (though it was not himself that spoke, but Satan through his mouth), I desire nothing, I take nothing from thee, because thou art a Christian. Then the whole city arose against me and sought to take me, but some ran one way and some another, while I go through their midst and no one sees me. And issuing from the city I gave praise and glory to God that thus I had been rewarded, and I prayed to my God that I should meet some one who knew his all-holy name, so that relating these things I might obtain relief. For the men of tiffs country will not hear at all concerning Christ, being full of impiety and filled with wickedness. I exhort you therefore, take ye also one coin from me, and if it seem good, take ye rest also upon the asses. Polyxena said, Mayest thou obtain mercy from God, brother. But if thou wilt receive a full reward, save us as far as the sea, so that, if God wills, we may sail for Spain.

XXXIII. The ass-driver, as if commanded by the voice of God, eagerly receiving the maidens, went on his way rejoicing in the Lord. And he said to Polyxena, Alter thy appearance to that of a man, lest for thy beauty's sake some one snatch thee away from me. And coming to an inn, they stayed there, and on the morrow they went forward taking heed to the way. And behold there came past a certain prefect journeying to Greece, who seeing the maidens ordered Polyxena to be carried off on his chariot. Then the ass-driver followed, crying and saying, A prefect does violence to none. Why do ye this? Then they beat him and drove him away.

XXXIV. And he going on his way lamented, saying, Woe is me, wretched and abominable one. Woe is me that thought to do good, but now I have wrought mischief. Woe is me that my trouble and my running were unacceptable. Would that I had died before yesterday, that I might not have met with these maidens at all. But why troublest thou me, O wretched soul? Let us go to Philip the apostle of God. If there is not forgiveness for me, it is better for me to choose death in whatsoever fashion than to live with such evil and bitter conscience. So he went and found Philip the apostle of Christ, and said to him, O disciple and preacher of Christ, thus and thus it has happened to me and befallen me. Has my soul salvation? Philip the apostle of Christ said, Be not distressed concerning this, my son, it is impossible for them to be dishonoured, seeing that no one ever overcomes God; for this same Polyxena, when she first came from the sea, I entrusted to a certain brother, who also was greatly distressed because of her running away secretly from his house. Him also I persuaded not to grieve, for through her tribulation and wanderings many shah know God.

XXXV. The prefect therefore carried Polyxena to the city where he stayed, and ordered her to be shut up in a chamber. And one of the soldiers seized Rebecca, but the maid secretly escaping fled into the house of an old woman, who received the maiden kindly and entreated her well. And sitting down she wept, saying, Alas, my sister Polyxena, I wretched one did not think that anyone was oppressed like myself, but now I am persuaded and know that all my misfortunes and tribulations do not compare with one day of thine. And most grievous of all, behold I have been separated from thee and am again a captive, but do thou search for me even into the next world, my sister Polyxena. The old woman said to her, What ails thee, daughter, that thou weepest thus bitterly? Rebecca said, Suffer me, mother, to be distressed and to lament the great and incurable pain of my heart. The old woman greatly compassionating her wept exceedingly, for the maid had told her all that had happened to her, and how through Polyxena she had believed in Christ. So too Polyxena, shut up in the chamber, said, Woe is me, wretched one; alas for me miserable one; now I know clearly how the devil hates virginity, but O Lord Jesus Christ, God of all, since I dare not beseech thee of myself, I bring to thee the prayers of thy holy preacher Paul, that thou mayst not suffer my virginity to be destroyed by any one.

XXXVI. And as she was yet praying, the attendants came to lead her to the couch of the prefect. But Polyxena said to them, Brethren, make not haste to any. one's destruction, for this time shall quickly pass away, and they that work together with the destroyers shall perish with them. Rather assist strangers, that ye be not found strangers to the angels of God. The men, being shamed by these words, went to the prefect and said, The maid from fear is seized with a violent fever. And the prefect said, Let her alone. And, behold, the son of the prefect came to Polyxena by night, and she seeing him was afraid, but the youth said to her, Fear not, girl. I seek not to he wedded with thee as the bridegroom of destruction, for I know from thy prayer that thou art the bride of the God of heaven. I know this God who is never overcome by any one, for a certain man of glorious countenance lately in Antioch preached this God, and a certain maid, whose name was Thecla, believing him followed him, and encountered dangers on account of her beauty, of whom I have heard that she was condemned to the wild beasts. I therefore continually gazed upon the man, and he having observed me said to me, God give heed to thee, my son. From that time therefore by the grace of Christ I have not gone into the sacrifices of idols, but sometimes feigning illness and sometimes involving myself in some business, my father said to me, Because thou hast no zeal for the sacrifices of the gods, therefore neither art thou in health, not being worthy of the gods. But I rejoiced, hearing that I was not worthy of the sacrifices to idols; and, by the grace of God, art thou come hither as a providence to me. Polyxena said, And what is the name of that man? The youth said, Paul is his name. Polyxena said, He is in my city. The youth said, Come then, girl, put on my appearance, and go down to the shore and wait me there; I having taken money will come quickly.

XXXVII. And one of the servants overhearing them told all this to the prefect, who being filled with great anger condemned them to be cast to the wild beasts. And when they were east into the arena, a fierce lioness was let loose upon them, which ran and embraced the feet of Polyxena, and licked the soles of her feet. Then the prefect and all the city, seeing this fearful and wonderful sight, gave praise and glory to the merciful God, saying, Of a truth thou art, and he, that is named by Polyxena, alone is God, for the gods of the heathen are the works of men s hands, unable to save or assist any one. Let them perish now, both themselves and their makers. And the prefect straightway taking his son and Polyxena into the palace, heard from them in order the faith and religion in Christ without omission, and he and all in the city believed, and there was great joy and giving of glory to God. And Polyxena said to the prefect, Be of good cheer, my lord, for the man of God will quickly come, who will perfectly teach, exhort, instruct, and enlighten you in the knowledge of Christ. She however prepared in all haste to depart into Spain.

XXXVIII. And as I, Onesimus, was sailing into Spain to Paul, I received from the Lord a revelation saying to me, Onesimus, the vessel in which thou now art will land in the parts of Greece, and thou wilt find on the shore of the harbour two maids and one youth. Assist them and take them to Paul. hen we reached this place according to the command of the Lord, we found the maids together with the youth seeking a vessel. When the maids saw us therefore, they knew that we were of the hope of Christ, and Polyxena running to us said, Verily the man of God cannot be concealed, for the grace and kindliness of his countenance makes him manifest. And when we sought to sail away, the sea was troubled by the providence of God. And there was with us a disciple of Paul, by name Lucius, capable in word to teach the city. Therefore we remained seven days, and God opened to that place a great door of faith, and twenty thousand believed, and there was great joy and rejoicing in all the city. And when the season was favourable for us to sail the prefect again constrained us, and we stayed another seven days, until all believed and rejoiced in the Lord.

XXXIX. Thus now by the fore-knowledge of Christ, the prefect sent us away with supplies for the voyage, sending also his son with us. And when we had sailed twenty days, Polyxena was greatly exhausted, and we touched at a certain island for the sake of rest. And behold, certain fierce and hardened men, coming down to us and seeing

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Polyxena, prepared for battle; but by the grace of Christ our men defended Polyxena and vanquished them, although the strangers were more numerous and more powerful. Polyxena therefore fearing again to become a captive threw herself into the sea; but the pilot dragged her out, having suffered no harm. Then we embarked in the vessel and fled, for the places were rough and wooded, and we were afraid to remain, and in twelve days we arrived in Spain, by the grace of God.

XL. And Paul seeing us rejoiced greatly, and said, Welcome ye that have been troubled. And Polyxena, laying hold of his feet, said, It may be that this trouble came upon me because I would have blasphemed thee, but now I beseech and entreat that I may not again be delivered into such troubles and misfortunes. And Paul said, weeping, Thus must we be troubled, my daughter, that we may know our defender, Jesus Christ.

XLI. And while we were giving the letters of the brethren to Paul, one ran and told Xanthippe of the arrival of Polyxena. And she made haste and came to us, and seeing Polyxena, was overcome by an unspeakable joy and fell to the ground; but Polyxena embracing her and caressing her for a long time brought her back to life. Then Xanthippe said to her, I, my true sister Polyxena, went not forth at all for forty days, praying much for thee to the loving God, that thy virginity might not be taken away. And Paul, the preacher of God, said to me, Her virginity will not be taken away, and she will come quickly. And Probus said to me, It was assigned to her by God to be thus afflicted. Seest thou how by many devices God saves many? But now, my beloved sister, having unexpectedly seen thy face, now I shall willingly die.

XLII. Then he who had carried her away came up again and sought for Polyxena, but the great Paul persuaded him to refrain from her, and he also believed and was baptised by Paul, as also the suitor of Polyxena believed, and there was great joy in all that city of Spain for the recovery of Polyxena. From that time forward she left not at all the blessed Paul in her fear of temptations. These things then being thus, all rejoiced in the Lord, glorifying Father, Son and Holy Ghost, one God, to whom is glory and power, now and ever and to all eternity. Amen.

THE NARRATIVE OF ZOSIMUS CONCERNING THE LIFE OF THE BLESSED.

I. About that time there was in the desert a certain man named Zosimus, who for forty years ate no bread, and drank no wine, and saw not the face of man. This man was entreating God that he might see the way of life of the blessed, and behold an angel of the Lord was sent saying to him, Zosimus, man of God, behold I am sent by the Most High, the God of all, to tell thee that thou shalt journey to the blessed, but shalt not dwell with them. But exalt not thy heart, saying, For forty years I have not eaten bread, for the word of God is more than bread, and the spirit of God is more than wine. And as for thy saying, I have not seen the face of man, behold the face of the great king is nigh thee. Zosimus said, I know that the Lord can do whatsoever he will. The angel said to him, Know this also, that thou art not worthy of one of their delights, but arise and set out.

II. And I, Zosimus, issuing from my cave with God leading me, set out not knowing which way I went, and after I had travelled forty days my spirit grew faint and my body failed, and being exhausted I sat down, and continued praying in that place for three days. And, behold, there came a beast from the desert, whose name is the camel, and placing its knees on the ground, it received me upon its neck and went into the desert and set me down. There there was much howling of wild beasts, and gnashing of teeth, and deadly poison. And becoming afraid, I prayed to the Lord, and there came in that place a great earthquake with noise, and a storm of wind blew and lifted me from the earth, and exalted me on its wing, and I was praying and journeying till it set me upon a place beside a river, and the name of the river is Eumeles. And behold when I desired to cross the river, some one cried as if from the water, saying, Zosimus, man of God, thou canst not pass through me, for no man can divide my waters: but look up from the waters to the heaven. And looking up I

saw a wall of cloud stretching from the waters to the heaven, and the cloud said, Zosimus, man of God, through me no bird passes out of this world, nor breath of wind, nor the sun itself, nor can the tempter in this world pass through me.

III. And I was astonished at these words, and at the voice that spake these things to me. And as I prayed, behold two trees sprang up out of the earth, fair and beautiful, laden with fragrant fruits. And the tree on this side bent down and received me on its top, and was lifted up exceedingly above the middle of the river, and the other tree met me and received me in its branches and bending down set me on the ground; and both trees were lifted up and set me away from the river on the other side. In that place I rested three days, and arising again I went forward, whither I knew not, and that place was filled with much fragrance, and there was no mountain on either hand, but the place was level and flowery, all crowned with garlands, and all the land beautiful.

IV. And I saw there a naked man sitting, and said in myself, Surely this is not the tempter. And I remembered the voice of the cloud that it said to me, Not even the tempter in tiffs world passes through me. And thus taking courage I said to him, Hail, brother. And he answering said to me, The grace of my God be with thee. Again I said to him, Tell me, man of God, who thou art? He answered and said to me, Who art thou rather? And I answered and told him all concerning myself, and that I had prayed to God and he had brought me into that place. He answered and said to me, I also know that thou art a man of God, for if not, thou couldst not have passed through the cloud and the river and the air. For the breadth of the river is about thirty thousand paces, and the cloud reaches to heaven, and the depth of the river to the abyss.

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V. And having ended this discourse the man spoke again, Hast thou come hither out of the vanity of the world? I said to him, Wherefore art thou naked? He said, How knowest thou that I am naked? Thou wearest skins of the cattle of the earth, that decay together with thy body, but look up to the height of heaven and behold of what nature my clothing is. And looking up into heaven I saw his face as the face of an angel, and his clothing as lightning, which passes from the east to the west, and I was greatly afraid, thinking that it was the son of God, and trembled, falling upon the ground. And giving me his hand he raised me up, saying, Arise, I also am one of the blessed. Come with me, that I may lead thee to the elders. And laying hold of my hand he walked about with me and led me toward a certain crowd, and there were in that crowd elders like sons of God, and young men were sanding beside the elders. And as I came near to them, they said, This man has come hither out of the vanity of the world; come, let us beseech the Lord and he will reveal to us this mystery. Surely the end is not at hand, that the man of vanity is come hither? Then they arose and besought the Lord with one accord, and behold two angels came down from heaven and said, Fear not the man, for God has sent him, that he may remain seven days and learn your ways of life, and then he shall go forth and depart to his own place. The angels of God having said this ascended into heaven before our eyes.

VI. Then the elders of the blessed gave me over to one of the attendants, saying, Keep him for seven days. So the attendant receiving me led me to his cave, and we sat under a tree partaking of food. For from the sixth hour even to the sixth, then we ate, and the water came out from the root of the tree sweeter than honey, and we drank our fill, and again the water sank down into its place. And all the country of those there heard of me, that there had come thither a man out of the vanity of the world, and all the country was stirred up, and they came to see me because it seemed strange to them. Therefore they were asking me all things and I was answering them, and I became faint in spirit and in body, and besought the man of God that served me, and said, I beseech thee, brother, if any come to see me, tell them He is not here, so that I may rest a little. And the man of God cried out saying, Woe is me, that the story of Adam is summed up in me, for Satan deceived him through Eve, and this man by his flattery desires to make

me a liar while he is here. Take me away from hence, for I shall flee from the place. For behold he wishes to sow in me seeds of the world of vanity. And all the multitude and the elders rose up against me, and said. Depart from us, man; we know not whence thou art come to us. But I lamented with great lamentation, and my senses left me. and I cried out to the elders, saying, Forgive me, my lords, and the elders stilled them and made quietness. Then I related to them all from the beginning till that time, and said, I besought the Lord to come to you, and he deemed me worthy. And the elders said, And now what wilt thou we should do to thee? I said to them, I desire to learn of you your way of life.

VII. And they rejoiced with great joy, and taking up tables of stone they wrote on them with their nails, thus, Hear, ye sons of men, hear ye us who are become blessed, that we also are of you; for when the prophet Jeremiah proclaimed that the city of Jerusalem should be delivered into the hands of the destroyers, he rent his garments, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and sprinkled dust upon his head, and took earth upon his bed, and told all the people to turn from their wicked way. And our father Rechab, the son of Aminadab, heard him and said to us, Ye sons and daughters of Rechab, hearken to your father, and put off your garments from your body, and drink no vessel of wine, and eat no bread from the fire, and drink not strong drink and honey until the Lord hear your entreaty. And we said, All that he has commanded us we shall do and hearken. So we cast away our clothing from our bodies, and we ate no bread from the fire, and drank no vessel of wine nor honey nor strong drink, and we lamented with a great lamentation and besought the Lord, and he heard our prayer and turned away his anger from the city of Jerusalem, and there came to the city of Jerusalem mercy from the Lord, and he pitied its people, and turned away his deadly anger.

VIII. And after these things the king of the city of Jerusalem died, and there arose another king. And all the people gathered to him and informed him concerning us, and said, There are certain of thy people, who have changed their way from us. Therefore the king summoned them, and asked them wherefore they had done this; and he sent for us and asked, Who are ye and of what worship and of what country? And we said to him, We are the sons of thy servant, and our father is Rechab the son of Jonadab, and when Jeremiah the prophet preached in the

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days of thy father the king, he proclaimed death to the city of Jerusalem, saying, Yet three days and all the city shall be put to death. And the king thy father hearing this repented of his sins, and issued a command to all to turn aside from their wicked way. And our father thy servant hearing it charged us, saying, Drink no vessel of wine, and eat no bread from the fire, until the Lord shall hear your entreaty. And we hearkened to the commandment of our father, and made naked our bodies, we drank no wine and ate no bread, and we prayed to the Lord for the city of Jerusalem, and the Lord pitied his people and turned away his anger, and we saw it and our soul was rejoiced, and we said, It is good for us to be so.

IX. And the king said to us, Ye have done well. Now therefore mingle with my people, and eat bread and drink wine, and glorify your Lord, and ye shall be serving God and the king. But we said, We will not disobey God. Then the king was enraged and set us in prison, and we passed that night there. And behold a light shone in the building, and an angel uncovered the prison and laid hold of the crowns of our heads, and took us out of the prison, and set us beside the water of the river, and said to us, Whithersoever the water goes, go ye also. And we travelled with the water and with the angel. When therefore he had brought us to this place, the river was dried up and the water was swallowed up by the abyss, and he made a wall round this country, and there came a wall of cloud, and shadowed above the water; and he did not scatter us over all the earth, but gave to us this country.

X. Hear, ye sons of men, hear the way of life of the blessed. For God placed us in this land, for we are holy but not immortal. For the earth produces most fragrant fruit, and out of the trunks of the trees comes water sweeter than honey, and these are our food and drink. We are also praying night and day, and this is all our occupation. Hear, ye sons of men; with us there is no vine, nor ploughed field, nor works of wood or iron, nor have we any house or building, nor fire nor sword, nor iron wrought or unwrought, nor silver nor gold, nor air too heavy or too keen. Neither do any of us take to themselves wives, except for so long as to beget two children, and after they have produced two children they withdraw from each other and continue in chastity, not knowing that they were ever in the intercourse of marriage, but being in virginity as from the beginning. And the one child remains for marriage, and the other for virginity.

XI. And there is no count of time, neither weeks nor months nor years, for all our day is one day. In our caves lie the leaves of trees, and this is our couch under the trees. But we are not naked of body, as ye wrongly imagine, for we have the garment of immortality and are not ashamed of each other. At the sixth hour of every day we eat, for the fruit of the tree falls of itself at the sixth hour, and we eat and drink our fill, and again the water sinks into its place. We also know you who are there m the world, and who are in sins, and your works, for every day the angels of the Lord come and tell them to us, and the number of your

years. But we pray for you to the Lord, because we also are of you and of your race, except that God has chosen us, and has set us in this place without sin. And the angels of God dwell with us every day, and tell us all things concerning you, and we rejoice with the angels over the works of the just, but over the works of sinners we mourn and lament, praying to the Lord that he may cease from Iris anger and spare your offences.

XII. But when the time of the forty days comes, all the trees cease from their fruits, and the manna that he gave to our fathers rains down from heaven, and the manna is sweeter than honey. Thus we know that the season of the year is changed. But when the time of the holy passover comes, then again the trees put forth fragrant fruit, and thus we know that it is the beginning of the year. But the feast of the resurrection of the Lord is performed with much watching, for we continue watching for three days and three nights.

XIII. We know also the time of our end, for we have no torment nor disease nor pain in our bodies, nor exhaustion nor weakness, but peace and great patience and love. For our soul is not troubled by the angels to go forth, for the angels rejoice when they receive our souls, and the souls also rejoice with the angels when they behold them; as a bride receives the bridegroom, so our soul receives the announcement of the holy angels, saying nothing more than only this, he Lord calls thee. Then the sent quits the body and goes to the angels, and the angels seeing the soul coming forth spotless rejoice, and spreading out their robes receive it. Then the angels call it blessed, saying, Blessed art then, O soul, because the will of the Lord is fulfilled in thee.

XIV. The time of our life is this. If one quits the body in his youth, the days of his the here are three hundred and sixty years, and he that quits the body in old age, the

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days of his life here are six hundred and eighty-eight years. And the day of our completion is made known to us by the angels, and when the angels of God come to take us, we go with them, and the elders, seeing the angels, gather together all the people and we depart together with the angels, singing psalms, until the angels arrive at the place of our abode. And because we have no tools, the angels of God themselves make the grave for our body, and thus he that is called by God goes down, and all salute him from small to great, sending him on his way and bidding him farewell. Then the soul quits the body and the angels receive it, but we see the shape of the soul as a shape of light, perfect in all the body apart from the distinction of male and female.

XV. Then the angels taking it up sing a song and hymn, making melody to God, and again other troops of angels come in haste to meet them, saluting the soul that is coming and entering into the firmaments. And when it has come to the place where it is to worship God, the son of God himself, together with the angels, receives the soul of the blessed one and bears it to the undefiled father of the ages, and again, when the angels sing above, we being below listen to them, and again we sing and they listen in heaven above, and thus between us and the angels there arises a giving of praise in hymns. But when the soul of the blessed one, falling upon its face, worships the Lord, then we also falling down worship the Lord in that same hour, and when the Lord raises it up then we also arise; and when it goes to its appointed place, we also go into the church, fulfilling the eucharist of the Lord.

Having written these things, and all the life of the blessed, we gave them to our brother Zosimus, and escorted him as far as the place of trees beside the river Eumeles.

XVI. And I, Zosimus, besought again the blessed ones to make entreaty for me to the Lord that the trees might receive me to take me across. And they all cried to the Lord and said, O God that hast shown us thy marvels and hast made thy servant Zosimus to come to us out of the world of vanity, set him again in his own place with peace, and command these trees to bow down and take up thy servant and set him on the further side. And as they finished their prayer, the trees straightway bent down before them, and received me as on the second day before; and being set on the other side of the river I cried with a loud voice and said, Men of righteousness, who are brothers of the holy angels, grant me your prayer in peace, for

behold I depart from you. And making prayer they all cried out, saying, Peace, peace be with you, brother.

XVII. Then I prayed to the Lord, and there came to me a storm of wind, and received me upon its wings, and carried me to the place where it found me sitting, and left me there in peace. And raising its voice the wind said to me, Blessed art thou, Zosimus, that thou hast been numbered with the blessed. And the beast from the desert, whose name is the camel, came and received me upon its neck and carried me eighty and five stations, and set me in the place where it found me praying, and left me in peace, crying and saying, Blessed art thou, Zosimus, that thou hast been numbered with the blessed.

XVIII. But seeing me thus praised, Satan desired to tempt me and throw his dart at me from his station, but an angel of God came and said to me, Zosimus, behold Satan is coming to tempt thee, but the Lord will fight for thee, for the glory of thy faith must bind(1) Satan. And an angel of God appeared, crying and saying, Welcome, blessed one of Christ. Come and I shall lead thee to the cave that is the dwelling-place of thy body, for thy cave shall be a testimony of the desert, a healing of the sick that come to it, a place of trial and touch-stone of demons. And laying hold of my hand he strengthened me, and led me for forty days to the cave where I had dwelt. And there was there a table of righteousness, and I spent the night with the angels of God. And I placed the tablets that were given me by the holy blessed ones on the step of the altar in my cave.

XIX. And, behold, when the angels of God ascended, the Devil came, having a fierce shape, and possessed with anger and gall, and said to me, I knew that God would do with thee as with the blessed ones, and that they shall be free from sin and be above the angels, and therefore I brought in an evil design, and entered into the vessel of the serpent, an evil-doer added to evil-doer. And by this I made the first man Adam to transgress and taste of the tree of life, since God had commanded him not to eat of it, that he might remain equal in glory to God and the holy angels; and thou again hast gone and brought this commandment, but now that they may not be without sin, I shall show thee how I shall destroy thee and all those that receive this commandment, so that they may not be without sin, and the book that thou hast brought.

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XX. Saying these things the Devil departed from me, and after eight days he brought with him one thousand three hundred and sixty demons, and dragged me from the cave as I prayed, and they beat me, tossing me about between them, for forty days. And after the forty days the devil lamented before me and said, Woe is me that through one man I have lost the world, for he has vanquished me by his prayer. And he began to run from me, but I laying hold of him stayed him and said, Thou shalt not run away and flee from me until thou swearest to me never again to tempt man. And lamenting with great and violent lamentation he swore to me by the firmament of heaven, So long as thy dwelling is here, and after thee, I will not come upon this place. Then I let him go, sending him and the demons with him into eternal fire. Then the angel came, who had companied with me at the table, and led me into my cave with great glory.

XXI. After this I lived thirty-six years, and communicated the way of life of the blessed to the fathers in the desert. But the Devil wept because of the tables of the life of the blessed, saying, If this get abroad in the

world, I shall be mocked, and these will remain without sin and I alone in folly. And after the completion of the thirty-six years, the angels of God came to me as to the blessed.

And all the monks were gathered together and all who heard it, and this testament was read to all of them, and in such life he gave up his soul to God.

XXII. And I, Cryseos,(1) being one of those in the desert, spread it abroad and gave it to all that were willing to learn it and profit by it. Therefore the angels of God helped to bury the body of Zosimus as a precious gift, and we saw the soul of the blessed one shining seven times brighter than the sun. And straightway upon that place there came up seven palm-trees and overshadowed the cave. There came up also a fountain of water in that place, holy water, and unto this day a healing and salvation to all the sick that come to it. Peace be to all that have heard the memorial of the holy Zosimus; the Lord is the advocate and helper of all to the endless ages of ages. Amen.

THE FIRST EPISTLE OF CLEMENT TO THE CORINTHIAN(1)

CHAP. I.--THE SALUTATION. PRAISE OF THE CORINTHIANS BEFORE THE BREAKING FORTH OF SCHISM AMONG THEM.

THE church of God which sojourns at Rome, to the church of God sojourning at Corinth, to them that are called and sanctified by the will of God, through our Lord Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, from Almighty God through Jesus Christ, be multiplied.

Owing, dear brethren, to the sudden and successive calamitous events(2) which have happened to ourselves, we feel that we have been somewhat tardy in turning our attention to the points respecting which you consulted us; and especially to that shameful and detestable sedition, utterly abhorrent to the elect of God, which a few rash and self-confident persons have kindled to such a pitch of frenzy, that your venerable and illustrious name, worthy to be universally loved, has suffered grievous injury.(3) For who ever dwelt even for a short time among you, and did not find your faith to be as fruitful of virtue as it was firmly established?(4) Who did not admire the sobriety and moderation of your godliness in Christ? Who did not proclaim the magnificence of your habitual hospitality? And who did not rejoice over your perfect and well-grounded knowledge? For ye did all things without respect of persons, and walked m the commandments of God, being obedient to those who had the rule over you, and giving all fitting honour to the presbyters among you. Ye enjoined young men to be of a sober and serious mind, ye instructed your wives to do all things With a blameless, becoming, and pure conscience, loving their husbands as in duty bound; and ye taught them that, living in the rule of obedience, they should manage their household affairs becomingly, and be in every respect marked by discretion.

CHAP. II.--PRAISE OF THE CORINTHIANS CONTINUED.

Moreover, ye were all distinguished by humility, and were in no respect puffed up with pride, but yielded obedience rather than extorted it,(5) and were more willing to give than to receive.(6) Content with the provision which God(7) had made for you, and carefully attending to His words, ye were inwardly filled(8) with His doctrine, and His sufferings were before your eyes. Thus a profound and abundant peace was given to you all, and ye had an insatiable desire for doing good, while a full outpouring of the Holy Spirit was upon you all. Full of holy designs, ye did, with true earnestness of mind and a godly confidence, stretch forth your hands to God Almighty, beseeching Him to be merciful unto you, if ye had been guilty of any involuntary transgression. Day and night ye were anxious for the whole brotherhood,(9) that the number of God's elect might be saved with mercy(10) and a good conscience." Ye were sincere and uncorrupted, and forgetful of injuries between

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one another. Every kind of faction and schism was abominable in your sight. Ye mourned over the transgressions of your neighbours: their deficiencies you deemed your own. Ye never grudged any act of kindness, being "ready to every good work."(1) Adorned by a thoroughly virtuous and religious life, ye did all things in the fear of God. The commandments and ordinances of the Lord were written upon the tablets of your hearts.(2)

CHAP. III.--THE SAD STATE OF THE CORINTHIAN CHURCH AFTER SEDITION AROSE IN IT FROM ENVY AND EMULATION.

Every kind of honour and happiness(3) was bestowed upon you, and then was fulfilled that which is written, "My beloved did eat and drink, and was enlarged and became fat, and kicked."(4) Hence flowed emulation and envy, strife and sedition, persecution and disorder, war and captivity. So the worthless rose up against the honoured, those of no reputation against such as were renowned, the foolish against the wise, the young against those advanced in years. For this reason righteousness and peace are now far departed from you, inasmuch as every one abandons the fear of God, and is become blind in His faith,(5) neither walks in the ordinances of His appointment, nor acts a part becoming a Christian,(6) but walks after his own wicked lusts, resuming the practice of an unrighteous and ungodly envy, by which death itself entered into the world.(7)

CHAP. IV.--MANY EVILS HAVE ALREADY FLOWED FROM THIS SOURCE IN ANCIENT TIMES.

For thus it is written: "And it came to pass after certain days, that Cain brought of the fruits of the earth a sacrifice unto God; and Abel also brought of the firstlings of his sheep, and of the fat thereof. And God had respect to Abel and to his offerings, but Cain and his sacrifices He did not regard. And Cain was deeply grieved, and his countenance fell. And God said to Cain, Why art thou grieved, and why is thy countenance fallen? If thou offerest rightly, but dost not divide rightly, hast thou not sinned? Be at peace: thine offering returns to thyself, and thou shalt again possess it. And Cain said to Abel his brother, Let us go into the field. And it came to pass, while they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him."(8) Ye see, brethren, how envy and jealousy led to the murder of a brother. Through envy, also, our father Jacob fled from the face of Esau his brother.(9) Envy made Joseph be persecuted unto death, and to come into bondage.(10) Envy compelled Moses to flee from the face of Pharaoh king of Egypt, when he heard these words from his fellow-countryman, "Who made thee a judge or a ruler over us? Wilt thou kill me, as thou didst kill the Egyptian yesterday?"(11) On account of envy, Aaron and Miriam had to make their abode without the camp.(12) Envy brought down Dathan and Abiram alive to Hades, through the sedition which they excited against God's servant Moses.(13) Through envy, David not only underwent the hatred of foreigners, but was also persecuted by Saul king of Israel.(14)

CHAP. V.--NO LESS EVILS HAVE ARISEN PROM THE SAME SOURCE IN THE MOST RECENT TIMES. THE MARTYRDOM OF PETER AND PAUL.

But not to dwell upon ancient examples, let us come to the most recent spiritual heroes.(15) Let us take the noble examples furnished in our own generation Through envy(16) and jealousy the greatest and most righteous pillars [of the church] have been persecuted and put to death.(17) Let us set before our eyes the illustrious(18) apostles. Peter, through unrighteous envy, endured not one or two, but numerous labours; and when he had at length suffered martyrdom, departed to the place of glory due to him. Owing to envy, Paul also obtained(19) the reward of patient endurance, after being seven times thrown into captivity,(20) compelled(21) to flee, and

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stoned. After preaching both in the east and west, he gained the illustrious reputation due to his faith, having taught righteousness(1) to the whole world, and come to the extreme limit of the west,(2) and suffered martyrdom under the prefects.(3) Thus was he removed from the world, and went into the holy place, having proved himself a striking example of patience.

CHAP. VI.--CONTINUATION. SEVERAL OTHER MARTYRS.

To these men who spent their lives in the practice of holiness, there is to be added a great multitude of the elect, who, having through envy endured many indignities and tortures, furnished us with a most excellent example. Through envy, those women, the Danaids(4) and Dircae, being persecuted, after they had suffered terrible and unspeakable torments, finished the course of their faith with stedfastness,(5) and though weak in body, received a noble reward. Envy has alienated wives from their husbands, and changed that saying of our father Adam, "This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh."(6) Envy and strife have overthrown(7) great cities, and rooted up mighty nations.

CHAP. VII.--AN EXHORTATION TO REPENTANCE.

These things, beloved, we write unto you, not merely to admonish you of your duty, but also to remind ourselves. For we are struggling on the same arena, and the same conflict is assigned to both of us. Wherefore let us give up vain and fruitless cares, and approach to the glorious and venerable rule of our holy calling.(8) Let us attend to what is good, pleasing, and acceptable in the sight of Him who formed us. Let us look stedfastly to the blood of Christ, and see how precious that blood is to God(9) which, having been shed for our salvation, has set the grace of repentance before the whole world.(10) Let us turn to(11) every age that has passed, and learn

that, from generation to generation, the Lord has granted a place of repentance to all such as would be converted unto Him. Noah preached repentance, and as many as listened to him were saved.(12) Jonah proclaimed destruction to the Ninevites;(13) but they, repenting of their sins, propitiated God by prayer, and obtained salvation, although they were aliens [to the covenant] of God.

CHAP. VIII.--CONTINUATION RESPECTING REPENTANCE.

The ministers of the grace of God have, by the Holy Spirit, spoken of repentance; and the Lord of all things has himself declared with an oath regarding it, "As I live, saith the Lord, I desire not the death of the sinner, but rather his repentance;"(14) adding, moreover, this gracious declaration, "Repent, O house of Israel, of your iniquity."(15) Say to the children of my people, Though your sins reach from earth to heaven, and though they be redder(16) than scarlet, and blacker than sack-cloth, yet if ye turn to me with your whole heart, and say, Father! I will listen to you, as to a holy(17) people. And in another place He speaks thus: "Wash you and become clean; put away the wickedness of your souls from before mine eyes; cease from your evil ways, and learn to do well; seek out judgment, deliver the oppressed, judge the fatherless, and see that justice is done to the widow; and come, and let us reason together. He declares, Though your sins be like crimson, I will make them white as snow; though they be like scarlet, I will whiten them like wool. And if ye be willing and obey me, ye shall eat the good of the land; but if ye refuse, and will not hearken unto me, the sword shall devour you, for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken these things."(18) Desiring, therefore, that all His beloved should be partakers of repentance, He has, by His almighty will, established [these declarations].

CHAP. IX.--EXAMPLES OF THE SAINTS.

Wherefore, let us yield obedience to His excellent and glorious will; and imploring His mercy and loving-kindness, while we forsake all fruitless labours? and strife, and envy, which leads to death, let us turn and have recourse to His compassions. Let us

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stedfastly contemplate those who have perfectly ministered to his excellent glory. Let us take (for instance) Enoch, who, being found righteous in obedience, was translated, and death was never known to happen to him.(1) Noah, being found faithful, preached regeneration to the world through his ministry; and the Lord saved by him the animals which, with one accord, entered into the ark.

CHAP. X.--CONTINUATION OF THE ABOVE.

Abraham, styled "the friend,"(2) was found faithful, inasmuch as he rendered obedience to the words of God. He, in the exercise of obedience, went out from his own country, and from his kindred, and from his father's house, in order that, by forsaking a small territory, and a weak family, and an insignificant house, he might inherit the promises of God. For God said to him, "Get thee out from thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, into the land which I shall show thee. And I will make thee a great nation, and will bless thee, and make thy name great, and thou shalt be blessed. And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse them that curse thee; and in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed."(3) And again, on his departing from Lot, God said to him, "Lift up thine eyes, and look from the place where thou now art, northward, and southward, and eastward, and westward; for all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for ever. And I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth, [so that] if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered."(4) And again [the Scripture] saith, "God brought forth Abram, and spake unto him, Look up now to heaven, and count the stars if thou be able to number them; so shall thy seed be. And Abram believed God, and it was counted to him for righteousness."(5) On account of his faith and hospitality, a son was given him in his old age; and in the exercise of obedience, he offered him as a sacrifice to God on one of the mountains which He showed him.(6)

CHAP. XI.--CONTINUATION. LOT.

On account of his hospitality and godliness, Lot was saved out of Sodom when all the country round was punished by means of fire and brimstone, the Lord thus making it manifest that He does not forsake those that hope in Him, but gives up such as depart from Him to punishment and torture.(7) For Lot's wife, who went forth with him, being of a different mind from himself, and not continuing in agreement with him [as to the command which had been given them], was made an example of, so as to be a pillar of salt unto this day.(8) This was done that all might know that those who are of a double mind, and who distrust the power of God, bring down judgment on themselves(9) and become a sign to all succeeding generations.

CHAP. XII.--THE REWARDS OF FAITH AND HOSPITALITY. RAHAB.

On account of her faith and hospitality, Rahab the harlot was saved. For when spies were sent by Joshua, the son of Nun, to Jericho, the king of the country ascertained that they were come to spy out their land, and sent men to seize them, in order that, when taken, they might be put to death. But the hospitable Rahab receiving them, concealed them on the roof of her house under some stalks of flax. And when the men sent by the king arrived and said, "There came men unto thee who are to spy out our land; bring them forth, for so the king commands" she answered them, "The two men whom ye seek came unto me, but quickly departed again and are gone," thus not discovering the spies to them. Then she said to the men, "I know assuredly that the Lord your God hath given you this city, for the fear and dread of you have fallen on its inhabitants. When therefore ye shall have taken it, keep ye me and the house of my father in safety." And they said to her, "It shall be as thou hast spoken to us. As soon, therefore, as thou knowest that we are at hand, thou shalt gather all thy family under thy roof, and they shall be preserved, but all that are found outside of thy dwelling shall perish."(10) Moreover, they gave her a sign to this effect, that she should hang forth from her house a scarlet thread. And thus they made it manifest that redemption should flow through the blood of the Lord to all them that believe and hope in God.(11) Ye see, beloved, that there was not only faith, but prophecy, in this woman.

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CHAP. XIII.--AN EXHORTATI0N TO HUMILITY.

Let us therefore, brethren, be of humble mind, laying aside all haughtiness, and pride, and foolishness, and angry feelings; and let us act according to that which is written (for the Holy Spirit saith, "Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man glory in his might, neither let the rich man glory in his riches; but let him that glorieth glory in the Lord, in diligently seeking Him, and doing judgment and righteousness"(1)), being especially mindful of the words of the Lord Jesus which He spake teaching us meekness and long-suffering. For thus He spoke: "Be ye merciful, that ye may obtain mercy; forgive, that it may be forgiven to you; as ye do, so shall it be done unto you; as ye judge, so shall ye be judged; as ye are kind, so shall kindness be shown to you; with what measure ye mete, with the same it shall be measured to you."(2) By this precept and by these rules let us stablish ourselves, that we walk with all humility in obedience to His holy words. For the holy word saith, "On whom shall I look, but on him that is meek and peaceable, and that trembleth at my words?"(3)

CHAP. XIV.--WE SHOULD OBEY GOD RATHER THAN THE AUTHORS OF SEDITION.

It is right and holy therefore, men and brethren, rather to obey God than to follow those who, through pride and sedition, have become the leaders of a detestable emulation. For we shall incur no slight injury, but rather great danger, if we rashly yield ourselves to the inclinations of men who aim at exciting strife and tumults,(4) so as to draw us away from what is good. Let us be kind one to another after the pattern of the tender mercy and benignity of our Creator. For it is written, "The kind-hearted shall inhabit the land, and the guiltless shall be left upon it, but transgressors shall be destroyed from off the face of it."(5) And again [the Scripture] saith, "I saw the ungodly highly exalted, and lifted up like the cedars of Lebanon: I passed by, and, behold, he was not; and I diligently sought his place, and could not find it. Preserve innocence, and look on equity: for there shall be a remnant to the peaceable man.(6)

CHAP. XV.--WE MUST ADHERE TO THOSE WHO CULTIVATE PEACE, NOT TO THOSE WHO MERELY PRETEND TO DO SO.

Let us cleave, therefore, to those who cultivate peace with godliness, and not to those who hypocritically profess to desire it. For [the Scripture] saith in a certain place, "This people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me."(7) And again: "They bless with their mouth, but curse with their heart."(8) And again it saith, "They loved Him with their month, and lied(9) to Him with their tongue; but their heart was not right with Him, neither were they faithful in His covenant."(10) "Let the deceitful lips become silent,(11) [and "let the Lord destroy all the lying lips,(12)] and the boastful tongue of those who have said, Let us magnify our tongue: our lips are our own; who is lord over us? For the oppression of the poor, and for the sighing of the needy, will I now arise, saith the Lord: I will place him in safety; I will deal confidently with him."(13)

CHAP. XVI.--CHRIST AS AN EXAMPLE OF HUMILITY.

For Christ is of those who are humble-minded, and not of those who exalt themselves over His flock. Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Sceptre of the majesty of God, did not come in the pomp of pride or arrogance, although He might have done so, but in a lowly condition, as the Holy Spirit had declared regarding Him. For He says, "Lord, who hath believed our report, and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed? We have declared [our message] in His presence: He is, as it were, a child, and like a root in thirsty ground; He has no form nor glory, yea, we saw Him, and He had no form nor comeliness; but His form was without eminence, yea, deficient in comparison with the [ordinary] form of men. He is a man exposed to stripes and suffering, and acquainted with the endurance of grief: for His countenance was turned away; He was despised, and not esteemed. He bears our iniquities, and is in sorrow for our sakes; yet we supposed that ion His own account] He was exposed to labour, and stripes, and affliction. But He was wounded for our transgressions, and bruised for our iniquities.

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The chastisement of our peace was upon Him, and by His stripes we were healed. All we, like sheep, have gone astray; [every] man has wandered in his own way; and the Lord has delivered Him up for our sins, while He in the midst of His sufferings openeth not His mouth. He was brought as a sheep to the slaughter, and as a lamb before her shearer is dumb, so He openeth not His mouth. In His humiliation His judgment was taken away; who shall declare His generation? for His life is taken from the earth. For the transgressions of my people was He brought down to death. And I will give the wicked for His sepulchre, and the rich for His death,(1) because He did no iniquity, neither was guile found in His mouth. And the Lord is pleased to purify him by stripes.(2) If ye make(3) an offering for sin, your soul shall see a long-lived seed. And the Lord is pleased to relieve Him of the affliction of His soul, to show Him light, and to form Him with understanding,(4) to justify the Just One who ministereth well to many; and He Himself shall carry their sins. On this account He shall inherit many, and shall divide the spoil of the strong; because His soul was delivered to death, and He was reckoned among the transgressors, and He bare the sins of many, and for their sins was He delivered."(5) And again He saith, "I am a worm, and no man; a reproach of men, and despised of the people. All that see me have derided me; they have spoken with their lips; they have wagged their head, [saying] He hoped in God, let Him deliver Him, let Him save Him, since He delighteth in Him."(6) Ye see, beloved, what is the example which has been given us; for if the Lord thus humbled Himself, what shall we do who have through Him come under the yoke of His grace?

CHAP. XVII.--THE SAINTS AS EXAMPLES OF

HUMILITY.

Let us be imitators also of those who in goat-skins and sheep-skins(7) went about proclaiming the coming of Christ; I mean Elijah, Elisha, and Ezekiel among the prophets, with those ethers to whom a like

testimony is borne [in Scripture]. Abraham was specially honoured, and was called the friend of God; yet he, earnestly regarding the glory of God, humbly declared, "I am but dust and ashes."(8) Moreover, it is thus written of Job, "Job was a righteous man, and blameless, truthful, God-fearing, and one that kept himself from all evil."(9) But bringing an accusation against himself, he said, "No man is free from defilement, even if his life be but of one day.(10) Moses was called faithful in all God's house;(11) and through his instrumentality,(12) God punished Egypt with plagues and tortures. Yet he, though thus greatly honoured, did not adopt lofty language, but said, when the divine oracle came to him out of the bush, "Who am I, that Thou sendest me? I am a man of a feeble voice and a slow tongue."(13) And again he said, "I am but as the smoke of a pot."(14)

CHAP. XVIII.--DAVID AS AN EXAMPLE OF HUMILITY.

But what shall we say concerning David, to whom such testimony was borne, and of whom(15) God said, "I have found a man after mine own heart, David the son of Jesse; and in everlasting mercy have I anointed him?"(16) Yet this very man saith to God, "Have mercy on me, O Lord, according to Thy great mercy; and according to the multitude of Thy compassions, blot out my transgression.(17) Wash me still more from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin. For I acknowledge mine iniquity, and my sin is ever before me. Against Thee only have I sinned, and done that which is evil in Thy sight; that Thou mayest be justified in Thy sayings, and mayest overcome when Thou(18) art judged. For, behold, I was conceived in transgressions, and in sins did my mother conceive me. For, behold, Thou hast loved truth; the secret and hidden things of wisdom hast Thou shown me. Thou shall sprinkle me with hyssop, and I shall be cleansed; Thou shall wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow. Thou shalt make me to hear joy and gladness; my bones, which have been humbled, shall exult. Turn away Thy face from my sins, and blot out all mine iniquities. Create in me a clean heart, O God, and

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renew a right spirit within me.(1) Cast me not away from Thy presence, and take not Thy Holy Spirit from me. Restore to me the joy of Thy salvation, and establish me by Thy governing Spirit. I will teach transgressors Thy ways, and the ungodly shall be converted unto Thee. Deliver me from blood-guiltiness,(2) O God, the God of my salvation: y tongue shall exult in Thy righteousness. O Lord, Thou shalt open my mouth, and my lips shall show forth Thy praise. For if Thou hadst desired sacrifice, I would have given it; Thou wilt not delight in burnt-offerings. The sacrifice [acceptable] to God is a bruised spirit; a broken and a contrite heart God will not despise."(3)

CHAP. XIX.--IMITATING THESE EXAMPLES, LET US SEEK AFTER PEACE.

Thus the humility and godly submission of so great and illustrious men have rendered not only us, but also all the generations before us, better; even as many as have received His oracles in fear and truth. Wherefore, having so many great and glorious examples set before us, let us turn again to the practice of that peace which from the beginning was the mark set before us;(4) and let us look stedfastly to the Father and Creator of the universe, and cleave to His mighty and surpassingly great gifts and benefactions of peace. Let us contemplate Him with our understanding, and look with the eyes of our soul to His long-suffering will. Let us reflect how free from the wrath He is towards all His creation.

CHAP. XX.--THE PEACE AND HARMONY OF THE UNIVERSE.

The heavens, revolving under His government, are subject to Him in peace. Day and night run the course appointed by Him, in no wise hindering each other. The sun and moon, with the companies of the stars, roll on in harmony according to His command, within their prescribed limits, and without any deviation. The fruitful earth, according to His will, brings forth food in abundance, at the proper seasons, for man and beast and all the living beings upon it, never hesitating, nor changing any of the ordinances which He has fixed. The unsearchable places of abysses, and the indescribable arrangements of the lower world, are restrained by the same laws. The vast unmeasurable sea, gathered together by His working into various basins,(5) never passes beyond the bounds placed around it, but does as He has commanded. For He said, "Thus far shalt thou come, and thy waves shall be broken within thee."(6) The ocean, impassable to man and the worlds beyond it, are regulated by the same enactments of the Lord. The seasons of spring, summer, autumn, and winter, peacefully give place(7) to one another. The winds in their several quarters(8) fulfil, at the proper time, their service without hindrance. The ever-flowing fountains, formed both for enjoyment and health, furnish without fail their breasts for the life of men. The very smallest of living beings meet together in peace and concord. All these the great Creator and Lord of all has appointed to exist in peace and harmony; while He does good to all, but most abundantly to us who have fled for refuge to His compassions through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom be glory and majesty for ever and ever. Amen.

CHAP. XXI.--LET US OBEY GOD, AND NOT THE AUTHORS OF SEDITION.

Take heed, beloved, lest His many kindnesses lead to the condemnation of us all. [For thus it must be] unless we walk worthy of Him, and with one mind do those things which are good and well-pleasing in His sight. For [the Scripture] saith in a certain place, "The Spirit of the Lord is a candle searching the secret parts of the belly."(9) Let us reflect how near He is, and that none of the thoughts or reasonings in which we engage are hid from Him. It is right, therefore, that we should not leave the post which His will has assigned us. Let us rather offend those men who are foolish, and inconsiderate, and lifted up, and who glory in the pride of their speech, than [offend] God. Let us reverence the Lord Jesus Christ,(10) whose blood was given for us; let us esteem those who have the rule over us;(11) let us honour the aged(12) among us; let us train up the young men in the fear of God; let us direct our wives to that which is good. Let them exhibit the lovely habit of purity [in all their conduct]; let them show forth the sincere disposition of meekness; let them make

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manifest the command which they have of their tongue, by their manner(1) of speaking; let them display their love, not by preferring(2) one to another, but by showing equal affection to all that piously fear God. Let your children be partakers of true Christian training; let them learn of how great avail humility is with God--how much the spirit of pure affection can prevail with Him--how excellent and great His fear is, and how it saves all those who walk in(3) it with a pure mind. For He is a Searcher of the thoughts and desires [of the heart]: His breath is in us; and when He pleases, He will take it away.

CHAP. XXII.--THESE EXHORTATIONS ARE CONFIRMED BY THE CHRISTIAN FAITH, WHICH PROCLAIMS THE MISERY OF SINFUL CONDUCT.

Now the faith which is in Christ confirms all these [admonitions]. For He Himself by the Holy Ghost thus addresses us: "Come, ye children, hearken unto me; I will teach you the fear of the Lord.(4) What man is he that desireth life, and loveth to see good days? Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile. Depart from evil, and do good; seek peace, and pursue it. The eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, and His ears are [open] unto their prayers. The face of the Lord is against them that do evil, to cut off the remembrance of them from the earth. The righteous cried, and the Lord heard him, and delivered him out of all his troubles."(5) "Many are the stripes [appointed for] the wicked; but mercy shall compass those about who hope in the Lord."(6)

CHAP.XXIII.--BE HUMBLE, AND BELIEVE THAT CHRIST WILL COME AGAIN.

The all-merciful and beneficent Father has bowels [of compassion] towards those that fear Him, and kindly and lovingly bestows His favours upon those who come to Him with a simple mind. Wherefore let us not be double-minded; neither let our soul be lifted(7) up on account of His exceedingly great and glorious gifts. Far from us be that which is written, "Wretched are they who are of a double mind, and of a doubting heart; who say, These things we have heard

even in the times of our fathers; but, behold, we have grown old, and none of them has happened unto us;"(8) Ye foolish ones! compare yourselves to a tree; take [for instance] the vine. First of all, it sheds its leaves,(9) then it buds, next it puts forth leaves, and then it flowers; after that comes the sour grape, and then follows the ripened fruit. Ye perceive how in a little time the fruit of a tree comes to maturity. Of a truth, soon and suddenly shall His will be accomplished, as the Scripture also bears witness, saying, "Speedily will He come, and will not tarry;(10) and, "The Lord shall suddenly come to His temple, even the Holy One, for whom ye look."(11)

CHAP. XXIV.--GOD CONTINUALLY SHOWS US IN NATURE THAT THERE WILL BE A RESURRECTION.

Let us consider, beloved, how the Lord continually proves to us that there shall be a future resurrection, of which He has rendered the Lord Jesus Christ(12) the first-fruits(13) by raising Him from the dead. Let us contemplate, beloved, the resurrection which is at all times(14) taking place. Day and night declare to us a resurrection. The night sinks to sleep, and the day arises; the day [again] departs, and the night comes on. Let us behold(15) the fruits [of the earth], how the sowing of grain takes place. The sower(16) goes forth, and casts it into the ground,(17) and the seed being thus scattered, though dry and naked when it fell upon the earth, is gradually dissolved. Then out of its dissolution the mighty power of the providence of the Lord raises it up again, and from one seed many arise and bring forth fruit.

CHAP. XXV.--THE PHOENIX AN EMBLEM OF OUR RESURRECTION.

Let us consider that wonderful sign [of the resurrection] which takes place in eastern lands, that is, in Arabia and the countries round about. There is a certain bird which is called a phoenix. This is the only one of its kind, and lives five hundred years. And when the time of its dissolution draws near that it must die, it builds itself a nest of

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frankincense, and myrrh, and other spices, into which, when the time is fulfilled, it enters and dies. But as the flesh decays a certain kind of worm is produced, which, being nourished by the juices of the deed bird, brings forth feathers. Then, when it has acquired strength, it takes up that nest in which are the bones of its parent, and bearing these it passes(1) from the land of Arabia into Egypt, to the city called Heliopolis. And, in open day, flying(2) in the sight of all men, it places them on the altar of the sun, and having done this, hastens back to its former abode. The priests then inspect the registers of the dates, and find that it has returned exactly as the five hundredth year was completed.(3)

CHAP. XXVI.--WE SHALL RISE AGAIN, THEN, AS THE SCRIPTURE, ALSO TESTIFIES.

Do we then deem it any great and wonderful thing for the Maker of all things to raise up again those that have piously served Him in the assurance of a good faith, when even by a bird He shows us the mightiness of His power to fulfil His promise?(4) For [the Scripture] saith in a certain place, "Thou shalt raise me up, and I shall confess unto Thee";(5) and again, "I laid me down, and slept"; "I awaked, because Thou art with me; "(6) and again, Job says, "Thou shalt raise

up this flesh of mine, which has suffered all these things."(7)

CHAP. XXVII.--IN THE HOPE OF THE RESURRECTION, LET US CLEAVE TO THE OMNIPOTENT AND OMNISCIENT GOD.

Having then this hope, let our souls be bound to Him who is faithful in His promises, and just in His judgments. He who has commanded us not to lie, shall much more Himself not lie; for nothing is impossible with God, except to lie.(8) Let His faith therefore be stirred up again within us, and let us consider that all things are nigh unto Him. By the word of His might(9) He established all things, and by His word He can overthrow them. "Who shall say unto Him, What hast thou done? or, Who shall resist

the power of His strength?"(10) When, and as He pleases, He will do all things, and none of the things determined by Him shall pass away.(11) All things are open before Him, and nothing can be hidden from His counsel. "The heavens(12) declare the glory of God, and the firmament showeth His handy-work.(13) Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night showeth knowledge. And there are no words or speeches of which the voices are not heard."(14)

CHAP. XXVIII.--GOD SEES ALL THINGS: THEREFORE LET US AVOID TRANSGRESSION.

Since then all things are seen and heard [by God], let us fear Him, and forsake those wicked works which proceed from evil(15) desires;(16) so that, through His mercy, we may be protected from the judgments to come. For whither can any of us flee from His mighty hand? Or what world will receive any of those who run away from Him? For the Scripture saith in a certain place, "Whither shall I go, and where shall I be hid from Thy presence? If I ascend into heaven, Thou art there; if I go away even to the uttermost parts of the earth, there is Thy right hand;(17) if I make my bed in the abyss, there is Thy Spirit."(18) Whither, then, shall anyone go, or where shall he escape from Him who comprehends all things?

CHAP. XXIX.--LET US ALSO DRAW NEAR TO GOD IN PURITY OF HEART.

Let us then draw near to Him with holiness of spirit, lifting up pure and undefiled hands unto Him, loving our gracious and merciful Father, who has made us partakers in the blessings of His elect.(19) For thus it is written, "When the Most High divided the nations, when He scattered(20) the sons of Adam, He fixed the bounds of the nations according to the number of the angels of God. His people Jacob became the portion of the Lord, and Israel the lot of His inheritance.(21) And in another place [the Scripture] saith,

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"Behold, the Lord taketh unto Himself a nation out of the midst of the nations, as a man takes the first-fruits of his threshing-floor; and from that nation shall come forth the Most Holy."(1)

CHAP. XXX.--LET US DO THOSE THINGS THAT PLEASE GOD, AND FLEE FROM THOSE HE HATES, THAT WE MAY BE BLESSED.

Seeing, therefore, that we are the portion of the Holy One,(2) let us do all those things which pertain to holiness, avoiding all evil-speaking, all abominable and impure embraces, together with all drunkenness, seeking after change,(3) all abominable lusts, detestable adultery, and execrable pride. "For God," [saith the Scripture], "resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the humble."(4) Let us cleave, then, to those to whom grace has been given by God. Let us clothe ourselves with concord and humility, ever exercising self-control, standing far off from all whispering and evil-speaking, being justified by our works, and not our words. For [the Scripture] saith, "He that speaketh much, shall also hear much in answer. And does he that is ready in speech deem himself righteous? Blessed(5) is he that is born of woman, who liveth but a short time: be not given to much speaking."(6) Let our praise be in God, and not of ourselves; for God hateth those that commend themselves. Let testimony to our good(7) deeds be borne by others, as it was in the case of our righteous forefathers. Boldness, and arrogance, and audacity belong to(8) those that are accursed of God; but moderation, humility, and meekness to such as are blessed by Him.

CHAP. XXXI.--LET US SEE BY WHAT MEANS WE MAY OBTAIN THE DIVINE BLESSING.

Let us cleave then to His blessing, and consider what are the means(9) of possessing it. Let us think(10) over the things which have taken place from the beginning. For what reason was our father Abraham blessed? Was it not because he wrought righteousness and truth through faith? Isaac,(11) with perfect confidence, as if knowing what was to happen,(12) cheerfully yielded himself as a sacrifice.(13) Jacob, through reason(14) of his brother, went forth with humility from his own land, and came to Laban and served him; and there was given to him the sceptre of the twelve tribes of Israel.

CHAP. XXXII.--WE ARE JUSTIFIED NOT BY OUR OWN WORKS, BUT BY FAITH.

Whosoever will candidly consider each particular, will recognise the greatness of the gifts which were given by him.(15) For from him(16) have sprung the priests and all the Levites who minister at the altar of God. From him also [was descended] our Lord Jesus Christ according to the flesh.(17) From him [arose] kings, princes, and rulers of the race of Judah. Nor are his other tribes in small glory,(18) inasmuch as God had promised, "Thy seed shall be as the stars of heaven."(19) All these, therefore, were highly honoured, and made great, not for their own sake, or for their own works, or for the righteousness which they wrought, but through the operation of His will. And we, too, being called by His will(20) in Christ Jesus, are not Justified by ourselves, nor by our own wisdom, or understanding, or godliness, or works which we have wrought in holiness of heart; but by that faith through which, from the beginning, Almighty God has justified all men; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

CHAP. XXXIII.--BUT LET US NOT GIVE UP THE PRACTICE OF GOOD WORKS AND LOVE. GOD HIMSELF IS AN EXAMPLE TO US OF GOOD WORKS.

What shall we do,(21) then, brethren? Shall we become slothful in well-doing, and cease from the practice of love? God forbid that any such course should be followed by us! But rather let us hasten with all energy and readiness of mind to perform every good work. For the Creator and Lord of all Himself rejoices in His works. For by His infinitely great power He established the heavens, and by His incomprehensible wisdom He adorned them. He also divided the earth from the water which surrounds it, and fixed it upon

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the immovable foundation of His own will. The animals also which are upon it He commanded by His own word(1) into existence. So likewise, when He had formed(2) the sea, and the living creatures which are in it, He enclosed them [within their proper bounds] by His own power. Above all? with His holy and undefiled hands He formed man, the most excellent [of His creatures], and truly great through the understanding given him--the express likeness of His own image. For thus says God: "Let us make man in our image, and after our likeness. So God made man; male and female He created theme,"(4) Having thus finished all these things, He approved them, and blessed them, and said, "Increase and multiply."(5) We see,(6) then, how all righteous men have been adorned with good works, and how the Lord Himself, adorning Himself with His works, rejoiced. Having therefore such an example, let us without delay accede to His will, and let us work the work of righteousness with our whole strength.

CHAP. XXXIV.--GREAT IS THE REWARD OF GOOD WORKS WITH GOD. JOINED TOGETHER IN HARMONY, LET US IMPLORE THAT REWARD FROM HIM.

The good servant(7) receives the bread of his labour with confidence; the lazy and slothful cannot look his employer in the face. It is requisite, therefore, that we be prompt in the practice of well-doing; for of Him are all things. And thus He forewarns us: "Behold, the Lord [cometh], and His reward is before His face, to render to every man according to his work."(8) He exhorts us, therefore,(9) with our whole heart to attend to this,(10) that we be not lazy or slothful in any

good work. Let our boasting and our confidence be in Him. Let us submit ourselves to His will. Let us consider the whole multitude of His angels, how they stand ever ready to minister to His will. For the Scripture saith, "Ten thousand times ten thousand stood around Him, and thousands of thousands ministered unto Him,(11) and cried, Holy, holy, holy, [is] the Lord of Sabaoth; the

whole creation(12) is full of His glory."(13) And let us therefore, conscientiously gathering together in harmony, cry to Him earnestly, as with one mouth, that we may be made partakers of His great and glorious promises. For [the Scripture] saith, "Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which He hath prepared for them that wait for(14) Him."(15)

CHAP. XXXV.--IMMENSE IS THIS REWARD. HOW SHALL WE OBTAIN IT?

How blessed and wonderful, beloved, are the gifts of God! Life in immortality, splendour in righteousness, truth in perfect confidence,(16) faith in assurance, self-control in holiness! And all these fall under the cognizance of our understandings [now]; what then shall those things be which are prepared for such as wait for Him? The Creator and Father of all worlds,(17) the Most Holy,(18) alone knows their amount and their beauty. Let us therefore earnestly strive to be found in the number of those that wait for Him, in order that we may share in His promised gifts. But how, beloved, shall this be done? If our understanding be fixed by faith towards God; if we earnestly seek the things(19) which are pleasing and acceptable to Him; if we do the things which are in harmony with His blameless will; and if we follow the way of truth, casting away from us all unrighteousness and inquity,(20) along with all covetousness,(21) strife, evil practices, deceit, whispering, and evil-speaking, all hatred of God, pride and haughtiness, vain glory and ambition.(22) For they that do such things are hateful to God; and not only they that do them, but also those that take pleasure in them that do them.(23) For the Scripture saith, "But to the sinner God said, Wherefore dost thou declare my statutes, and take my covenant into thy mouth, seeing thou hatest instruction, and castest my words behind thee? When thou sawest a thief, thou consentedst with(24) him, and didst make thy portion with adulterers. Thy month has abounded with wickedness, and

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thy tongue contrived(1) deceit. Thou sittest, and speakest against thy brother; thou slanderest(2) thine own mother's son. These things thou hast done, and I kept silence; thou thoughtest, wicked one, that I should be like to thyself. But I will reprove thee, and set thyself before thee. Consider now these things, ye that forget God, lest He tear you in pieces, like a lion, and there be none to deliver.(3) The sacrifice of praise will glorify me, and a way is there by which I will show him the salvation of God."(4)

CHAP. XXXVI.--ALL BLESSINGS ARE GIVEN TO US THROUGH CHRIST.

This is the way, beloved, in which we find our Saviour,(5) even Jesus Christ, the High Priest of all our offerings, the defender and helper of our infirmity. By Him we look up to the heights of heaven. By Him we behold, as in a glass, His immaculate and most excellent visage. By Him are the eyes of our hearts opened. By Him our foolish and darkened understanding blossoms(6) up anew towards His marvellous light. By Him the Lord has willed that we should taste of immortal knowledge,(7) "who, being the brightness of His majesty, is by so much greater than the angels, as He hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they."(8) For it is thus written, "Who maketh His angels spirits, and His ministers a flame of fire."(9) But concerning His Son(10) the Lord spoke thus: "Thou art my Son, to-day have I begotten Thee. Ask of me, and I will give Thee the heathen for Thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for Thy possession."(11) And again He saith to Him, "Sit Thou at my right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool."(12) But who are His enemies? All the wicked, and those who set themselves to oppose the will of God.(13)

CHAP. XXXVII.--CHRIST IS OUR LEADER, AND WE HIS SOLDIERS.

Let us then, men and brethren, with all energy act the part of soldiers, in accordance with His holy commandments. Let us consider those who serve under our generals, with what order, obedience,(14) and submissiveness they perform the things which are commanded them. All are not prefects, nor commanders of a thousand, nor of a hundred, nor of fifty, nor the like, but each one in his own rank performs the things commanded by the king and the generals. The great cannot subsist without the small, nor the small without the great. There is a kind of mixture in all things, and thence arises mutual advantage.(15) Let us take our body for an example.(16) The head is nothing without the feet, and the feet are nothing without the head; yea, the very smallest members of our body are necessary and useful to the whole body. But all work(17) harmoniously together, and are under one common rule(18) for the preservation of the whole body.

CHAP. XXXVIII.--LET THE MEMBERS OF THE CHURCH SUBMIT THEMSELVES, AND NO ONE EXALT HIMSELF ABOVE ANOTHER.

Let our whole body, then, be preserved in Christ Jesus;(19) and let every one be subject to his neighbour, according to the special gift(20) bestowed upon him. Let the strong not despise(21) the weak, and let the weak show respect unto the strong. Let the rich man provide for the wants of the poor; and let the poor man bless God, because He hath given him one by whom his need may be supplied. Let the wise man display his wisdom, not by [mere] words, but through good deeds. Let the humble not bear testimony to himself, but leave witness to be borne to him by another.(22) Let him that is pure in the flesh not grow proud(23) of it, and boast, knowing that it was another who bestowed on him the gift of continence. Let us consider, then, brethren, of what matter we were made,--who and what manner of beings we came into the world, as it were out of a sepulchre, and from utter darkness.(24) He who made us and fashioned us, having prepared His bountiful gifts for us before we were born, introduced us into His world. Since, therefore, we receive all these things from Him, we ought for everything to give Him thanks; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

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CHAP. XXXIX.--THERE IS NO REASON FOR SELF-CONCEIT.

Foolish and inconsiderate(1) men, who have neither wisdom(2) nor instruction, mock and deride us, being eager to exalt themselves in their own conceits. For what can a mortal man do, or what strength is there in one made out of the dust? For it is written, "There was no shape before mine eyes, only I heard a sound,(3) and a voice [saying], What then? Shall a man be pure before the Lord? Or shall such an one be [counted] blameless in his deeds, seeing He does not confide in His servants, and has charged(4) even His angels with perversity? The heaven is not clean in His sight: how much less they that dwell in houses of clay, of which also we ourselves were made! He smote them as a moth; and from morning even until evening they endure not. Because they could furnish no assistance to themselves, they perished. He breathed upon them, and they died, because they had no wisdom. But call now, if any one will answer thee, or if thou wilt look to any of the holy angels; for wrath destroys the foolish man, and envy killeth him that is in error. I have seen the foolish taking root, but their habitation was presently consumed. Let their sons be far from safety; let them be despised(5) before the gates of those less than themselves, and there shall be none to deliver. For what was prepared for them, the righteous shall eat; and they shall not be delivered from evil."(6)

CHAP.XL.--LET US PRESERVE IN THE CHURCH THE ORDER APPOINTED BY GOD.

These things therefore being manifest to us, and since we look into the depths of the divine knowledge, it behoves us to do all things in [their proper] order, which the Lord has commanded us to perform at stated times.(7) He has enjoined offerings [to be presented] and service to be performed [to Him], and that not thoughtlessly or irregularly, but at the appointed times and hours. Where and by whom He desires these things to be done, He Himself has fixed by His own supreme will, in order that all things, being piously done according to His good pleasure, may be acceptable unto Him.(8) Those, therefore, who present their offerings at the appointed times, are accepted and blessed; for inasmuch as they follow the laws of the Lord, they sin not. For his own peculiar services are assigned to the high priest, and their own proper place is prescribed to the priests, and their own special ministrations devolve on the Levites. The layman is bound by the laws that pertain to laymen.

CHAP. XLI.--CONTINUATION OF THE SAME SUBJECT.

Let every one of you, brethren, give thanks(9) to God in his own order, living in all good conscience, with becoming gravity, and not going beyond the rule of the ministry prescribed to him. Not in every place, brethren, are the daily sacrifices offered, or the peace-offerings, or the sin-offerings and the trespass-offerings, but in Jerusalem only. And even there they are not offered in any place, but only at the altar before the temple, that which is offered being first carefully examined by the high priest and the ministers already mentioned. Those, therefore, who do anything beyond that which is agreeable to His will, are punished with death. Ye see,(10) brethren, that the greater the knowledge that has been vouchsafed to us, the greater also is the danger to which we are exposed.

CHAP. XLII.--THE ORDER OF MINISTERS IN THE CHURCH.

The apostles have preached the gospel to us from(11) the Lord Jesus Christ; Jesus(12) Christ [has done so] from God. Christ therefore was sent forth by God,(13) and the apostles by Christ. Both these appointments,(14) then, were made in an orderly way, according to the will of God. Having therefore received their orders, and being fully assured by the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ, and established(15) in the word of God, with full assurance of the Holy Ghost, they went forth proclaiming that the kingdom of God was at hand. And thus preaching through countries and cities, they appointed the first fruits [of their labours], having first proved them by the Spirit,(16) to be bishops and deacons of those who should afterwards believe. Nor was this any new thing, since indeed many ages before it was written con-

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cerning bishops and deacons. For thus saith the Scripture in a certain place, "I will appoint their bishops(1) in righteousness, and their deacons(2) in faith."(3)

CHAP. XLIII.--MOSES OF OLD STILLED THE CONTENTION WHICH AROSE CONCERNING THE PRIESTLY DIGNITY.

And what wonder is it if those in Christ who were entrusted with such a duty by God, appointed those [ministers] before mentioned, when the blessed Moses also, "a faithful servant in all his house,"(4) noted down in the sacred books all the injunctions which were given him, and when the other prophets also followed him, bearing witness with one consent to the ordinances which he had appointed? For, when rivalry arose concerning the priesthood, and the tribes were contending among themselves as to which of them should be adorned with that glorious title, he commanded the twelve princes of the tribes to bring him their rods, each one being inscribed with the name(5) of the tribe. And he took them and bound them [together], and sealed them with the rings of the princes of the tribes, and laid them up in the tabernacle of witness on the table of God. And having shut the doors of the tabernacle, he sealed the keys, as he had done the rods, and said to them, Men and brethren, the tribe whose rod shall blossom has God chosen to fulfil the office of the priesthood, and to minister unto Him. And when the morning was come, he assembled all Israel, six hundred thousand men, and showed the seals to the princes of the tribes, and opened the tabernacle of witness, and brought forth the rods. And the rod of Aaron was found not only to have blossomed, but to bear fruit upon it.(6) What think ye, beloved? Did not Moses know beforehand that this would happen? Undoubtedly he knew; but he acted thus, that there might be no sedition in Israel, and that the name of the true and only God might be glorified; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

CHAP. XLIV.--THE ORDINANCES OF THE APOSTLES, THAT THERE MIGHT BE NO CONTENTION RESPECTING THE PRIESTLY OFFICE.

Our apostles also knew, through our Lord Jesus Christ, that there would be strife on

account of the office(7) of the episcopate. For this reason, therefore, inasmuch as they had obtained a perfect fore-knowledge of this, they appointed those [ministers] already mentioned, and afterwards gave instructions,(8) that when these should fall asleep, other approved men should succeed them in their ministry. We are of opinion, therefore, that those appointed by them,(9) or afterwards by other eminent men, with the consent of the whole church, and who have blamelessly served the flock of Christ, in a humble, peaceable, and disinterested spirit, and have for a long time possessed the good opinion of all, cannot be justly dismissed from the ministry. For our sin will not be small, if we eject from the episcopate(10) those who have blamelessly and holily fulfilled its duties.(11) Blessed are those presbyters who, having finished their course before now, have obtained a fruitful and perfect departure [from this world]; for they have no fear lest any one deprive them of the place now appointed them. But we see that ye have removed some men of excellent behaviour from the ministry, which they fulfilled blamelessly and with honour.

CHAP. XLV.--IT IS THE PART OF THE WICKED TO VEX THE RIGHTEOUS.

Ye are fond of contention, brethren, and full of zeal about things which do not pertain to salvation. Look carefully into the Scriptures, which are the true utterances of the Holy Spirit. Observe(12) that nothing of an unjust or counterfeit character is written in them. There(13) you will not find that the righteous were cast off by men who themselves were holy. The righteous were indeed persecuted, but only by the wicked. They were cast into prison, but only by the unholy; they were stoned, but only by transgressors; they were slain, but only by the accursed, and such as had conceived an unrighteous envy against them. Exposed to such sufferings, they endured them gloriously. For what shall we say, brethren? Was Daniel(14) cast into the den of lions by such as

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feared God? Were Ananias, and Azarias, and Michael shut up in a furnace(1) of fire by those who observed(2) the great and glorious worship of the Most High? Far from us be such a thought! Who, then, were they that did such things? The hateful, and those full of all wickedness, were roused to such a pitch of fury, that they inflicted torture on those who served God with a holy and blameless purpose [of heart], not knowing that the Most High is the Defender and Protector of all such as with a pure conscience venerate(3) His all-excellent name; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen. But they who with confidence endured [these things] are now heirs of glory and honour, and have been exalted and made illustrious(4) by God in their memorial for ever and ever. Amen.

CHAP.XLVI.--LET US CLEAVE TO THE RIGHTEOUS: YOUR STRIFE IS PERNICIOUS.

Such examples, therefore, brethren, it is right that we should follow;(5) since it is written, "Cleave to the holy, for those that cleave to them shall [themselves] be made holy."(6) And again, in another place, [the Scripture] saith, "With a harmless man thou shalt prove(7) thyself harmless, and with an elect man thou shalt be elect, and with a perverse man thou shalt show(8) thyself perverse."(9) Let us cleave, therefore, to the innocent and righteous, since these are the elect of God. Why are there strifes, and tumults, and divisions, and schisms, and wars(10) among you? Have we not [all] one God and one Christ? Is there not one Spirit of grace poured out upon us? And have we not one calling in Christ?(11) Why do we divide and tear in pieces the members of Christ, and raise up strife against our own body, and have reached such a height of madness as to forget that "we are members one of another?"(12) Remember the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, how(13) He said, "Woe to that man [by whom(13) offences come]! It were better for him that he had never been born, than that he should cast a stumbling-block before one of my elect. Yea, it were better for him that a millstone should be hung about [his neck], and he should be sunk in the depths of the sea, than that he should cast a stumbling-block before one of my little ones."(14) Your schism has subverted [the faith of] many, has discouraged many, has given rise to doubt in many, and has caused grief to us all. And still your sedition continueth.

CHAP. XLVII.--YOUR RECENT DISCORD IS WORSE THAN THE FORMER WHICH TOOK PLACE IN THE TIMES OF PAUL.

Take up the epistle of the blessed Apostle Paul. What did he write to you at the time when the gospel first began to be preached?(15) Truly, under the inspiration(16) of the Spirit, he wrote to you concerning himself, and Cephas, and Apollos,(17) because even then parties(18) had been formed among you. But that inclination for one above another entailed less guilt upon you, inasmuch as your partialities were then shown towards apostles, already of high reputation, and towards a man whom they had approved. But now reflect who those are that have perverted you, and lessened the renown of your far-famed brotherly love. It is disgraceful, beloved, yea, highly disgraceful, and unworthy of your Christian profession,(19) that such a thing should be heard of as that the most stedfast and ancient church of the Corinthians should, on account of one or two persons, engage in sedition against its presbyters. And this rumour has reached not only us, but those also who are unconnected(20) with us; so that, through your infatuation, the name of the Lord is blasphemed, while danger is also brought upon yourselves.

CHAP. XLVIII.--LET US RETURN TO THE PRACTICE OF BROTHERLY LOVE.

Let us therefore, with all haste, put an end(21) to this [state of things]; and let us fall down before the Lord, and beseech Him with tears, that He would mercifully(22) be reconciled to us, and restore us to our former seemly and holy practice of brotherly love. For [such conduct] is the gate of righteousness, which is set open for the attainment of life, as it is written, "Open to me the gates of righteousness; I will go in by them, and will praise the Lord: this is the gate of the

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Lord: the righteous shall enter in by it."(1) Although, therefore, many gates have been set open, yet this gate of righteousness is that gate in Christ by which blessed are all they that have entered in and have directed their way in holiness and righteousness, doing all things without disorder. Let a man be faithful: let him be powerful in the utterance of knowledge; let him be wise in judging of words; let him be pure in all his deeds; vet the more he seems to be superior to others [in these respects], the more humble-minded ought he to be, and to seek the common good of all, and not merely his own advantage.

CHAP. XLIX.--THE PRAISE OF LOVE.

Let him who has love in Christ keep the commandments of Christ. Who can describe the [blessed] bond of the love of God? What man is able to tell the excellence of its beauty, as it ought to be told? The height to which love exalts is unspeakable. Love unites us to God. Love covers a multitude of sins.(2) Love beareth all things, is long-suffering in all things.(3) There is nothing base, nothing arrogant in love. Love admits of no schisms: love gives rise to no seditions: love does all things in harmony. By love have all the elect of God been made perfect; without love nothing is well-pleasing to God. In love has the Lord taken us to Himself. On account of the love He bore us, Jesus Christ our Lord gave His blood for us by the will of God; His flesh for our flesh, and His soul for our souls.

CHAP. L.--LET US PRAY TO BE THOUGHT WORTHY OF LOVE.

Ye see, beloved, how great and wonderful a thing is love, and that there is no declaring its perfection. Who is fit to be found in it, except such as God has vouchsafed to render so? Let us pray,(4) therefore, and implore of His mercy, that we may live(5) blameless in love, free from all human partialities for one above another. All the generations from Adam even unto this day have passed away; but those who, through the grace of God, have been made perfect in love, now possess a place among the godly, and shall be made manifest at the revelation(6) of the kingdom of Christ.(7) For it is written, "Enter into thy secret chambers for a little time, until my wrath and fury pass away; and I will remember a propitious(8) day, and will raise you up out of your graves."(9) Blessed are we, beloved, if we keep the commandments of God in the harmony of love; that so through love our sins may be forgiven us. For it is written, "Blessed are they whose transgressions are forgiven, and whose sins are covered. Blessed is the man whose sin the Lord will not impute to him, and in whose mouth there is no guile.(10) This blessedness cometh upon those who have been chosen by God through Jesus Christ our Lord; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

CHAP. LI.--LET THE PARTAKERS IN STRIFE ACKNOWLEDGE THEIR SINS.

Let us therefore implore forgiveness for all those transgressions which through any [suggestion] of the adversary we have committed. And these who have been the leaders of sedition and disagreement ought to have respect(11) to the common hope. For such as live in fear and love would rather that they themselves than their neighbours should be involved in suffering. And they prefer to bear blame themselves, rather than that the concord which has been well and piously(12) handed down to us should suffer. For it is better that a man should acknowledge his transgressions than that he should harden his heart, as the hearts of those were hardened who stirred up sedition against Moses the servant(13) of God, and whose condemnation was made manifest [unto all]. For they went down alive into Hades, and death swallowed them up.(14) Pharaoh with his army and all the princes of Egypt, and the chariots with their riders, were sunk in the depths of the Red Sea, and perished,(15) for no other reason than that their foolish hearts were hardened, after so many signs and wonders had been wrought in the land of Egypt by Moses the servant of God.

CHAP. LII.--SUCH A CONFESSION IS PLEASING TO GOD.

The Lord, brethren, stands in need of nothing; and He desires nothing of any one except that confession be made to Him.'

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For, says the elect David, "I will confess unto the Lord; and that will please Him more young bullock(1) that hath horns and than a hoofs. Let the poor see it, and be glad."(2) And again he saith, "Offer(3) unto God the sacrifice of praise, and pay thy vows unto the Most High. And call upon me in the day of thy trouble: I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me."(4) For "the sacrifice of God is a broken spirit."(5)

CHAP. LIII.--THE LOVE OF MOSES TOWARDS HIS PEOPLE.

Ye understand, beloved, ye understand well the sacred Scriptures, and ye have looked very earnestly into the oracles of God. Call then these things to your remembrance. When Moses went up into the mount, and abode there, with fasting and humiliation, forty days and forty nights, the Lord said unto him, "Moses, Moss, get thee down quickly from hence; for thy people whom thou didst bring out of the land of Egypt have committed iniquity. They have speedily departed from the way in which I commanded them to walk, and have made to themselves molten images."(6) And the Lord said unto him, "I have spoken to thee once and again, saying, I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiff-necked people: let me destroy them, and blot out their name from under heaven; and I will make thee a great and wonderful nation, and one much more numerous than this."(7) But Moses said, "Far be it from Thee, Lord: pardon the sin of this people; else blot me also out of the book of the living."(8) O marvellous(9) love! O insuperable perfection! The servant(10) speaks freely to his Lord, and asks forgiveness for the people, or begs that he himself might perish(11) along with them.

CHAP. LIV.--HE WHO IS FULL OF LOVE WILL INCUR EVERY LOSS, THAT PEACE MAY BE RESTORED TO THE CHURCH.

Who then among you is noble-minded? who compassionate? who full of love? Let him declare, "If on my account sedition and disagreement and schisms have arisen, I will depart, I will go away whithersoever ye desire, and I will do whatever the majority(12) commands; only let the flock of Christ live on terms of peace with the presbyters set over it." He that acts thus shall procure to himself great glory in the Lord;(13) and every place will welcome(14) him. For "the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof.(15) These things they who live a godly life that is never to be repented of, both have done and always will do.

CHAP. LV.--EXAMPLES OF SUCH LOVE.

To bring forward some examples(16) from among the heathen: Many kings and princes, in times of pestilence, when they had been instructed by an oracle, have given themselves up to death, in order that by their own blood they might deliver their fellow-citizens [from destruction]. Many have gone forth from their own cities, that so sedition might be brought to an end within them. We know many among ourselves who have given themselves up to bonds, in order that they might ransom others. Many, too, have surrendered themselves to slavery, that with the price(17) which they received for themselves, they might provide food for others. Many women also, being strengthened by the grace of God, have performed numerous manly exploits. The blessed Judith, when her city was besieged, asked of the elders permission to go forth into the camp of the strangers; and, exposing herself to danger, she went out for the love which she bare to her country and people then besieged; and the Lord delivered Holofernes into the hands of a woman.(18) Esther also, being perfect in faith, exposed herself to no less danger, in order to deliver the twelve tribes of Israel from impending destruction. For with fasting and humiliation she entreated the everlasting(19) God, who seeth all things; and He, perceiving the humility of her spirit, delivered the people for whose sake she had encountered peril.(20)

CHAP. LVI.--LET US ADMONISH AND CORRECT ONE ANOTHER.

Let us then also pray for those who have fallen into any sin, that meekness and humil-

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ity may be given to them, so that they may submit, not unto us, but to the will of God. For in this way they shall secure a fruitful and perfect remembrance from us, with Sympathy for them, both in our prayers to God, and our mention of them to the saints.(1) Let us receive correction, beloved, on account of which no one should feel displeased. Those exhortations by which we admonish one another are both good [in themselves], and highly profitable, for they tend to unite(2) us to the will of God. For thus saith the holy Word: "The Lord hath severely chastened me, yet hath not given me over to death."(3) "For whom the Lord loveth He chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom He receiveth."(4) "The righteous,"(5) saith it, "shall chasten me in mercy, and reprove me;" but let not the oil of sinners make fat my head.(6) And again he saith, "Blessed is the man whom the Lord reproveth, and reject not thou the warning of the Almighty. For He causes sorrow, and again restores [to gladness]; He woundeth, and His hands make whole. He shall deliver thee in six troubles, yea, in the seventh no evil shall touch thee. In famine He shall rescue thee from death, and in war He shall free thee from the power(7) of the sword. From the scourge of the tongue will He hide thee, and thou shalt not fear when evil cometh. Thou shalt laugh at the unrighteous and the wicked, and shalt not be afraid of the beasts of the field. For the wild beasts shall be at peace with thee: then shalt thou know that thy house shall be in peace, and the habitation of thy tabernacle shall not fail.(8) Thou shalt know also that thy seed shall be great, and thy children like the grass of the field. And thou shalt come to the grave like ripened corn which is reaped in its season, or like a heap of the threshing-floor which is gathered together at the proper time."(9) Ye see, beloved, that(10) "protection is afforded to those that are chastened of the Lord; for since God is good,(11) He corrects us, that we may be admonished"(12) by His holy chastisement.

CHAP. LVII.--LET THE AUTHORS OF SEDITION SUBMIT THEMSELVES.

Ye therefore, who laid the foundation of this sedition, submit yourselves to the presbyters, and receive correction so as to repent, bending the knees of your hearts. Learn to be subject, laying aside the proud and arrogant self-confidence of your tongue. For it is better for you that ye should occupy(13) a humble but honourable place in the flock of Christ, than that, being highly exalted, ye should be cast out from the hope of His people.(14) For thus speaketh all-virtuous Wisdom: "Behold, I will bring forth to you the words of my Spirit, and I will teach you my speech. Since I called, and ye did not hear; I held forth my words, and ye regarded not, but set at naught my counsels, and yielded not at my reproofs; therefore I too will laugh at your destruction; yea, I will rejoice when rum cometh upon you, and when sudden confusion overtakes you, when overturning presents itself like a tempest, or when tribulation and oppression(15) fall upon you. For it shall come to pass, that when ye call upon me, I will not hear you; the wicked shall seek me, and they shall not find me. For they hated wisdom, and did not choose the fear of the Lord; nor would they listen to my counsels, but despised my reproofs. Wherefore they shall eat the fruits of their own way, and they shall be filled(16) with their own ungodliness.(17) . . . For, in punishment for the wrongs which they practised upon babes, shall they be slain, and inquiry will be death to the ungodly; but he that heareth me shah rest in hope and be undisturbed by the fear of any evil."

CHAP. LVIII.--SUBMISSION THE PRECURSOR OF SALVATION.

Let us, therefore, flee from the warning threats pronounced by Wisdom on the disobedient, and yield submission to His all-holy and glorious name, that we may stay our trust upon the most hallowed name of His majesty. Receive our counsel, and ye shall be without repentance. For, as God liveth, and as the Lord Jesus Christ and the Holy Ghost live,--both the faith and hope of the elect, he who in lowliness of mind, with instant gentleness, and without repentance hath observed the ordinances and appointments given by God--the same shall obtain a place and name in the number of those who are being saved through Jesus Christ, through whom is glory to Him for ever and ever. Amen.

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CHAP. LIX.--WARNING AGAINST DISOBEDIENCE. PRAYER.

If, however, any shall disobey the words spoken by Him through us, let them know that they will involve themselves in transgression and serious danger; but we shall be innocent of this sin, and, instant in prayer and supplication, shall desire that the Creator of all preserve unbroken the computed number of His elect in the whole world through His beloved Son Jesus Christ, through whom He called us from darkness to light, from ignorance to knowledge of the glory of His name, our hope resting on Thy name which is primal cause of every creature,--having opened the eyes of our heart to the knowledge of Thee, who alone "dost rest highest among the highest, holy among the holy,"(1) who "layest low the insolence of the haughty,"(2) who "destroyest the calculations of the heathen,"(3) who "settest the low on high and bringest low the exalted;"(4) who "makest rich and makest poor,"(5) who "killest and makest to live,"(6) only Benefactor of spirits and God of all flesh,(7) who beholdest the depths, the eye-witness of human works, the help of those in danger, the Saviour of those in despair, the Creator and Guardian of every spirit, who multipliest nations upon earth, and from all madest choice of those who love Thee through Jesus Christ, Thy beloved Son, through whom Thou didst instruct, sanctify, honour us. We would have Thee, Lord, to prove our help and succour. Those of us in affliction save, on the lowly take pity; the fallen raise; upon those in need arise; the sick(8) heal; the wandering ones of Thy people turn; fill the hungry; redeem those of us in bonds; raise up those that are weak; comfort the faint-hearted; let all the nations know that Thou art God alone and Jesus Christ Thy Son, and we are Thy people and the sheep of Thy pasture.

CHAP. LX.--PRAYER CONTINUED.

Thou didst make to appear the enduring fabric of the world by the works of Thy hand; Thou, Lord, didst create the earth on which we dwell,--Thou, who art faithful in all generations, just in judgments, wonderful in strength and majesty, with wisdom creating and with understanding fixing the things which were made, who art good among them that are being saved(9) and faithful among them whose trust is in Thee; O merciful and Compassionate One, forgive us our iniquities and offences and transgressions and trespasses. Reckon not every sin of Thy servants and handmaids, but Thou wilt purify us with the purification of Thy truth; and direct our steps that we may walk in holiness of heart and do what is good and well-pleasing in Thy sight and in the sight of our rulers. Yea, Lord, make Thy face to shine upon us for good in peace, that we may be shielded by Thy mighty hand and delivered from every sin by Three uplifted arm, and deliver us from those who hate us wrongfully. Give concord and peace to us and all who dwell upon the earth, even as Thou gavest to our fathers, when they called upon Thee in faith and truth, submissive as we are to Thine almighty and all-excellent Name.

CHAP.LXI.--PRAYER CONTINUED--FOR RULERS AND GOVERNORS. CONCLUSION.

To our rulers and governors on the earth--to them Thou, Lord, gavest the power of the kingdom by Thy glorious and ineffable might, to the end that we may know the glory and honour given to them by Thee and be subject to them, in nought resisting Thy will; to them, Lord, give health, peace, concord, stability, that they may exercise the authority given to them without offence. For Thou, O heavenly Lord and King eternal, givest to the sons of men glory and honour and power over the things that are on the earth; do Thou, Lord, direct their counsel according to that which is good and well-pleasing in Thy sight, that, devoutly in peace and meekness exercising the power given them by Thee, they may find Thee propitious. O Thou, who only hast power to do these things and more abundant good with us, we praise Thee through the High Priest and Guardian of our souls Jesus Christ, through whom be glory and majesty to Thee both now and from generation to generation and for evermore. Amen.

CHAP. LXII.--SUMMARY AND CONCLUSORY--CONCERNING GODLINESS.

Concerning the things pertaining to our religious observance which are most profitable for a life of goodness to those who would pursue a godly and righteous course, we have

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written to you, men and brethren, at sufficient length. For concerning faith and repentance and true love and continence and soberness and patience, we have touched upon every passage, putting you in mind that you ought in righteousness and truth and long-suffering to be well-pleasing(1) to Almighty God with holiness, being of one mind--not remembering evil--in love and peace with instant gentleness, even as also our fathers forementioned found favour by the humility of their thoughts towards the Father and God and Creator and all mankind. And of these things we put you in mind with the greater pleasure, since we were well assured that we were writing to men who were faithful and of highest repute and had peered into the oracles of the instruction of God.

CHAP. LXIII.--HORTATORY, LETTER SENT BY SPECIAL MESSENGERS.

Right is it, therefore, to approach examples so good and so many, and submit the neck and fulfil the part of obedience, in order that, undisturbed by vain sedition, we may attain unto the goal set before us in truth wholly free from blame. Joy and gladness will ye afford us, if ye become obedient to the words written by us and through the Holy Spirit root out the lawless wrath of your jealousy according to the intercession which we have made for peace and unity in this letter. We have sent men faithful and discreet, whose conversation from youth to old age has been blameless amongst us,--the same shall be witnesses between you and us. This we have done, that ye may know that our whole concern has been and is that ye may be speedily at peace.

CHAP. LXIV.--BLESSINGS SOUGHT FOR ALL THAT CALL UPON GOD.

May God, who seeth all things, and who is the Ruler of all spirits and the Lord of all flesh--who chose our Lord Jesus Christ and us through Him to be a peculiar(2) people--grant to every soul that calleth upon His glorious and holy name, faith, fear, peace, patience, long-suffering, self-control, purity, and sobriety, to the well-pleasing of His name, through our High Priest and Protector, Jesus Christ, by whom be to Him

glory, and majesty, and power, and honour, both now and for evermore. Amen.

CHAP. LXV.--THE CORINTHIANS ARE EXHORTED SPEEDILY TO SEND BACK WORD THAT PEACE HAS BEEN RESTORED. THE BENEDICTION.

Send back speedily to us in peace and with joy these our messengers to you: Claudius Ephebus and Valerius Bito, with Fortunatus; that they may the sooner announce to us the peace and harmony we so earnestly desire and long for [among you], and that we may the more quickly rejoice over the good order re-established among you. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you, and with all everywhere that are the called of God through Him, by whom be to Him glory, honour, power, majesty, and eternal dominion,(3) from everlasting to everlasting.(4) Amen.

THE SECOND EPISTLE OF CLEMENT(1)

CHAP. I.--WE OUGHT TO THINK HIGHLY OF

CHRIST.

BRETHREN, it is fitting that you should think of Jesus Christ as of God,--as the Judge of the living and the dead. And it does not become us to think lightly of our salvation; for if we think little of Him, we shall also hope but to obtain little [from Him]. And those of us who hear carelessly of these things, as if they were of small importance, commit sin, not knowing whence we have been called, and by whom, and to what place, and how much Jesus Christ submitted to suffer for our sakes. What return, then, shall we make to Him, or what fruit that shall be worthy of that which tie has given to us? For, indeed, how great are the benefits(2) which we owe to Him! He has graciously given us light; as a Father, He has called us sons; He has saved us when we were ready to perish. What praise, then, shall we give to Him, or what return shall we make for the things which we have received?(3) We were deficient(4) in understanding, worshipping stones and wood, and gold, and silver, and brass, the works of men's hands;(5) and our whole life was nothing else than death. Involved in blindness, and with such darkness(6) before our eyes, we have received sight, and through His will have laid aside that cloud by which we were enveloped. For He had compassion on us, and mercifully saved us, observing the many errors in which we were entangled, as well as the destruction to which we were exposed,(7) and that we had no hope of salvation except it came to us from Him. For He called us when we were not,(8) and willed that out of nothing we should attain a real existence.(9)

CHAP. II.--THE CHURCH, FORMERLY BARREN, IS NOW FRUITFUL.

"Rejoice, thou barren that bearest not; break forth and cry, thou that travailest not; for she that is desolate hath many more children than she that hath an husband."(10) In that He said, "Rejoice, thou barren that bearest not," He referred to us, for our church was barren before that children were given to her. But when He said, "Cry out, thou that travailest not," He means this, that we should sincerely offer up our prayers to God, and should not, like women m travail, show signs of weakness.(11) And in that He said, "For she that is desolate hath many more children than she that hath an husband," [He means] that our people seemed to be outcast from God, but now, through believing, have become more numerous than those who are reckoned to possess God.(12) And another Scripture saith, "I came not to call the righteous, but sinners."(13) This means that those who are perishing must be saved. For it is indeed a great and admirable thing to establish not the things which are standing, but those that are falling. Thus also did Christ(14) desire to save the things which were perishing,(15) and has saved many by coming and calling us when hastening to destruction.(16)

CHAP. III.--THE DUTY OF CONFESSING

CHRIST.

Since, then, He has displayed so great mercy towards us, and especially in this respect, that we who are living should not offer sacrifices to gods that are dead, or pay them worship,(17) but should attain through Him to

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the knowledge of the true Father,(1) whereby shall we show that we do indeed know Him,(2) but by not denying Him through whom this knowledge has been attained? For He himself declares, "Whosoever shall confess me before men, him will I confess before my Father."(3) This, then, is our reward if we shall confess Him by whom we have been saved. But in what way shall we confess Him? By doing what He says, and not transgressing His commandments, and by honouring Him not with our lips only, but with all our heart and all our mind.(4) For He says in Isaiah, "This people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from

me."(5)

CHAP. IV.--TRUE CONFESSION OF CHRIST.

Let us, then, not only call Him Lord, for that will not save us. For He saith, "Not every one that saith to me, Lord, Lord, shall be saved, but he that worketh righteousness."(6) Wherefore, brethren, let us confess Him by our works, by loving one another, by not committing adultery, or speaking evil of one another, or cherishing envy; but by being continent, compassionate, and good. We ought also to sympathize with one another, and not be avaricious. By such works let us confess Him,(7) and not by those that are of an opposite kind. And it is not fitting that we should fear men, but rather God. For this reason, if we should do such [wicked] things, the Lord hath said, "Even though ye were gathered together to(8) me in my very bosom, yet if ye were not to keep my commandments, I would cast you off, and say unto you, Depart from me; I know you not whence ye are, ye workers of iniquity."(9)

CHAP. V.--THIS WORLD SHOULD BE DESPISED.

Wherefore, brethren, leaving [willingly] our sojourn in this present world, let us do the will of Him that called us, and not fear to depart out of this world. For the Lord saith, "Ye shall be as lambs in the midst of wolves."(10) And Peter answered and said unto Him,(11) "What, then, if the wolves shall tear in pieces the lambs?" Jesus said unto Peter, "The lambs have no cause after they are dead to fear(12) the wolves; and in like manner, fear not ye them that kill you, and can do nothing more unto you; but fear Him who, after you are dead, has power over both soul and body to cast them into hell-fire."(13) And consider,(14) brethren, that the sojourning in the flesh in this world is but brief and transient, but the promise of Christ is great and wonderful, even the rest of the kingdom to come, and of life everlasting.(15) By what course of conduct, then, shall we attain these things, but by leading a holy and righteous life, and by deeming these worldly things as not belonging to us, and not fixing our desires upon them? For if we desire to possess them, we fall away from the path of righteousness.

CHAP. VI.--THE PRESENT AND FUTURE WORLDS ARE ENEMIES TO EACH OTHER.

Now the Lord declares, "No servant can serve two masters."(16) If we desire, then, to serve both God and mammon, it will be unprofitable for us. "For what will it profit if a man gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?"(17) This world and the next are two enemies. The one urges(18) to adultery and corruption, avarice and deceit; the other bids farewell to these things. We cannot, therefore, be the friends of both; and it behoves us, by renouncing the one, to make sure(19) of the other. Let us reckon(20) that it is better to hate the things present, since they are trifling, and transient, and corruptible; and to love those [which are to come,] as being good and incorruptible. For if we do the will of Christ, we shall find rest; otherwise, nothing shall deliver us from eternal punishment, if we disobey His commandments. For thus also saith the Scripture in Ezekiel, "If Noah, Job, and Daniel should rise up, they should not deliver their children in captivity."(21) Now, if men so eminently righteous are not able by their righteousness to deliver their children, how(22) can we hope to enter into the royal residence(23) of God unless we keep our baptism holy and undefiled? Or who shall be our advocate,

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unless we be found possessed of works of holiness and righteousness?

CHAP. VII.--WE MUST STRIVE IN ORDER TO

BE CROWNED.

Wherefore, then, my brethren, let us struggle with all earnestness, knowing that the contest is [in our case] close at hand, and that many undertake long voyages to strive for a corruptible reward;(1) yet all are not crowned, but those only that have laboured hard and striven gloriously. Let us therefore so strive, that we may all be crowned. Let us run the straight(2) course, even the race that is incorruptible; and let us m great numbers set out(3) for it, and strive that we may be crowned. And should we not all be able to obtain the crown, let us at least come near to it. We must remember(4) that he who strives in the corruptible contest, if he be found acting unfairly,(5) is taken away and scourged, and cast forth from the lists. What then think ye? If one does anything unseemly in the incorruptible contest, what shall he have to bear? For of those who do not preserve the seal(6) [unbroken], [the Scripture] saith, "Their worm shall not die, and their fire shall not be quenched, and they shall be a spectacle to all flesh."(7)

CHAP. VIII.--THE NECESSITY OF REPENTANCE WHILE WE ARE ON EARTH.

As long, therefore, as we are upon earth, let us practise repentance, for we are as clay in the hand of the artificer. For as the potter, if he make a vessel, and it be distorted or broken in his hands, fashions it over again; but if he have before this cast it into the furnace of fire, can no longer find any help for it: so let us also, while we are in this world, repent with our whole heart of the evil deeds we have done in the flesh, that we may be saved by the Lord, while we have yet an opportunity of repentance. For after we have gone out of the world, no further

power of confessing or repenting will there belong to us. Wherefore, brethren, by doing the will of the Father, and keeping the flesh holy, and observing the commandments of the Lord, we shall obtain eternal life. For the Lord saith in the Gospel, "If ye have not kept that which was small, who will commit to you the great? For I say unto you, that he that is faithful in that which is least, is faithful also in much."(8) This, then, is what He means: "Keep the flesh holy and the seal undefiled, that(9) ye may receive eternal life."(10)

CHAP. IX.--WE SHALL RE JUDGED IN THE FLESH.

And let no one of you say that this very flesh shall not be judged, nor rise again. Consider ye in what [state] ye were saved, in what ye received sight,(11) if not while ye were in this flesh. We must therefore preserve the flesh as the temple of God. For as ye were called in the flesh, ye shall also come [to be judged] in the flesh. As Christ(12) the Lord who saved us, though He was first a Spirit(13) became flesh, and thus called us, so shall we also receive the reward in this flesh. Let us therefore love one another, that we may all attain to the kingdom of God. While we have an opportunity of being healed, let us yield ourselves to God that healeth us, and give to Him a recompense. Of what sort? Repentance out of a sincere heart; for He knows all things beforehand, and is acquainted with what is in our hearts. Let us therefore give Him praise, not with the mouth only, but also with the heart, that tie may accept us as sons. For the Lord has said, "Those are my brethren who do the will of my Father."(14)

CHAP. X.--VICE IS TO BE FORSAKEN, AND

VIRTUE FOLLOWED.

Wherefore, my brethren, let us do the will of the Father who called us, that we may live; and let us earnestly(15) follow after virtue, but forsake every wicked tendency(16) which would lead us into transgression; and flee from ungodliness, lest evils overtake us. For if we are diligent in doing good, peace will follow us. On this account, such men cannot find it [i.e. peace] as are(17) influenced by

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human terrors, and prefer rather present enjoyment(1) to the promise which shall afterwards be fulfilled. For they know not what torment present enjoyment recurs, or what felicity is involved in the future promise. And if, indeed, they themselves only aid such things, it would be [the more] tolerable; but now they persist in imbuing innocent souls with their pernicious doctrines, not knowing that they shall receive a double condemnation, both they and those that hear them.

CHAP. XI.--WE OUGHT TO SERVE GOD, TRUSTING IN HIS PROMISES.

Let us therefore serve God with a pure heart, and we shall be righteous; but if we do not serve Him, because we believe not the promise of God, we shall be miserable. For the prophetic word also declares, "Wretched are those of a double mind, and who doubt in their heart, who say, All these things(2) have we heard even in the times of our fathers; but though we have waited day by day, we have seen none of them [accomplished]. Ye fools! compare yourselves to a tree; take, for instance, the vine. First of all it sheds its leaves, then the bud appears; after that the sour grape, and then the fully-ripened fruit. So, likewise, my people have borne disturbances and afflictions, but afterwards shall they receive their good things."(3) Wherefore, my brethren, let us not be of a double mind, but let us hope and endure, that we also may obtain the reward. For He is faithful who has promised that He will bestow on every one a reward according to his works. If, therefore, we shall do righteousness in the sight of God, we shall enter into His kingdom, and shall receive the promises, which "ear hath not heard, nor eye seen, neither have entered into the heart of man."(4)

CHAP. XII.--WE ARE CONSTANTLY TO LOOK FOR THE KINGDOM OF GOD.

Let us expect, therefore, hour by hour, the kingdom of God in love and righteousness, since we know not the day of the appearing of God. For the Lord Himself, being asked by one when His kingdom would come, replied, "When two shall be one, that which is without as that which is within, and the male with the female, neither male nor female."(5) Now, two are one when we speak the truth one to another, and there is unfeignedly one soul in two bodies. And "that which is without as" that which is within meaneth this: He calls the soul "that which is within," and the body "that which is without." As, then, thy body is visible to sight, so also let thy soul be manifest by good works. And "the male, with the female, neither male nor female, this(6) He saith, that brother seeing sister may have no thought concerning her as female, and that she may have no thought concerning him as male. "If ye do these things, saith He, "the kingdom of my Father shall come."(7)

CHAP. XIII.--GOD'S NAME NOT TO BE BLASPHEMED.

Brethren, then, let us now at length repent, let us soberly turn to that which is good; for we are full of abundant folly and wickedness. Let us wipe out from us our former sins, and repenting from the heart be saved; and let us not be men-pleasers, nor be willing to please one another only, but also the men without, for righteousness sake, that the name may not be, because of us, blasphemed. For the Lord saith, "Continually my name is blasphemed among all nations," and "Wherefore my name is blasphemed; blasphemed in what? In your not doing the things which I wish."(8) For the nations, hearing from our mouth the oracles of God, marvel at their excellence and worth; thereafter learning that our deeds are not worthy of the words which we speak,--receiving this occasion they turn to blasphemy, saying that they are a fable and a delusion. For, whenever they hear from us that God saith, "No thank have ye, if ye love them which love you, but ye have thank, if ye love your enemies and them which hate you "(9)--whenever they hear these words, they marvel at the surpassing measure of their goodness; but when they see, that not only do we not love those who hate, but that we love not even those who love, they laugh us to scorn, and the name is blasphemed.

CHAP. XIV.--THE CHURCH SPIRITUAL.

So, then, brethren, if we do the will of our Father God, we shall be members of the first church, the spiritual,--that which was created before sun and moon; but if we shall not do the will of the Lord, we shall come under the Scripture which saith, "My house became a den of robbers."(10) So, then, let us

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elect to belong to the church of life,(1) that we may be saved. I think not that ye are ignorant that the living church is the body of Christ(for the Scripture, saith, "God created man male and female;"(2) the male is Christ, the female the church,) and that the Books(3) and the Apostles teach that the church is not of the present, but from the beginning. For it was spiritual, as was also our Jesus, and was made manifest at the end of the days in order to save us.(4) The church being spiritual, was made manifest in the flesh of Christ, signifying to us that if any one of us shall preserve it in the flesh and corrupt it not, he shall receive it in the Holy Spirit. For this flesh is the type of the spirit; no one, therefore, having corrupted the type, will receive afterwards the antitype. Therefore is it, then, that He saith, brethren, "Preserve ye the flesh, that ye may become partakers of the spirit." If we say that the flesh is the church and the spirit Christ, then it follows that he who shall offer outrage to the flesh is guilty of outrage on the church. Such an one, therefore, will not partake of the spirit, which is Christ. Such is the life and immortality, which this flesh may afterwards receive, the Holy Spirit cleaving to it; and no one can either express or utter what things the Lord hath prepared for His elect.(5)

CHAP. XV.--HE WHO SAVES AND HE WHO

IS SAVED.

I think not that I counted trivial counsel concerning continence; following it, a man will not repent thereof, but will save both himself and me who counselled.(6) For it is no small reward to turn back a wandering and perishing soul for its salvation.(7) For this recompense we are able to render to the God who created us, if he who speaks and hears beth speak and hear with faith and love. Let us, therefore, continue in that course in which we, righteous and holy, believed, that with confidence we may ask God who saith, "Whilst thou art still speaking, I will say, Here I am."(8) For these words are a token of a great promise, for the Lord saith that He is more ready to give than he who asks. So great, then, being the goodness of which we are partakers, let us not grudge one another the attainment of so great blessings. For in proportion to the pleasure with which these words are fraught to those who shall follow them, in that proportion is the condemnation with which they are fraught to those who shall refuse to hear.

CHAP. XVI--PREPARATION FOR THE DAY OF JUDGMENT.

So, then, brethren, having received no small occasion to repent, while we have opportunity, let us turn to God who called us, while yet we have One to receive us. For if we renounce these indulgences and conquer the soul by not fulfilling its wicked desires, we shall be partakers of the mercy of Jesus. Know ye that the day(9) of judgment draweth nigh like a burning oven, and certain of the heavens and all the earth will melt, like lead melting in fire; and then will appear the hidden and manifest deeds of men. Good, then, is alms as repentance from sin; better is fasting than prayer, and alms than both; "charity covereth a multitude of sins,"(10) and prayer out of a good conscience delivereth from death. Blessed is every one that shall be found complete in these; for alms lightens the burden of sin.

CHAP. XVII.--SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED.

Let us, then, repent with our whole heart, that no one of us may perish amiss. For if we have commands and engage in withdrawing from idols and instructing others, how much more ought a soul already knowing God not to perish. Rendering, therefore, mutual help, let us raise the weak also in that which is good, that all of us may be saved and convert one another and admonish. And not only now let us seem to believe and give heed, when we are admonished by the elders;(11) but also when we take our departure home, let us remember the commandments of the Lord, and not be allured back by worldly lusts, but let us often and often draw near and try to make progress in the Lord's commands, that we all having the same mind may be gathered together for life. For the Lord said, "I come to gather all nations [kindreds] and tongues."(12) This means the day of His appearing, when He will come and redeem us--each one according to his works. And the unbelievers will see His glory and might, and, when they see the empire of the world in Jesus, they will be surprise, saying, "Woe to us, because Thou wast, and we knew not and believed not and obeyed not the elders(13) who show us

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plainly of our salvation." And "their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be a spectacle unto all flesh."(1) It is of the great day of judgment He speaks, when they shall see those among us who were guilty of ungodliness and erred in their estimate of the commands of Jesus Christ. The righteous, having succeeded both in enduring the trials and hating the indulgences of the soul, whenever they witness how those who have swerved and denied Jesus by words or deeds are punished with grievous torments in fire unquenchable, will give glory to their God and say, "There will be hope for him who has served God with his whole heart."

CHAP. XVIII.--THE AUTHOR SINFUL, YET

PURSUING.

And let us, then, be of the number of those who give thanks, who have served God, and not of the ungodly who are judged. For I myself, though a sinner every whir and not yet fleeing temptation but continuing in the midst of the tools of the devil, study to follow after righteousness, that I may make, be it only some, approach to it, fearing the judgment to come.

CHAP. XIX.--REWARD OF THE RIGHTEOUS, ALTHOUGH THEY MAY SUFFER.

So then, brothers and sisters,(2) after the God of truth(3) I address to you an appeal that ye may give heed to the words written,(4) that ye may save both yourselves and him who reads an address in your midst. For as a reward I ask of you repentance with the whole heart, while ye bestow upon yourselves salvation and life. For by so doing we shall set a mark for all the young who wish to be diligent in godliness and the goodness of God. And let not us, in our folly, feel displeasure and indignation, whenever any one admonishes us and turns us from unrighteousness to righteousness. For there are some wicked deeds which we commit, and know it not, because of the double-mindedness and unbelief present in our breasts, and our understanding is darkened by vain desires. Let us, therefore, work righteousness, that we may be saved to the end. Blessed are they who obey these commandments, even if for a brief space they suffer in this world, and they will gather the imperishable fruit of the resurrection. Let not the godly man, therefore, grieve; if for the present he suffer affliction, blessed is the time that awaits him there; rising up to life again with the fathers he will rejoice for ever without a grief.

CHAP. XX.--GODLINESS, NOT GAIN, THE

TRUE RICHES.

But let it not even trouble your mind, that we see the unrighteous possessed of riches and the servants of God straitened. Let us, therefore, brothers and sisters, believe; in a trial of the living God we strive and are exercised in the present life, that we may obtain the crown in that which is to come. No one of the righteous received fruit speedily, but waiteth for it. For if God tendered the reward of the righteous in a trice, straightway were it commerce that we practised, and not godliness. For it were as if we were righteous by following after not godliness but gain; and for this reason the divine judgment baffled(5) the spirit that is unrighteous and heavily weighed the fetter.

To the only God, invisible, Father of truth, who sent forth to us the Saviour and Author of immortality, through whom He also manifested to us the truth and the heavenly life, to Him be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

THE APOLOGY

OF

ARISTIDES THE PHILOSOPHER

TRANSLATED FROM THE GREEK AND FROM THE SYRIAC VERSION

IN

PARALLEL COLUMNS.

BY

D. M. KAY, B.Sc., B.D.,

ASSISTANT TO THE PROFESSOR OF SEMITIC LANGUAGES IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH.

THE APOLOGY OF ARISTIDES

BARLAAM AND JOSAPHAT.

Translated from the Greek.

I. I, O King in the providence of God came into the world; and when I had considered the heaven and the earth, the sun and the moon and the rest, I marvelled at their orderly arrangement.

And when I saw that the universe and all that is therein is moved by necessity, I perceived that the mover and controller is God.

For everything which causes motion is stronger than that which is moved, and that which controls is stronger than that which is controlled.

The self-same being, then, who first established and now controls the universe--him do I affirm to be God

who is without beginning and without end,

THE APOLOGY OF

ARISTIDES THE PHILOSOPHER.

Translated from the Syriac.

ARISTIDES.

Here follows the defence which Aristides the philosopher made before Hadrian the King on behalf of reverence for God.

... All-powerful Caesar Titus Hadrianus Antoninus, venerable and merciful, from Marcianus Aristides, an Athenian philosopher.(1)

I. I, O King, by the grace of God came into this world; and when I had considered the heaven and the earth and the seas, and had surveyed the sun and the rest of creation, I marvelled at the beauty of the

world. And I perceived that the world and all that is therein are moved by the power of another; and I understood that he who moves them is God, who

is hidden in them, and veiled by them. And it is manifest that that which causes motion is more powerful than that which is moved. But that I should make search concerning this same mover of all, as to what is his nature (for it seems to me, he is indeed unsearchable in his nature), and that I should argue as to the constancy of his government, so as to grasp it fully,--this is a vain effort for me; for it is not possible that a man should fully comprehend it. I say, however, concerning this mover of the world, that he is God of all, who made all things for the sake of mankind. And it seems to me that this is reasonable, that one should fear God and should not oppress man.

I say, then, that God is not born, not made, an ever-abiding nature without beginning and without

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GREEK.

immortal and self-sufficing, above all passions and infirmities, above

anger and forgetfulness and ignorance and the rest.

Through Him too all things consist. He requires not sacrifice and libation nor any one of the things that appear to sense; but all men stand m need of Him.

II. Having thus spoken concerning God, so far as it was possible for me to speak of Him,(1) let us next proceed to the human race, that we may see which of them participate in the truth and which of them in error.

For it is clear to us, O King,(2) that there are three(3) classes of men in this world; these being the worshippers of the gods acknowledged among you, and Jews, and Christians. Further they who pay homage to many gods are themselves divided into three classes, Chaldaeans namely, and Greeks, and Egyptians; for these have been guides and preceptors to the rest of the nations in the service and worship of these many-titled deities.

SYRIAC.

end, immortal, perfect, and incomprehensible. Now when I say that he is "perfect, this means that there is not in him any defect, and he is not in need of anything but all things are in need of him. And when I say that he is "without beginning," this means that everything which has beginning has also an end, and that which has an end may be brought to an end. He has no name, for everything which has a name is kindred to things created. Form he has none, nor yet any union of members; for whatsoever possesses these is kindred to things fashioned. He is neither male nor female.(4) The heavens do not limit him, but the heavens and all things, visible and invisible, receive their bounds from him. Adversary he has none, for there exists not any stronger than he. Wrath and indignation he possesses not, for there is nothing which is able to stand against him. Ignorance and forgetfulness are not in his nature, for he is altogether wisdom and understanding; and in Him stands fast all that exists. He requires not sacrifice and libation, nor even one of things visible; He requires not aught from any, but all living creatures stand in need of him.

II. Since, then, we have addressed you concerning God, so far as our discourse can bear upon him, let us now come to the race of men, that we may know which of them participate in the truth of which we have spoken, and which of them go astray from it.

This is clear to you, O King, that there are four classes of men in this world:--Barbarians and Greeks, Jews and Christians. The Barbarians, indeed, trace the origin of their kind of religion from Kronos and from Rhea and their other gods; the Greeks, however, from Helenos, who is said to be sprung from Zeus. And by Helenos there were born Aiolos and Xuthos; and there were others descended from Inachos and Phoroneus, and lastly from the Egyptian Danaos and from Kadmos and from Dionysos.

The Jews, again, trace the origin of their race from Abraham, who begat Isaac, of whom was born Jacob. And he begat twelve sons who migrated from Syria to Egypt; and there they were called the nation of the Hebrews, by him who made their laws; and at length they were named Jews.

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GREEK.

III. Let us see then which of them participate in truth and which of them in error.

The Chaldaeans, then, not knowing God went astray after the elements and began to worship the creation more than their Creator. And of these they formed certain shapes and styled them a representation of the heaven and the earth and the sea, of the sun too and the moon and the other primal bodies or luminaries. And they shut them up together in shrines, and worship them, calling them gods, even though they have to guard them securely for fear they should be stolen by robbers. And they did not perceive that anything which acts as guard is greater than that which is guarded, and that he who makes is greater than that which is made. For if their gods are unfit to look after their own safety, how shall they bestow protection upon others? Great

SYRIAC.

The Christians, then, trace the beginning of their religion from Jesus the Messiah; and he is named the Son of God Most High. And it is said that God came down from heaven, and from a Hebrew virgin assumed and clothed himself with flesh; and the Son of God lived in a daughter of man. This is taught in the gospel, as it is called, which a short time was preached among them; and you also if you will read therein, may perceive the power which belongs to it. This Jesus, then, was born of the race of the Hebrews; and he had twelve disciples in order that the purpose of his incarnation(1) might in time be accomplished. But he himself was pierced by the Jews, and he died and was buried; and they say that after three days he rose and ascended to heaven. Thereupon these twelve disciples went forth throughout the known parts of the world, and kept showing his greatness with all modesty and uprightness. And hence also those of the present day who believe that preaching are called Christians, and they are become famous.

So then there are, as I said above, four classes of men:--Barbarians and Greeks, Jews and Christians.

Moreover the wind is obedient to God, and fire to the angels; the waters also to the demons and the earth to the sons of men.(2)

III. Let us begin, then, with the Barbarians, and go on to the rest of the nations one after another, that we may see which of them hold the truth as to God and which of them hold error.

The Barbarians, then, as they did not apprehend God, went astray among the elements, and began to worship things created instead of their Creator;(3) and for this end they made images and shut them up in shrines, and lo! they worship them, guarding them the while with much care, lest their gods be stolen by robbers. And the Barbarians did not observe that that which acts as guard is greater than that which is guarded, and that every one who creates is greater than that which is created. If it be, then, that their gods are too feeble to see to their own safety, how will they take thought for the safety of men? Great then is the error into which the Barbarians wandered in worshipping lifeless images which can do nothing to help them. And I am led to wonder, O King, at their philosophers, how that even they went astray, and gave the name of gods to images which were made in honour of the elements; and that their sages did not perceive that the elements also are dissoluble and perishable. For if a small part of an element is dissolved or destroyed, the whole of it may be dissolved and destroyed. If then the elements themselves are dis-

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then is the error into which the Chaldaeans wandered in adoring lifeless and good-for-nothing images.

And it occurs to me as surprising, O King, how it is that their so-called philosophers have quite failed to observe that the elements themselves are perishable. And if the elements are perishable and subject to necessity, how are they gods? And if the elements are not gods, how do the images made in their honour come to be gods?

IV. Let us proceed then, O King, to the elements themselves that we may show in regard to them that they are not gods, but perishable and mutable, produced out of that which did not exist at the command of the true God, who is indestructible and immutable and invisible; yet He sees all things and as He wills, modifies and changes things. What then shall I say concerning the elements?

They err who believe that the sky is a god. For we see that it revolves and moves by necessity and is compacted of many parts, being thence called the ordered universe (Kosmos). Now the universe is the construction of some designer; and that which has been constructed has a beginning and an end. And the sky with its luminaries moves by necessity. For the stars are carried along in array at fixed intervals from sign to sign, and, some setting, others rising, they traverse their courses in due season so as to mark off summers and winters, as it has been appointed for them by God; and obeying the inevitable necessity of their nature they transgress not their proper limits, keeping company with the heavenly order. Whence it is plain that the sky is not a god but rather a work of God.

They erred also who believed the earth to be a goddess. For we see that it is despitefully used and tyrannized over by men, and is furrowed and kneaded and becomes of no account. For if it be burned with fire, it becomes devoid of life; for nothing will grow from the ashes. Besides if there fall upon it an excess of rain it dissolves away,

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solved and destroyed and forced to be subject to another that is more stubborn than they, and if they are not in their nature gods, why, for sooth, do they call the images which are made in their honour, God? Great, then, is the error which the philosophers among them have brought upon their followers.

IV. Let us turn now, O King, to the elements in themselves, that we may make clear in regard to them, that they are not gods, but a created thing, liable to ruin and change, which is of the same nature as man; whereas God is imperishable and unvarying, and invisible, while yet He sees, and overrules, and transforms all things.

Those then who believe concerning the earth that it is a god have hitherto deceived themselves, since it is furrowed and set with plants and trenched; and it takes in the filthy refuse of men and beasts and cattle. And at times it becomes unfruitful, for if it be burnt to ashes it becomes devoid of life, for nothing germinates from an earthen jar. And besides if water be collected upon it, it is dissolved together with its products. And lo! it is trodden under foot of men and beast, and receives the blood-

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both it and its fruits. Moreover it is trodden under foot of men and the other creatures; it is dyed with the blood of the murdered; it is dug open and filled with dead bodies and becomes a tomb for corpses. In face of all this, it is inadmissible that the earth is a goddess but rather it is a work of God for the use of men.

V. They also erred who believed the water to be a god. For it, too, has been made for the use of men, and is controlled by them; it is defiled and destroyed and suffers change on being boiled and dyed with colours; and it is congealed by the frost, and polluted with blood, and is introduced for the washing of all unclean things. Wherefore it is impossible that water should be a god, but it is a work of God.

They also err who believe that fire is a god. For fire was made for the use of men, and it is controlled by them, being carried about from place to place for boiling and roasting all kinds of meat, and even for (the burning of) dead bodies. Moreover it is extinguished in many ways, being quenched through man's agency. So it cannot be allowed that fire is a god, but it is a work of God.

They also err who think the blowing of the winds is a goddess. For it is clear that it is under the dominion of another; and for the sake of man it has been designed by God for the transport of ships and the conveyance of grain and for man's other wants. It rises too and falls at the bidding of God, whence it is concluded that the blowing of the winds is not a goddess but only a work of God.

VI. They also err who believe the stains

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of the slain; and it is dug open, and filled with the dead, and becomes a tomb for corpses. But it is impossible that a nature, which is holy and worthy and blessed and immortal, should allow of any one of these things. And hence it appears to us that the earth is not a god but a creation of God.

V. In the same way, again, those erred who believed the waters to be gods. For the waters were created for the use of man, and are put under his rule in many ways. For they suffer change and admit impurity, and are destroyed and lose their nature while they are boiled into many substances. And they take colours which do not belong. to them; they are also congealed by frost and are mingled and permeated with the filth of men and beasts, and with the blood of the slain. And being checked by skilled workmen through the restraint of aqueducts, they flow and are diverted against their inclination, and come into gardens and other places in order that they may be collected and issue forth as a means of fertility for man, and that they may cleanse away every impurity and fulfil the service man requires from them. Wherefore it is impossible that the waters should be a god, but they are a work of God and a part of the world.

In like manner also they who believed that fire is a god erred to no slight extent. For it, too, was created for the service of men, and is subject to them in many ways:--in the preparation of meats, and as a means of casting metals, and for other ends whereof your Majesty is aware. At the same time it is quenched and extinguished in many ways.

Again they also erred who believed the motion of the winds to be a god. For it is well known to us that those winds are under the dominion of another, at times their motion increases, and at times it fails and ceases at the command of him who controls them. For they were created by God for the sake of men, in order to supply the necessity of trees and fruits and seeds; and to bring over the sea ships which convey for men necessaries and goods from places where they are found to places where they are not found; and to govern the quarters of the world. And as for itself, at times it increases and again abates; and in one place brings help and in another causes disaster at the bidding of him who rules it. And mankind too are able by known means to confine and keep it in check in order that it may fulfil for them the service they require from it. And of itself it has not any authority at all. And hence it is impossible that the winds should be called gods, but rather a thing made by God.

VI. So also they erred who believed that the sun

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sun to be a god. For we see that it moves by necessity and revolves and passes from sign to sign, setting and rising so as to give warmth to plants and tender shoots for the use of man.

Besides it has its part in common with the rest of the stars, and is much smaller than the sky; it suffers eclipse of its light and is not the subject of its own laws. Wherefore it is concluded that the sun is not a god, but only a work of God. They also err who believe that the moon is a goddess. For we see that it moves by necessity and revolves and passes from sign to sign, setting and rising for the benefit of men; and it is less than the sun and waxes and wanes and has eclipses. Wherefore it is concluded that the moon is not a goddess but a work of God.

VII. They also err who believe that man(1) is a god. For we see that he is moved by necessity, and is made to grow up, and becomes old even though he would not. And at one time he is joyous, at another he is grieved when he lacks food and drink and clothing. And we see that he is subject to anger and jealousy and desire and change of purpose and has many infirmities. He is destroyed too in many ways by means of the elements and animals, and by ever-assailing death. It cannot be admitted, then, that man is a god, but only a work of God.

Great therefore is the error into which the Chaldaeans wandered, following after their own desires.

For they reverence the perishable elements and lifeless images, and do not perceive that they themselves make these things to be gods.

VIII. Let us proceed then to the Greeks, that we may see whether they have any discernment concerning God. The Greeks, indeed, though they call themselves wise proved more deluded than the Chaldaeans in alleging that many gods have come into being, some of them

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is a god. For we see that it is moved by the compulsion of another, and revolves and makes its journey, and proceeds from sign to sign, rising and setting every day, so as to give warmth for the growth of plants and trees, and to bring forth into the air wherewith it (sunlight) is mingled every growing thing which is upon the earth. And to it there belongs by comparison a part in common with the rest of the stars in its course; and though it is one in its nature it is associated with many parts for the supply of the needs of men; and that not according to its own will but rather according to the will of him who rules it. And hence it is impossible that the sun should be a god, but the work of God; and in like manner also the moon and the stars.

VII. And those who believed of the men of the past, that some of them were gods, they too were much mistaken. For as you yourself allow, O King, man is constituted of the four elements and of a soul and a spirit (and hence he is called a microcosm),(2) and without any one of these parts he could not consist. He has a beginning and an end, and he is born and dies. But God, as I said, has none of these things in his nature, but is uncreated and imperishable. And hence it is not possible that we should set up man to be of the nature of God:--man, to whom at times when he looks for joy, there comes trouble, and when he looks for laughter there comes to him weeping,--who is wrathful and covetous and envious, with other defects as well. And he is destroyed in many ways by the elements and also by the animals.

And hence, O King, we are bound to recognize the error of the Barbarians, that thereby, since they did not find traces of the true God, they fell aside from the truth, and went after the desire of their imagination, serving the perishable elements and lifeless images, and through their error not apprehending what the true God is.

VIII. Let us turn further to the Greeks also, that we may know what opinion they hold as to the true God. The Greeks, then, because they are more subtle than the Barbarians, have gone further astray than the Barbarians; inasmuch as they have introduced many fictitious gods, and have set up some of them as males and some as females; and in that some of their gods were found who were adulterers, and did murder, and were deluded, and envious, and wrathful and passionate, and parricides, and thieves, and

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male, some female, practised masters in every passion and every variety of folly. [And the Greeks themselves represented them to be adulterers and murderers, wrathful and envious and passionate, slayers of fathers and brothers, thieves and robbers, crippled and limping, workers in magic, and victims of frenzy. Some of them died (as their account goes), and some were struck by thunderbolts, and became slaves to men, and were fugitives, and they mourned and lamented, and changed themselves into animals for wicked and shameful ends. ](1)

Wherefore, O King, they are ridiculous and absurd and impious tales that the Greeks have introduced, giving the name of gods to those who are not gods, to suit their unholy desires, in order that, having them as patrons of vice, they might commit adultery and robbery and do murder and other shocking deeds. For if their gods did such deeds why should not they also do them?

So that from these misguided practices it has been the lot of mankind to have frequent wars and slaughters and bitter captivities.

IX. But, further, if we be minded to discuss their gods individually, you will see how great is the absurdity; for instance, how Kronos is brought forward by them as a god above all, and they sacrifice their own children to him. And he had many sons by Rhea, and in his madness devoured his own offspring. And they say that Zeus cut off his members and cast them into the sea, whence Aphrodite is said in fable to be engendered. Zeus, then, having bound his own father, cast him

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robbers. And some of them, they say, were crippled and limped, and some were sorcerers, and some actually went mad, and some played on lyres, and some were given to roaming on the hills, and some even died, and some were struck dead by lightning, and some were made servants even to men, and some escaped by flight, and some were kidnapped by men, and some, indeed, were lamented and deplored by men. And some, they say, went down to Sheol, and some were grievously wounded, and some transformed themselves into the likeness of animals to seduce the race of mortal women, and some polluted themselves(2) by lying with males And some, they say, were wedded to their mothers and their sisters and their daughters. And they say of their gods that they committed adultery with the daughters of men; and of these there was born a certain race which also was mortal. And they say that some of the females disputed about beauty, and appeared before men for judgment. Thus, O King, have the Greeks put forward foulness, and absurdity, and folly about their gods and about themselves, in that they have called those that are of such a nature gods, who are no gods. And hence mankind have received incitements to commit adultery and fornication, and to steal and to practise all that is offensive and hated and abhorred. For if they who are called their gods practised all these things which are written above, how much more should men practise them--men, who believe that their gods themselves practised them. And owing to the foulness of this error there have happened to mankind harassing wars, and great famines, and bitter captivity, and complete desolation. And lo! it was by reason of this alone that they suffered and that all these things came upon them;and while they endured those things they did not perceive in their mind that for their error those things came upon them.

IX. Let us proceed further to their account of their gods that we may carefully demonstrate all that is said above. First of all, the Greeks bring forward as a god Kronos, that is to say Chiun(3) (Saturn). And his worshippers sacrifice their children to him, and they burn some of them alive in his honour. And they say that he took to him among his wives Rhea, and begat many children by her. By her too he begat Dios, who is called Zeus. And at length he (Kronos) went mad, and through fear of an oracle that had been made known to him, he began to devour his sons. And from him Zeus was stolen away without his knowledge; and at length Zeus bound him, and mutilated the signs of his manhood, and flung them into the sea. And hence, as they say in fable, there was engendered Aphrodite, who is called Astarte. And he (Zeus) east out Kronos lettered

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into Tartaros. You see the error and brutality which they advance against their god? Is it possible, then, that a god should be manacled and mutilated? What absurdity! Who with any wit would ever say so?

Next Zeus is introduced, and they say that he was king of their gods, and that he changed himself into animals that he might debauch mortal women.

For they allege that he transformed himself into a bull for Europe, and into gold for Danae, and into a swan for Leda, and into a satyr for Antiope, and into a thunderbolt for Semele. Then by these there were many children, Dionysos and Zethus and Amphion and Herakles and Apollo and Artemis and Perseus, Kastor and Helenes and Polydeukes and Minos and Rhadamanthys and Sarpedon, and the nine daughters whom they called the Muses. Then too they bring forward statements about the matter of Ganymedes.

Hence it happened, O King, to mankind to imitate all these things and to become adulterous men and lascivious women, and to be workers of other terrible iniquities, through the imitation of their god. Now how is it possible that a god should be an adulterer or an obscene person or a parricide?

X. Along with him, too, they bring forward one Hephaistos as a god, and they say that he is lame and wields a hammer and tongs, working as a smith for his living.

Is he then badly off? But it cannot be admitted that a god should be a cripple, and besides be dependent on mankind.

Then they bring forward Hermes as a god, representing him to be lust-

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into darkness. Great then is the error and ignominy which the Greeks have brought forward about the first of their gods, in that they have said all this about him, O King. It is impossible that a god should be bound or mutilated; and if it be otherwise, he is indeed miserable.

And after Kronos they bring forward another god Zeus. And they say of him that he assumed the sovereignty, and was king over all the gods. And they say that he changed himself into a beast and other shapes in order to seduce mortal women, and to raise up by them children for himself. Once, they say, he changed himself into a bull through love of Europe and Pasiphae.(1) And again he changed himself into the likeness of gold through love of Danae, and to a swan through love of Leda, and to a man through love of Antiope, and to lightning through love of Luna,(2) and so by these he begat many children. For by Antiope, they say, that he begat Zethus and Amphion, and by Luna Dionysos, by Alcmena Hercules, and by Leto, Apollo and Artemis, and by Danae Perseus, and by Leda, Castor and Polydeuces, and Helene and Paludus,(3) and by Mnemosyne he begat nine daughters whom they styled the Muses, and by Europe, Minos and Rhadamanthos and Sarpedon. And lastly he changed himself into the likeness of an eagle through his passion for Ganydemos (Ganymede) the shepherd.

By reason of these tales, O King, much evil has arisen among men, who to this day are imitators of their gods, and practise adultery and defile themselves with their mothers and their sisters, and by lying with males, and some make bold to slay even their parents. For if he who is said to be the chief and king of their gods do these things how much more should his worshippers imitate him? And great is the folly which the Greeks have brought forward in their narrative concerning him. For it is impossible that a god should practise adultery or fornication or come near to lie with males, or kill his parents; and if it be otherwise, he is much worse than a destructive demon.

X. Again they bring forward as another god Hephaistos. And they say of him, that he is lame, and a cap is set on his head, and he holds in his hands firetongs and a hammer; and he follows the craft of iron working, that thereby he may procure the necessaries of his livelihood. Is then this god so very needy? But it cannot be that a god should be needy or lame, else he is very worthless.

And further they bring in another god and call him Hermes. And they say that he is a thief,(4) a lover of avarice, and greedy for gain, and a magician

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ful, and a thief, and covetous, and a magician (and maimed) and an interpreter of language. But it cannot be admitted that such an one is a god.

They also bring forward Asklepios as a god who is a doctor and prepares drugs and compounds plasters for the sake of a living. For he was badly off. And afterwards he was struck, they say, with a thunderbolt by Zeus on account of Tyndareos, son of Lacedaimon; and so was killed. Now if Asklepios in spite of his divinity could not help himself when struck by lightning, how will he come to the rescue of others?

Again Ares is represented as a god, fond of strife and given to jealousy, and a lover of animals and other such things. And at last while corrupting Aphrodite, he was bound by the youthful Eros and by Hepha-istos. How then was he a god who was subject to desire, and a warrior, and a prisoner and an adulterer?

They allege that Dionysos also is a god who holds nightly revels and teaches drunkenness, and carries off the neighbours' wives, and goes mad and takes to flight. And at last he was put to death by the Titans. If then Dionysos could not save himself when he was being killed, and besides used to be mad, and drunk with wine, and a fugitive, how should he be a god?

They allege also that Herakles got drunk and went mad and cut the throats of his own children, then he was consumed by fire and so died. Now how should he be a god, who was drunk and a slayer of children and burned to death? or how will he come to the help of others, when he was unable to help himself?

XI. They represent Apollo also as a jealous god, and besides as the master of the bow and quiver, and sometimes of the lyre and flute, and as divining to men for pay? Can he then be very badly off? But it cannot be admitted that a god should be in want, and jealous, and a harping minstrel.

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and mutilated and an athlete, and an interpreter of language. But it is impossible that a god should be a magician or avaricious, or maimed, or craving for what is not his, or an athlete.And if it be otherwise, he is found to be useless.

And after him they bring forward as another god Asklepios. And they say that he is a physician and prepares drugs and plaster that he may supply the necessaries of his livelihood. Is then this god in want? And at length he was struck with lightning by Dios on account of Tyndareos of Lacedaemon, and so he died. If then Asklepios were a god, and, when he was struck with lightning, was unable to help himself, how should he be able to give help to others? But that a divine nature should be in want or be destroyed by lightning is impossible.

And again they bring forward another as a god, and they call him Ares. And they say that he is a warrior, and jealous, and covets sheep and things which are not his. And he makes gain by his arms. And they say that at length he committed adultery with Aphrodite, and was caught by the little boy Eros and by Hephaistos the husband of Aphrodite. But it is impossible that a god should be a warrior or bound or an adulterer.

And again they say of Dionysos that he forsooth! is a god, who arranges carousals by night, and teaches drunkenness, and carries off women who do not belong to him. And at length, they say, he went mad and dismissed his handmaidens and fled into the desert; and during his madness he ate serpents. And at last he was killed by Titanos. If then Dionysos were a god, and when he was being killed was unable to help himself, how is it possible that he should help others?

Herakles next they bring forward and say that he is a god, who hates detestable things, a tyrant,(1) and warrior and a destroyer of plagues. And of him also they say that at length he became mad and killed his own children, and east himself into a fire and died. If then Herakles is a god, and in all these calamities was unable to rescue himself, how should others ask help from him? But it is impossible that a god should be mad, or drunken or a slayer of his children, or consumed by fire.

XI. And after him they bring forward another god and call him Apollon. And they say that he is jealous and inconstant, and at times he holds the bow and quiver, and again the lyre and plectron. And he utters oracles for men that he may receive rewards from them. Is then this god in need of rewards? But it is an insult that all these things should be found with a god.

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They represent Artemis also as his sister, who is a huntress and has a bow with a quiver; and she roams alone upon the hills with the dogs to hunt the stag or the wild boar. How then should such a woman, who hunts and roams with her dogs, be a divine being?

Even Aphrodite herself they affirm to be a goddess who is adulterous. For at one time she had Ares as a paramour, and at another time Anchises and again Adonis, whose death she also laments, feeling the want of her lover. And they say that she even went down to Hades to purchase back Adonis from Persephone. Did you ever see, O King, greater folly than this, to bring forward as a goddess one who is adulterous and given to weeping and wailing?

And they represent that Adonis is a hunter god, who came to a violent end, being wounded by a wild boar and having no power to help himself in his distress. How then will one who is adulterous and a hunter and mortal give himself any concern for mankind?

All this and much more of a like nature, and even far more disgraceful and offensive details, have the Greeks narrated, O King, concerning their gods;--details which it is not proper either to state or for a moment to remember. And hence mankind, taking an impulse from their gods, practised all lawlessness and brutality and impiety, polluting both earth and air by their awful deeds.

XII. The Egyptians, again, being

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And after him they bring forward as a goddess Artemis, the sister of Apollo; and they say that she was a huntress and that she herself used to carry a bow and bolts, and to roam about upon the mountains, leading the hounds to hunt stags or wild bears of the field. But it is disgraceful that a virgin maid should roam alone upon the hills or hunt in the chase for animals. Wherefore it is impossible that Artemis should be a goddess.

Again they say of Aphrodite that she indeed is a goddess. And at times she dwells with their gods, but at other times she is a neighbour to men. And once she had Ares as a lover, and again Adonis who is Tammuz. Once also, Aphrodite was wailing and weeping for the death of Tammuz, and they my that she went down to Sheol that she might redeem Adonis from Persephone, who is the daughter of Sheol (Hades). If then Aphrodite is a goddess and was unable to help her lover at his death, how will she find it possible to help others? And this cannot be listened to, that a divine nature should come to weeping and wailing and adultery.

And again they say of Tammuz that he is a god. And he is, forsooth! a hunter and an adulterer. And they say that he was killed by a wound from a wild boar, without being able to help himself. And if he could not help himself, how can he take thought for the human race? But that a god should be an adulterer or a hunter or should die by violence is impossible.

Again they say of Rhea that she is the mother of their gods. And they say that she had once a lover Atys, and that she used to delight in depraved men. And at last she raised a lamentation and mourned for Atys her lover. If then the mother of their gods was unable to help her lover and deliver him from death, how can she help others? So it is disgraceful that a goddess should lament and weep and take delight in depraved men.

Again they introduce Kore and say that she is a goddess, and she was stolen away by Pluto, and could not help herself. If then she is a goddess and was unable to help herself how will she find means to help others? For a god who is stolen away is very powerless.

All this, then, O King, have the Greeks brought forward concerning their gods, and they have invented and declared it concerning them. And hence all men received an impulse to work all profanity and all defilements; and hereby the whole earth was corrupted.

XII. The Egyptians, moreover, because they are

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more stupid and witless than these have gone further astray than all the nations. For they were not content with the objects of worship of the Chaldaeans and the Greeks, but in addition to these brought forward also brute creatures as gods, both land and water animals, and plants and herbs; and they were defiled with all madness and brutality more deeply than all the nations on the earth.

For originally they worshipped Isis, who had Osiris as brother and husband. He was slain by his own brother Typhon; and therefore Isis with Horos her son fled for refuge to Byblus in Syria, mourning for Osiris with bitter lamentation, until Horos grew up and slew Typhon. So that neither had Isis power to help her own brother and husband; nor could Osiris defend himself when he was being slain by Typhon; nor did Ty-phon, the slayer of his brother, when he was perishing at the hands of Horos and Isis, find means to rescue himself from death. And though they were revealed in their true character by such mishaps, they were believed to be very gods by the simple Egyptians, who were not satisfied even with these or the other deities of the nations, but brought forward also brute creatures as gods. For some of them worshipped the sheep, and some the goat; another tribe (worshipped) the bull and the pig; others again, the raven and the hawk, and the vulture and the eagle; and others the crocodile; and some the cat and the dog, and the wolf and the ape, and the dragon and the asp; and others the onion and the garlic and thorns and other created things. And the poor creatures do not perceive about all these that they are utterly helpless. For though they see their gods eaten by men of other tribes, and burnt as offerings and

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more base and stupid than every people that is on the earth, have themselves erred more than all. For the deities (or religion) of the Barbarians and the Greeks did not suffice for them, but they introduced some also of the nature of the animals, and said thereof that they were gods, and likewise of creeping things which are found on the dry land and in the waters. And of plants and herbs they said that some of them were gods. And they were corrupted by every kind of delusion and defilement more than every people that is on the earth. For from ancient times they worshipped Isis, and they say that she is a goddess whose husband was Osiris her brother. And when Osiris was killed by Typhon his brother, Isis fled with Horos her son to Byblus in Syria, and was there for a certain time till her son was grown. And he contended with Typhon his uncle, and killed him. And then Isis returned and went about with Horos her son and sought for the dead body of Osiris her lord, bitterly lamenting his death. If then Isis be a goddess, and could not help Osiris her brother and lord, how can she help another? But it is impossible that a divine nature should be afraid, and flee for safety, or should weep and wail; or else it is very miserable.

And of Osiris also they say that he is a serviceable god. And he was killed by Typhon and was unable to help himself. But it is well known that this cannot be asserted of divinity. And further, they say of his brother Typhon that he is a god, who killed his brother and was killed by his brother's son and by his bride, being unable to help himself. And how, pray, is he a god who does not save himself?

As the Egyptians, then, were more stupid than the rest of the nations, these and such like gods did not suffice for them. Nay, but they even apply the name of gods to animals in which there is no soul at all. For some of them worship the sheep and others the calf; and some the pig and others the shad fish; and some the crocodile and the hawk and the fish and the ibis and the vulture and the eagle and the raven. Some of them worship the cat, and others the turbot-fish, some the dog, some the adder, and some the asp, and others the lion; and others the garlic and onions and thorns, and others the tiger and other such things. And the poor creatures do not see that all these things are nothing, although they daily witness their gods being eaten and consumed by men and also by their fellows; while some of them are cremated,

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slain as victims and mouldering in decay, they have not perceived that they are not gods.

XIII. So the Egyptians and the Chaldaeans and the Greeks made a great error in bringing forward such beings as gods, and in making images of them, and in deifying dumb and senseless idols.

And I wonder how they saw their gods sawn out and hacked and docked by the workmen, and besides aging with time and falling to pieces, and being cast from metal, and yet did not discern concerning them that they were not gods.

For when they have no power to see to their own safety, how will they take forethought for men?

But further, the poets and philosophers, alike of the Chaldaeans and the Greeks and the Egyptians, while they desired by their poems and writings to magnify the gods of their countries, rather revealed their shame, and laid it bare before all men. For if the body of man while consisting of many parts does not cast off any of its own members, but preserving an unbroken unity in all its members, is harmonious with itself, how shall variance and discord be so great in the nature of God?

For if there had been a unity of nature among the gods, then one god ought not to have pursued or slain or injured another. And if the gods were pursued by gods, and slain, and kidnapped and struck with lightning by them, then there is no longer any unity of nature, but

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and some die and decay and become dust, without their observing that they perish in many ways. So the Egyptians have not observed that such things which are not equal to their own deliverance, are not gods. And if, forsooth, they are weak in the case of their own deliverance, whence have they power to help in the case of deliverance of their worshippers? Great then is the error into which the Egyptians wandered;--greater, indeed, than that of any people which is upon the face of the earth.

XIII. But it is a marvel, O King, with regard to the Greeks, who surpass all other peoples in their manner of life and reasoning, how they have gone astray after dead idols and lifeless images. And yet they see their gods in the hands of their artificers being sawn out, and planed and docked, and hacked short, and charred, and ornamented, and being altered by them in every kind of way. And when they grow old, and are worn away through lapse of time, and when they are molten and crushed to powder, how, I wonder, did they not perceive concerning them, that they are not gods? And as for those who did not find deliverance for themselves, how can they serve the distress of men?

But even the writers and philosophers among them have wrongly alleged that the gods are such as are made in honour of God Almighty. And they err in seeking to liken (them) to God whom man has not at any time seen nor can see unto what He is like. Herein, too (they err) in asserting of deity that any such thing as deficiency can be present to it; as when they say that He receives sacrifice and requires burnt-offering and libation and immolations of men, and temples. But God is not in need, and none of these things is necessary to Him; and it is clear that men err in these things they imagine.

Further their writers and their philosophers represent and declare that the nature of all their gods is one. And they have not apprehended God our Lord who while He is one, is in all. They err therefore. For if the body of a man while it is many in its parts is not in dread, one member of another, but, since it is a united body, wholly agrees with itself; even so also God is one in His nature. A single essence is proper to Him, since He is uniform in His nature and His essence; and He is not afraid of Himself. If then the nature of the gods is one, it is not proper that a god should either pursue or slay or harm a god. If then gods be pursued and wounded by gods, and some be kidnapped and some struck dead by lightning, it is obvious that the nature of their gods is not one. And hence it is known, O King, that it is a mistake when they reckon and bring the natures of their gods under a single

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divided counsels, all mischievous. So that not one of them is a god. It is clear then, O King, that all their discourse on the nature of the gods is an error.

But how did the wise and erudite men of the Greeks not observe that inasmuch as they make laws for themselves they are judged by their own laws? For if the laws are righteous, their gods are altogether unrighteous, as they have committed transgressions of laws, in slaying one another, and practising sorceries, and adultery and thefts and intercourse with males. If they were right in doing these things, then the laws are unrighteous, being framed contrary to the gods. Whereas in fact, the laws are good and just, commending what is good and forbidding what is bad. But the deeds of their gods are contrary to law. Their gods, therefore, are lawbreakers, and all liable to the punishment of death; and they are impious men who introduce such gods. For if the stories about them be mythical, the gods are nothing more than mere names; and if the stories be founded on nature, still they who did and suffered these things are no longer gods; and if the stories be allegorical, they are myths and nothing more.

It has been shown then, O King, that all these polytheistic objects of worship are the works of error and perdition. For it is not right to give the name of gods to beings which may be seen but cannot see; but one ought to reverence the invisible and all-seeing and all-creating God.

XIV. Let us proceed then, O King, to the Jews also, that we may see what truth there is in their view of God. For they were descendants of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, and migrated to Egypt. And thence God brought them forth with a mighty hand and an uplifted arm through Moses, their lawgiver; and by many wonders and signs He made known His power to them. But even they

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nature. If then it becomes us to admire a god which is seen and does not see, how much more praiseworthy is it that one should believe in a nature which is invisible and all-seeing? And if further it is fitting that one should approve the handiworks of a craftsman, how much more is it fitting that one should glorify the Creator of the craftsman?

For behold! when the Greeks made laws they did not perceive that by their laws they condemn their gods. For if their laws are righteous, their gods are unrighteous, since they transgressed the law in killing one another, and practising sorcery, and committing adultery, and in robbing and stealing, and in lying with males, and by their other practises as well. For if their gods were right in doing all these things as they are described, then the laws of the Greeks are unrighteous in not being made according to the will of their gods. And in that case the whole world is gone astray.

For the narratives about their gods are some of them myths, and some of them nature-poems (lit: natural--fusikai), and some of them hymns and elegies. The hymns indeed and elegies are empty words and noise. But these nature-poems, even if they be made as they say, still those are not gods who do such things and suffer and endure such things. And those myths are shallow tales with no depth whatever in them.

XIV. Let us come now, O King, to the history of the Jews also, and see what opinion they have as to God. The Jews then say that God is one, the Creator of all, and omnipotent; and that it is not right that any other should be worshipped except this God alone. And herein they appear to approach the truth more than all the nations, especially in that they worship God and not His works. And they imitate God by the philanthropy which prevails among them; for they have compassion on the poor, and they release the captives, and bury the dead, and do such things as these, which are acceptable before God and well-pleasing also to men,--which (customs) they have received from their forefathers.

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proved stubborn and ungrateful, and often served the idols of the nations, and put to death the prophets and just men who were sent to them. Then when the Son of God was pleased to come upon the earth, they received him with wanton violence and betrayed him into the hands of Pilate the Roman governor; and paying no respect to his good deeds and the countless miracles he wrought among them, they demanded a sentence of death by the cross. And they perished by their own transgression; for to this day they worship the one God Almighty, but not according to knowledge. For they deny that Christ is the Son of God; and they are much like to the heathen, even although they may seem to make some approach to the truth from which they have removed themselves. So much for the Jews.

XV. Now the Christians (1) trace their origin from the Lord Jesus Christ. And He is acknowledged by the Holy Spirit to be the son of the most high God, who came down from heaven for the salvation of men. And being born of a pure virgin, unbegotten and immaculate, He assumed flesh and revealed himself among men that He might recall them to Himself from their wander-lug after many gods. And having accomplished His wonderful dispensation, by a voluntary choice He tasted death on the cross, fulfilling an august dispensation. And after three days He came to life again and ascended into heaven. And if you would read, O King, you may judge the glory of His presence from the holy gospel writing, as it is called among themselves. He had twelve disciples, who after His ascension to heaven went forth into the provinces of the whole world, and declared His greatness. As for instance, one of them traversed the countries about us, proclaiming the doctrine of the truth. From this it is, that they who still observe the righteousness enjoined by their preaching are called Christians.

And these are they who more than

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Nevertheless they too erred from true knowledge. And in their imagination they conceive that it is God they serve; whereas by their mode of observance it is to the angels and not to God that their service is rendered:--as when they celebrate sabbaths and the beginning of the months, and feasts of unleavened bread, and a great fast; and fasting and circumcision and the purification of meats, which things, however, they do not observe perfectly.

XV. But the Christians, O King, while they went about and made search,(3) have found the truth; and as we learned from their writings, they have come nearer to truth and genuine knowledge than the rest of the nations. For they know and trust in God, the Creator of heaven and of earth, in whom and from whom are all things, to whom there is no other god as companion, from whom they received commandments which they engraved upon their minds and observe in hope and expectation of the world which is to come. Wherefore they do not commit adultery nor fornication, nor bear false witness, nor embezzle what is held in pledge, nor covet what is not theirs. They honour father and mother, and show kindness to those near to them; and whenever they are judges, they judge uprightly. They do not worship idols (made) in the image of man; and whatsoever they would not that others should do unto them, they do not to others; and of the food which is consecrated to idols they do not eat, for they are pure. And their oppressors they appease (lit: comfort) and make them their friends; they do good to their enemies; and their women, O King, are pure as virgins, and their daughters are modest; and their men keep themselves from every unlawful union and from all uncleanness, in the hope of a recompense to come in the other world. Further, if one or other of them have bondmen and bondwomen or children, through love towards them they persuade them to become Christians, and when they have done so, they call them brethren without distinction. They do not worship strange gods, and they go their way in all modesty and cheerfulness. Falsehood is not found

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all the nations on the earth have found the truth. For they know God, the Creator and Fashioner of all things through the only-begotten Son and the Holy Spirit(1); and beside Him they worship no other God. They have the commands of the Lord Jesus Christ Himself graven upon their hearts; and they observe them, looking forward to the resurrection of the dead and life in the world to come. They do not commit adultery nor fornication, nor bear false witness, nor covet the things of others; they honour father and mother, and love their neighbours; they judge justly, and they never do to others what they would not wish to happen to themselves; they appeal to those who injure them, and try to win them as friends; they are eager to do good to their enemies; they are gentle and easy to be entreated; they abstain from all unlawful conversation and from all impurity; they despise not the widow, nor oppress the orphan; and he that has, gives ungrudgingly for the maintenance of him who has not.

If they see a stranger, they take him under their roof, and rejoice over him as over a very brother; for they call themselves brethren not after the flesh but after the spirit.

And they are ready to sacrifice their lives for the sake of Christ; for they observe His commands without swerving, and live holy and just lives, as the Lord God enjoined upon them.

And they give thanks unto Him every hour, for all meat and drink and other blessings.

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among them; and they love one another, and from widows they do not turn away their esteem; and they deliver the orphan from him who treats him harshly. And he, who has, gives to him who has not, without boasting. And when they see a stranger, they take him in to their homes and rejoice over him as a very brother; for they do not call them brethren after the flesh, but brethren after the spirit and in God. And whenever one of their poor passes from the world, each one of them according to his ability gives heed to him and carefully sees to his burial. And if they hear that one of their number is imprisoned or afflicted on account of the name of their Messiah, all of them anxiously minister to his necessity, and if it is possible to redeem him they set him free. And if there is among them any that is poor and needy, and if they have no spare food, they fast two or three days in order to supply to the needy their lack of food. They observe the precepts of their Messiah with much care, living justly and soberly as the Lord their God commanded them. Every morning(2) and every hour they give thanks and praise to God for His loving-kindnesses toward them; and for their food and their drink they offer thanksgiving to Him. And if any righteous man among them passes from the world, they rejoice and offer thanks to God; and they escort his body as if he were setting out from one place to another near. And when a child has been born to one of them, they give thanks to God;

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XVI. Verily then, this is the way of the truth which leads those who travel therein to the everlasting kingdom promised through Christ in the life to come. And that you may know, O King, that in saying these things I do not speak at my own instance, if you deign to look into the writings of the Christians, you will find that I state nothing beyond the truth. Rightly then, did thy son(1) apprehend, and justly wins he taught to serve the living God and to be saved for the age that is destined to come upon us. For great and wonderful are the sayings and deeds of the Christians; for they speak not the words of men but those of God. But the rest of the nations go astray and

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and if moreover it happen to die in childhood, they give thanks to God the more, as for one who has passed through the world without sins. And further if they see that any one of them dies in his ungodliness or in his sins, for him they grieve bitterly, and sorrow as for one who goes to meet his doom.

XVI. Such, O King, is the commandment of the law of the Christians, and such is their manner of life. As men who know God, they ask from Him petitions which are fitting for Him to grant and for them to receive. And thus they employ their whole lifetime. And since they know the loving-kindnesses of God toward them, behold! for their sake the glorious things which are in the world flow forth to view. And verily, they are those who found the truth when they went about and made search for it; and from what we considered, we learned that they alone come near to a knowledge of the truth. And they do not proclaim in the ears of the multitude the kind deeds they do, but are careful that no one should notice them; and they conceal their giving just as he who finds a treasure and conceals it. And they strive to be righteous as those who expect to behold their Messiah, and to receive from Him with great glory the promises made concerning them. And as for their words and their precepts, O King, and their glorying in their worship, and the hope of earning according to the work of each one of them their recompense which they look for in another world,-you may learn about these from their writings. It is enough for us to have shortly informed your Majesty concerning the conduct and the truth of the Christians. For great indeed, and wonderful is their doctrine to him who will search into it and reflect upon it. And verily, this is a new people, and there is something divine (lit: a divine admixture) in the midst of them.

Take, then, their writings, and read therein, and lo! you will find that I have not put forth these things on my own authority, nor spoken thus as their advocate; but since I read in their writings I was fully assured of these things as also of things which are to come. And for this reason I was constrained to declare the truth to such as care for it

and seek the world to come. And to me there is no doubt but that the earth abides through the supplication of the Christians. But the rest of the nations err and cause error in wallowing before the elements of the world, since beyond these their mental vision will not pass. And they search about as if in darkness because they will not recognize the truth; and like drunken men they reel and jostle one another and fall.

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deceive themselves; for they walk in darkness and bruise themselves like drunken men.

XVII. Thus far, O King, extends my discourse to you, which has been dictated in my mind by the Truth.(2) Wherefore let thy foolish sages cease their idle talk against the Lord; for it is profitable for you to worship God the Creator, and to give ear to His incorruptible words, that ye may escape from condemnation and punishment, and be found to be heirs of life everlasting.

XVII. Thus far, O King, I have spoken; for concerning that which remains, as is said above,(1) there are found in their other writings things which are hard to utter and difficult for one to narrate,--which are not only spoken in words but also wrought out in deeds.

Now the Greeks, O King, as they follow base practises in intercourse with males, and a mother and a sister and a daughter, impute their monstrous impurity in turn to the Christians. But the Christians are just and good, and the truth is set before their eyes, and their spirit is long-suffering; and, therefore, though they know the error of these (the Greeks), and are persecuted by them, they bear and endure it; and for the most part they have compassion on them, as men who are destitute of knowledge. And on their side, they offer prayer that these may repent of their error; and when it happens that one of them has repented, he is ashamed before the Christians of the works which were done by him; and he makes confession to God, saying, I did these things in ignorance. And he purifies his heart, and his sins are forgiven him, because he committed them in ignorance in the former time, when he used to blaspheme and speak evil of the true knowledge of the Christians. And assuredly the race of the Christians is more blessed than all the men who are upon the face of the earth.

Henceforth let the tongues of those who utter vanity and harass the Christians be silent; and hereafter let them speak the truth. For it is of serious consequence to them that they should worship the true God rather than worship a senseless sound. And verily whatever is spoken in the mouth of the Christians is of God; and their doctrine is the gateway of light. Wherefore let all who are without the knowledge of God draw near thereto; and they will receive incorruptible words, which are from all time and from eternity. So shall they appear before the awful judgment which through Jesus the Messiah is destined to come upon the whole human race.

The Apology of Aristides the Philosopher is finished.

THE PASSION OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS

BY

ANDREW RUTHERFURD, B.D.

TRANSLATION BY PROF. J. A. ROBINSON. INTRODUCTION BY A. R.

THE PASSION OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS

WHEN Praesens, for the second time, and Claudianus were the consuls, on the seventeenth day of July, at Carthage, there were set in the judgment-hall Speratus, Nartzalus, Cittinus, Donata, Secunda and Vestia.

Saturninus the proconsul said: Ye can win the indulgence of our lord the Emperor, if ye return to a sound mind.

Speratus said: We have never done ill, we have not lent ourselves to wrong, we have never spoken ill, but when ill-treated we have given thanks; because we pay heed to OUR EMPEROR,

Saturninus the proconsul said: We too are religious, and our religion is simple, and we swear by the genius of our lord the Emperor, and pray for his welfare, as ye also ought to do.

Speratus said: If thou wilt peaceably lend me thine ears, I can tell thee the mystery of simplicity.

Saturninus said: I will not lend mine ears to thee, when thou beginnest to speak evil things of our sacred rites; but rather swear thou by the genius of our lord the Emperor.

Speratus said: The empire of this world I know not; but rather I serve that God, whom no man hath seen, nor with these eyes can see.(1) I have committed no theft; but if I have bought anything I pay the tax; because I know my Lord, the King of kings and Emperor of all nations.

Saturninus the proconsul said to the rest: Cease to be of this persuasion.

Speratus said: It is an ill persuasion to do murder, to speak false witness.

Saturninus the proconsul said: Be not partakers of this folly.

Cittinus said: We have none other to fear, save only our Lord God, who is in heaven.

Donata said: Honour to Caesar as Caesar: but fear to God.(2)

Vestia said: I am a Christian.

Secunda said: What I am, that I wish to be.

Saturninus the proconsul said to Speratus: Dost thou persist m being a Christian?

Speratus said: I am a Christian. And with him they all agreed.

Saturninus the proconsul said: Will ye have a space to consider?

Speratus said: In a matter so straightforward there is no considering.

Saturninus the proconsul said: What are the things in your chest?

Speratus said: Books and epistles of Paul, a just man.

Saturninus the proconsul said: Have a delay of thirty days and bethink yourselves.

Speratus said a second time: I am a Christian. And with him they all agreed.

Saturninus the proconsul read out the decree from the tablet: Speratus, Nartzalus, Cittinus, Donata, Vestia, Secunda and the rest having confessed that they live according to the Christian rite, since after opportunity offered them of returning to the custom of the Romans they have obstinately persisted, it is determined that they be put to the sword.

Speratus said: We give thanks to God.

Nartzalus said: To-day we are martyrs in heaven; thanks be to God.

Saturninus the proconsul ordered it to be declared by the herald: Speratus, Nartzalus, Cittinus, Veturius, Felix, Aquilinus, Laetantius, Januaria, Generosa, Vestia, Donata and Secunda, I have ordered to be executed.

They all said: Thanks be to God.

And so they all together were crowned with martyrdom; and they reign with the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever. Amen.

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COMMENTARIES OF ORIGEN

INTRODUCTION

For a general account of Origen and of his works we may refer to Dr. Crombie's Life of Origen, in vol. iv. of this series (xxiii. in Clark's issue). The principal facts of his career are as follows: He was born of Christian parents at Alexandria about the year 185 A.D., and from his earliest youth devoted himself to the study of Scripture in such a way as to suggest that he was destined for a great career. His father suffered martyrdom in the year 202, and Origen very soon afterwards succeeded the great Clement as head of the school at Alexandria. Thirteen years after, the persecution of Caracalla drove him from his own country to Caesarea, where though still a layman he preached at church meetings. Recalled to Alexandria, he laboured there for fifteen years further as teacher and author, till in the year 231 his ordination at Caesarea to the office of presbyter drew upon him the condemnation of the bishop of Alexandria and became the occasion of his permanent withdrawal from the place of his birth. At Caesarea he now formed a new school of Christian training similar to that from which he had been driven. At this time, as well as in the earlier period of his life, he made various journeys to different parts of the world. His death was brought about by sufferings inflicted on him in the persecution of Decius, and took place at Tyre, probably in the year 254.

Part of the Commentary on John, the first great work of Christian interpretation, and part of that on Matthew, written by the father at a later period of his life, are here presented to the reader; and a few words of introduction may be added on Origen's work as an expositor and on these two works in particular.

Though Origen was the first great interpreter of Scripture in the Church, commentaries had been written before his. He speaks of those who had preceded him in this activity; and though but little survives of the labours of these earlier expositors, we know that the work of commenting on Scripture was zealously carried on in the Gnostic churches in the latter part of the second century, and several of the older exegetes in the Church are also known to us by name and reputation. Heracleon the Gnostic commentator on John, who is often cited and often rather unfairly dealt with by Origen, as he follows him over the same ground, belonged to the Valentinian school. Many of his comments the reader will find to be very just and shrewd; but the tenets of his school led him into many extravagances. Of Pantaenus, head of the catechetical school at Alexandria in the end of the second and early years of the third century, we hear that he interpreted many of the books of Scripture. We also learn that he preceded Clement and Origen, his successors in office, in the application of Gentile learning to Christian studies; the broad and liberal tone of Alexandrian theology may be due in part to his influence. Much of his exegetical work was still extant in the days of Jerome, who, however, reports that he did more for the Church as a teacher than as a writer. Only fragments of his Commentaries now remain. In Clement's works, on the contrary, we find, if not any set commentaries, various extended discussions of particular texts. We also find in him a theory of Scripture, its inspiration and its nature, which is followed also by Origen, and which determines the whole character of Alexandrian exegesis. In accordance with the general tendency of that age, which witnessed a reaction from the independence of philosophy and an appeal in many quarters to the authority of ancient oracles and writings, the Alexandrian school treats Scripture as an inspired and infallible storehouse of truth,--of truth, however, not patent to the simple reader, but requiring the spiritual man to discern its mystic import. Clement discusses the question why divine things are

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wrapped up in mysteries, and holds that all who have spoken of such things have dealt with them in this way. Everything in Scripture, therefore, has a mystical in addition to its obvious meaning. Every minute particular about the tabernacle and its furniture is charged with all unseen truth. The effect of such a view of Scripture on exegesis is necessarily that the interpreter finds ill the inspired words not what they plainly convey, but what most interests his own mind. In assigning to each verse its spiritual meaning, he is neither guided nor restrained by any rule or system, but enjoys complete liberty. The natural good sense of these great scholars curbed to some extent the licence of their theory; but with such a view of Scripture they could not but run into many an extravagance; and the allegorical method of interpretation, which so long prevailed in Christendom and is still practised in some quarters, dates from Alexandria. The roots of it lie further back, in Jewish rabbinical treatment of the Old Testament, and in the Greek philosophy of Alexandria. In Philo, the great contemporary of Christ at Alexandria, rabbinical and Greek learning met, and Scripture being a divine authority and having to furnish evidence of Greek philosophical doctrines, the allegorical method of interpretation was called to perform large services. To Philo's eyes all wisdom was contained in the Pentateuch, and many an idea of which Moses never dreamed had to be extracted from that ancient record. The method was older than Clement and Origen, but it was through them that it became so firmly established ill the Church.

In Origen we first find a great teacher who deliberately sets himself to the task of explaining Scripture. He became, at the early age of eighteen, the head of the catechetical school at Alexandria, all institution which not only trained catechumens but provided open lectures, on every part of Christian learning, and from that time to his death, at the age of sixty-nine, he was constantly engaged in the work of public exposition. At Alexandria his expositions took place in the school, but at Caesarea they formed part of the church services, so that the reports of those belonging to the Caesarean period provide us with the earliest examples we possess of the discourse at Christian meetings. In an activity which he practised so much Origen acquired extraordinary skill and facility, and gained the highest reputation, even beyond the limits of the Church. It is no wonder, therefore, if he succeeded in treating nearly the whole Bible in this way, a thing which might no doubt be said of many a Christian teacher since his day; for he was not one who was apt to repeat himself, but was constantly pressing on to break new ground.

But the reported homilies form only a part--and that not the most important part--of his exegetical works. What he gave in his homilies was necessarily designed for edification; it had to be plain enough to be understood by a mixed audience, and serviceable to their needs. Origen believed, however, that there was very much in Scripture that lay beyond the capacity of the ordinary mind, and that the highest way of treating Scripture was not that of practical application, but that of searching after its hidden sense. In the fourth book of his De Principiis (vol. iv., American Ed.) he sets forth his views about the Scriptures. "As man," he there says, "consists of body, soul, and spirit, so in the same way does Scripture, which has been arranged to be given by God for the salvation of man." Scripture, therefore, has three senses, the bodily (somatic) or the obvious matter-of-fact sense, the psychical or moral sense, which serves for edification of the pious, and, highest of all, the spiritual sense. For this latter sense of Scripture Origen has many names,--as many as forty have been counted,--he calls it the heavenly sense, the intellectual, the anagogical, the mystic, the hidden. This is what chiefly engages his interest in the work of expounding. Scripture is to him full of mysteries, every jot and tittle has its secret, and to read these heavenly mysteries is the highest object of the interpreter. In addition, therefore, to his oral expositions (omiliai) and the short notes (shmeiwseis)which are generally reckoned as a third class of his exegetical works, we have the written commentaries, books, or tomoi of Origen, in which he discusses Scripture without being hampered by the requirements of edification, according to the method which alone he recognizes as adequate. He was enabled to devote himself to this labour by the generosity of a rich friend, Ambrosius, who urged him to undertake it, and provided funds for the payment of shorthand writers and copyists. We are told that seven of the former were at one time placed at his disposal. The work which he was thus led to undertake Origen felt to be very responsible and burdensome; it was not to be approached without fervent prayer, and he sometimes complains that it is too much for him, and that it is only the urgent commands of Ambrosius that make him go on with it. (See the opening chapters of the various books on John.)

What has been said will to some extent explain the nature of these commentaries, parts

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of which are now for the first time presented to the English reader. There is a side of them, however, of which we have not yet spoken. Origen was a great scholar as well as a great theologian; and he thought it right, as the reader may see from the letter to Gregory also here given, that scholarship should contribute all it could to the study of Scripture. Of his multifarious knowledge and of his easy command of all the science and philosophy of his day, the reader may judge for himself even from what is now presented to him. His work on the words of Scripture has a value quite independently of his theological views. Some of the most important qualifications of the worthy interpreter of Scripture he possesses in a supreme degree. His knowledge of Scripture is extraordinary both for its range and its minute accuracy. He had no concordance to help him; but he was himself a concordance. Whatever word occurs he is able to bring from every part of Scripture the passages in which it is used. He quotes passages, it is true, which are only verbally connected with the text before him and have no affinity of idea; the wealth of illustration he has at his command does not always assist, but sometimes, as the reader will see, impedes his progress: yet the wonder is not diminished of such a knowledge of all parts of the Bible as is probably without parallel. It has to be added that he is strong in grammar, and has a true eye for the real meaning of his text; the discussions in which he does this often leave nothing to be desired. In defining his terms he often goes far astray; he has to define them according to the science of his day; but he is not guilty of loose construction of sentences. Another matter in which he is distinguished is that of textual criticism. He is the first great textual critic of the Church. That his name occurs more frequently than that of any other father in the digests of early readings of the text of the New Testament, is due no doubt to the fact that he is the earliest writer of commentaries which have been preserved; his commentaries contain complete texts of the portions of Scripture commented on, as well as copious quotations from other parts of Scripture. But he was keenly interested in the text of the New Testament for its own sake. He tells us that many variations already existed in his day in different copies. And he preserves many readings which afterwards disappeared from the Bible. It has also to be said that he often quotes the same text differently in different passages, so that it appears probable that he used several copies of the N. T. books, and that these copies differed from each other. If, therefore, as Tischendorf suggests, Origen made a collation of the various texts of the N. T. with which he was acquainted, as he did with his texts of the O.T. in his Hexapla, he had no strong views as to which text was to be followed. He sometimes expresses an opinion as to which is the true reading (pp. 368 sq.), but he does so on grounds which the textual critics of the present day could not approve.

It may be stated here that the translators of Origen in this volume have sought to represent their author's critical position with regard to Scripture by translating his Scripture quotations from his text. As he used the Septuagint version of the Old Testament, many of his quotations from that part of Scripture appear in a form unfamiliar to the English reader. In the New Testament, also, his text is also very different from that which afterwards prevailed in the Church.

The weakness of Origen as an interpreter is his want of historical feeling or of any conception of such a thing as growth or development in revelation. His mind slips incessantly away from the real scenes and events recorded in Scripture, to the ideal region where he conceives that the truths reside which these prefigure. Scripture is to him not a record of actual occurrences which took place as they are narrated, but a storehouse of types of heavenly things, which alone are real. He scoffs at the notion that historical facts should be regarded as the chief outcome of a Scripture narrative (John, book x. 15-17, pp. 389-394). When he does treat the facts as facts he has many a shrewd observation and many a beautiful application. But the facts are to a large extent in his way; they have to give place to something more important. He sees very well how the synoptic narratives clash with that of John; no better demonstration of this need be looked for than he gives in the tenth book of his John; from this, however. he infers not that the books must have had different sources of information, but that the literal meaning of the passages must be altogether disregarded, and their true purport looked for, not in the things of history, but in the things of the Spirit. The water-pots at the feast in Cans (De Principiis), the shoe latchet of the Saviour (John, book vi. x17), the ass and foal (John, book x. 18), each must receive a transcendent application.

It follows from this that the commentaries are deficient in order and sequence. The method which calls the writer to look at every step for spiritual meanings, combined with his own extraordinary fertility of imagination and wealth of matter, makes these books very disconnected. At each point a number of questions suggests itself as to possible mean-

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ings; a host of texts is brought at once from every part of Scripture to afford illustration, and these again have to be considered. Very modestly are the questions and themes introduced. The tone is as far as possible from being ex cathedra; it is rather that of a student groping his way, and asking at each step for assistance. And the great mass of the questions thus raised is left, apparently, unanswered. So that the work as a whole is rather a great collection of materials for future consideration than a finished treatise.

Such being the characteristics of Origen's commentaries, they have by many been regarded as unsuitable for the general reader, and unfavourably compared with those of later writers, to whom the interpretation of Scripture was not weighted with such difficulties as Origen had to contend with. Our author does not carry us along in his commentaries with a stream of golden eloquence; his interests are intellectual more than literary or practical, his work is scientific rather than popular. Perhaps the historical student has more to gain from them than the preacher. But among the pages which witness chiefly to restless intellectual energy and unwearied diligence, there are also many passages of rare and touching beauty, when the writer realizes the greatness of the Christian salvation, or when the heavenly things to the search for which all his labour is devoted shine by their own brightness on his sight.

The Commentaries on John are the earliest work of Christian exegesis which has come down to us, and are therefore placed in this volume before those on Matthew. The first five books on John were written at Alexandria before Origen's compulsory withdrawal from that city to Caesarea in 231. In chaps. 4 and 8 of the first book he speaks of this work as being the first fruits of his activity as a writer on Holy Scripture. The sixth book, as he tells us in vi.(1), had been begun at Alexandria, but the manuscript had been left behind, so that a new beginning had to be made at Caesarea. The work was again interrupted by the persecution of Maximian in 238; the volumes from the twenty-second to the last were written after that date. At the end of the thirty-second volume, which is the last we now possess, the writer has only reached John xiii. 33, but he tells us in his Commentary on Matthew that he has spoken of the two thieves in his work on John. In the time of Eusebius only twenty-two books survived out of the whole number, which seems to have been thirty-nine. We now possess books i., it., vi., x., xiii., xix., xx., xxviii., xxxii., some of which, however, are not complete, and a few fragments. The thirteenth book begins in the middle of the story of the Samaritan woman. Ambrosius had wished that story to be completed in the twelfth book, but Origen did not like to make his books too long, and on this point disregarded the authority of his mentor. The nineteenth and twentieth books are both occupied with the eighth chapter of John, which, if it was all treated on the same scale, must have occupied two more books in addition to these. The thirty-second book scarcely completes the thirteenth chapter of the Gospel; and if the remaining chapters only occupied seven books, the treatment of these must have been much more condensed.

Two Latin translations of Origen's John were made in the sixteenth century, one by Ambrosius Ferrarius of Milan from the Venice Codex, the other by Joachim Perionius.

The Commentaries on John and on Matthew are both embraced in several manuscripts. Of those on John, Mr. A. E. Brooke (Texts and Studies, vol. i. No. 4; The Fragments of Heracleon, pp. 1-30; "the MSS. of Origen's Commentaries on S. John ") enumerates eight or nine. The Munich MS. of the thirteenth century is the source of all the rest. Huet, the first editor (1668), used the Codex Regius (Paris) of the sixteenth century, which is in many passages mutilated and disfigured. The brothers Delarue (1733--1759) used the MSS. Barberinus and Bodleianus, which are more complete, and Lommatzsch (1831) follows his predecessors. The present translations are from the text of Lommatzsch, which is in many places very defective.(1)

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LETTER OF ORIGEN TO GREGORY.

When and to whom the Learning derived from Philosophy may be of Service for the Exposition of the Holy Scriptures; with a lively Personal Appeal.

This letter to Gregory, afterwards bishop of Caesarea, and called Thaumaturgus, was preserved in the Philocalia, or collection of extracts from Origen's works drawn up by Gregory of Nyssa and Basil of Caesarea. It is printed by Delarue and Lommatzsch in the forefront of their editions of the works. It forms a good preface to the commentaries, as it shows how Origen considered the study of Scripture to be the highest of all studies, and how he regarded scientific learning, in which he was himself a master, as merely preparatory for this supreme learning. Draseke(1) has shown that it was written about 235, when Origen, after having had Gregory as his pupil at Caesarea for some years, had fled before the persecution under Maximinus Thrax to Cappadocia; while Gregory, to judge from the tenor of this Epistle, had gone to Egypt. The Panegyric on Origen,(2) pronounced by Gregory at Caesarea about 239, when the school had reassembled there after the persecution, shows that the master's solicitude for his pupil's true advancement was not disappointed.

I. GREGORY IS URGED TO APPLY HIS GENTILE LEARNING TO THE STUDY OF SCRIPTURE.

All hail to thee in God, most excellent and reverend Sir, son Gregory, from Origen. A natural quickness of understanding is fitted, as you are well aware, if it be diligently exercised, to produce a work which may bring its owner so far as is possible, if I may so express myself, to the consummation of the art the which he desires to practise, and your natural aptitude is sufficient to make you a consummate Roman lawyer and a Greek philosopher too of the most famous schools. But my desire for you has been that you should direct the whole force of your intelligence to Christianity as your end, and that in the way of production. And I would wish that you should take with you on the one hand those parts of the philosophy of the Greeks which are fit, as it were, to serve as general or preparatory studies for Christianity, and on the other hand so much of Geometry and Astronomy as may be helpful for the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures. The children of the philosophers speak of geometry and music and grammar and rhetoric and astronomy as being ancillary to philosophy; and in the same way we might speak of philosophy itself as being ancillary to Christianity.

2. THIS PROCEDURE IS TYPIFIED BY THE STORY OF THE SPOILING OF THE EGYPTIANS.

It is something of this sort perhaps that is enigmatically indicated in the directions God is represented in the Book of Exodus(3) as giving to the children of lsrael. They are directed to beg from their neighbours and from those dwelling in their tents vessels of silver and of gold, and raiment; thus they are to spoil the Egyptians, and to obtain materials for making the things they are told to provide in connection with the worship of God. For out of the things of which the children of lsrael spoiled the Egyptians the furniture of the Holy of Holies was made, the ark with its cover, and the cherubim and the mercy-seat and the gold jar in which the manna, that bread of angels, was stored. These probably were made from the finest of the gold of the Egyptians, and from a second quality, perhaps, the solid golden candlestick which stood near the inner veil, and the lamps on it, and the golden table on which stood the shewbread, and between these two the golden altar of incense. And if there was gold of a third and of a fourth quality, the sacred vessels were made of it. And of the Egyptian silver, too, other things were made; for it was from their sojourn in Egypt that the children of lsrael derived the great advantage of being supplied with such a quantity of precious materials for the use of the service of God. Out of the Egyptian raiment probably were made all those requisites named in Scripture in embroidered work; the embroiderers working(1) with the wisdom of God,(2) such garments for such purposes, to produce the hangings and the inner and outer courts. This is not a suitable opportunity to enlarge on such a theme or to show in how many ways the children of Israel found those things useful which they got from the Egyptians. The Egyptians had not made a proper use of them; but the Hebrews used them, for the wisdom of God was with them, for religious purposes. Holy Scripture knows, however, that it was an evil thing to descend from the land of the children of lsrael into Egypt; and in this a great truth is wrapped up. For some it is of evil that they should dwell

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with the Egyptians, that is to say, with the learning of the world, after they have been enrolled in the law of God and in the Israelite worship of Him. Ader the Edomite, (1) as long as he was in the land of Israel and did not taste the bread of the Egyptians, made no idols; but when he fled from the wise Solomon and went down into Egypt, as one who had fled from the wisdom of God he became connected with Pharaoh, marrying the sister of his wife, and begetting a son who was brought up among the sons of Pharaoh. Therefore, though he did go back to the land of Israel, he came back to it to bring division into the people of God, and to cause them to say to the golden calf, "These are thy gods, 0 Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt." I have learned by experience and can tell you that there are few who have taken of the useful things of Egypt and come out of it, and have then prepared what is required for the service of God; but Ader the Edomite on the other hand has many a brother. I mean those who, founding on some piece of Greek learning, have brought forth heretical ideas, and have as it were made golden calves in Bethel, which is, being interpreted, the house of God. This appears to me to be intended to convey that such persons set up their own images in the Scriptures in which the Word of God dwells, and which therefore are tropically called Bethel. The other image is said in the word to have been set up in Dan. Now the borders of Dan are at the extremities and are contiguous to the country of the heathens, as is plainly recorded in the Book of Jesus, son of Nave. Some of these images, then, are close to the borders of the heathen, which the brothers, as we showed, of Ader have devised.

3. PERSONAL APPEAL.

Do you then, sir, my son, study first of all the divine Scriptures. Study them I say. For we require to study the divine writings deeply, lest we should speak of them faster than we think; and while you study these divine works with a believing and God-pleasing intention, knock at that which is closed in them, and it shall be opened to thee by the porter, of whom Jesus says,(1) "To him the porter openeth." While you attend to this divine reading seek aright and with unwavering faith in God the hidden sense which is present in most passages of the divine Scriptures. And do not be content with knocking and seeking, for what is most necessary for understanding divine things is prayer, and in urging us to this the Saviour says not only,(2) "Knock, and it shall be opened to you," and "Seek, and ye shall find," but also "Ask, and it shall be given you." So much I have ventured on account of my fatherly love to you. Whether I have ventured well or not, God knows, and His Christ, and he who has part of the Spirit of God and the Spirit of Christ. May you partake in these; may you have an always increasing share of them, so that you may be able to say not only, "We are partakers of Christ,"(3) but also "We are partakers of God."

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ORIGEN'S COMMENTARY ON THE GOSPEL OF JOHN

BOOK 1

I.HOW CHRISTIANS ARE THE SPIRITUAL ISRAEL.

That people which was called of old the people of God was divided into twelve tribes, and over and above the other tribes it had the levitical order, which itself again carried on the service of God in various priestly and levitical suborders. In the same manner, it appears to me that the whole people of Christ, when we regard it in the aspect of the hidden man of the heart,(1) that people which is called "Jew inwardly," and is circumcised in the spirit, has in a more mystic way the characteristics of the tribes. This may be more plainly gathered from John in his Apocalypse, though the other prophets also do not by any means conceal the state of matters from those who have the faculty of hearing them. John speaks as follows:(2) "And I saw another angel ascending from the sunrising, having the seal of the living God, and he cried with a loud voice to the four angels to whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea, saying, Hurt not either the earth, or the sea, or the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God on their foreheads. And I heard the number of them that were sealed, a hundred and forty-four thousand who were sealed, out of every tribe of the children of lsrael; of the tribe of Juda were sealed twelve thousand, of the tribe of Roubem twelve thousand." And he mentioned each of the tribes singly, with the exception of Dan. Then, some way further on,(3) he continues: "And I saw, and behold the Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with Him a hundred and forty-four thousand, having His name and the name of His Father written on their foreheads. And I heard a voice from heaven as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of a great thunder. And the voice which I heard was as the voice of harpers harping with their harps; and they sing a new song before the throne and before the four beasts and the elders, and no one could learn the song but the hundred and forty-four thousand who had been purchased from the earth. These are they which were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are they who follow the Lamb whithersover He goeth. These were purchased from among men, a first fruits to God and to the Lamb; and in their mouth was found no lie, for they are without blemish." Now this is said in John with reference to those who have believed in Christ, for they also, even if their bodily descent cannot be traced to the seed of the Patriarchs, are yet gathered out of the tribes. That this is so we may conclude from what is further said about them: "Hurt not," he says, "the earth, nor the sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God on their foreheads. And I heard the number of them that were sealed, a hundred and forty-four thousand, sealed from every tribe of the children of Israel."

2. THE 144,000 SEALED IN THE APOCALYPSE ARE CONVERTS TO CHRIST FROM THE GENTILE WORLD.

These, then, who are sealed on their foreheads(1) from every tribe of the children of Israel, are a hundred and forty-four thousand in number; and these hundred and forty-four thousand are afterwards said in John to have the name of the Lamb and of His Father written on their foreheads, and to be virgins, not having defiled themselves with women. What else could the seal be which is on their foreheads but the name of the Lamb and the name of His Father? In both passages their foreheads are said to have the seal; In one the seal is spoken of, in the other it appears to contain the letters forming the

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name of the Lamb, and the name of His Father. Now these taken from the tribes are, as we showed before, the same persons as the virgins. But the number of believers is small who belong to Israel according to the flesh; one might venture to assert that they would not nearly make up the number of a hundred and forty-four thousand. It is clear, therefore, that the hundred and forty-four thousand who have not defiled themselves with women must be made up of those who have come to the divine word out of the Gentile world. In this way the truth of the statement may be upheld that the first fruits of each tribe are its virgins. For the passage goes on: "These were brought from among men to be a first fruits to God and to the Lamb; and in their mouth was found no guile, for they are without blemish." The statement about the hundred and forty-four thousand no doubt admits of mystical interpretation; But it is unnecessary at this point, and would divert us from our purpose, to compare with it those passages of the prophets in which the same lesson is taught regarding those who are called from among the Gentiles.

3. IN THE SPIRITUAL ISRAEL THE HIGH-PRIESTS ARE THOSE WHO DEVOTE THEMSELVES TO THE STUDY OF SCRIPTURE.

But what is the bearing of all this for us? So you will ask when you read these words, Ambrosius, thou who art truly a man of God, a mall in Christ. and who seekest to be not a man only, but a spiritual man.(1) The bearing is this. Those of the tribes offer to God, through the levites and priests, tithes and first fruits; not everything which they possess do they regard as tithe or first fruit. The levites and priests, on the other hand, have no possessions but tithes and first fruits; yet they also in turn offer tithes to God through the high-priests, and, I believe, first fruits too. The same is the case with those who approach Christian studies. Most of us devote most of our time to the things of this life, and dedicate to God only a few special acts, thus resembling those members of the tribes who had but few transactions with the priest, and discharged their religious duties with no great expense of time. But those who devote themselves to the divine word and have no other employment but the service of God may not unnaturally, allowing for the difference of occupation in the two cases, be called our levites and priests. And those who fulfil a more distinguished office than their kinsmen(1) will perhaps be high-priests, according to the order of Aaron, not that of Melchisedek. Here some one may object that it is somewhat too bold to apply the name of high-priests to men, when Jesus Himself is spoken of in many a prophetic passage as the one great priest, as(2) "We have a great high-priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God." But to this we reply that the Apostle clearly defined his meaning, and declared the prophet to have said about the Christ, "Thou(3) art a priest for ever, according to the order of Melchisedek," and not according to the order of Aaron. We say accordingly that men can be high-priests according to the order of Aaron, but according to the order of Melchisedek only the Christ of God.

4. THE STUDY OF THE GOSPELS IS THE FIRST FRUITS OFFERED BY THESE PRIESTS OF CHRISTIANITY.

Now our whole activity is devoted to God, and our whole life, since we are bent on progress in divine things. If, then, it be our desire to have the whole of those first fruits spoken of above which are made up of the many first fruits, if we are not mistaken in this view, in what must our first fruits consist, after the bodily separation we have undergone from each other, but in the study of the Gospel? For we may venture to say that the Gospel is the first fruits of all the Scriptures. Where, then, could be the first fruits of our activity, since the time when we came to Alexandria, but in the first fruits of the Scriptures? It must not he forgotten, however, that the first fruits are not the same as the first growth. For the first fruits(4) are offered after all the fruits (are ripe), but the first growth(5) before them all. Now of the Scriptures which are current and are believed to be divine in all the churches, one would not be wrong in saying that the first growth is the law of Moses, but the first fruits the Gospel. For it was after all the fruits of the prophets who prophesied till the Lord Jesus, that the perfect word shot forth.

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5. ALL SCRIPTURE IS GOSPEL; BUT THE GOSPELS ARE DISTINGUISHED ABOVE OTHER SCRIPTURES.

Here, however, some one may object, appealing to the notion just put forward of the unfolding of the first fruits last, and may say that the Acts and the letters of the Apostles came after the Gospels, and that this destroys our argument to the effect that the Gospel is the first fruits of all Scripture. To this we must reply that it is the conviction of men who are wise in Christ, who have profited by those epistles which are current, and who see them to be vouched for by the testimonies deposited in the law and the prophets,(1) that the apostolic writings are to be pronounced wise and worthy of belief, and that they have great authority, but that they are not on the same level with that "Thus sayeth the Lord Almighty."(2) Consider on this point the language of St. Paul. When he declares that(3) "Every Scripture is inspired of God and profitable," does he include his own writings? Or does he not include his dictum,(4) "I say, and not the Lord," and(5) "So I ordain in all the churches," and(6) "What things I suffered at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra," and similar things which he writes in virtue of his own authority, and which do not quite possess the character of words flowing from divine inspiration. Must we also show that the old Scripture is not Gospel, since it does not point out the Coming One, but only foretells Him and heralds His coming at a future time; but that all the new Scripture is the Gospel. It not only says as in the beginning of the Gospel,(7) "Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world;" it also contains many praises of Him, and many of His teachings, on whose account the Gospel is a Gospel. Again, if God set in the Church(8) apostles and prophets and evangelists (gospellers), pastors and teachers, we must first enquire what was the office of the evangelist, and mark that it is not only to narrate how the Saviour cured a man who was blind from his birth,(9) or raised up a dead man who was already stinking,(10) or to state what extraordinary works he wrought; and the office of the evangelist being thus defined, we shall not hesitate to find Gospel in such discourse also as is not narrative but hortatory and intended to strengthen belief in the mission of Jesus; and thus we shall arrive at the position that whatever was written by the Apostles is Gospel. As to this second definition, it might be objected that the Epistles are not entitled "Gospel," and that we are wrong in applying the name of Gospel to the whole of the New Testament. But to this we answer that it happens not unfrequently in Scripture when two or more persons or things are named by the same name, the name attaches itself most significantly to one of those things or persons. Thus the Saviour says,(1) "Call no man Master upon the earth;" while the Apostle says that Masters(2) have been appointed in the Church. These latter accordingly will not be Masters in the strict sense of the dictum of the Gospel. In the same way the Gospel in the Epistles will not extend to every word of them, when it is compared with the narrative of Jesus(1) actions and sufferings and discourses. No: the Gospel is the first fruits of all Scripture, and to these first fruits of the Scriptures we devote the first fruits of all those actions of ours which we trust to see turn out as we desire.

6. THE FOURFOLD GOSPEL. JOHN'S THE FIRST FRUITS OF THE FOUR. QUALIFICATIONS NECESSARY FOR INTERPRETING IT.

Now the Gospels are four. These four are, as it were, the elements of the faith of the Church, out of which elements the whole world which is reconciled to God in Christ is put together; as Paul says,(3) "God was in Christ, reconciling the world to Himself;" of which world Jesus bore the sin; for it is of the world of the Church that the word is written,(4) "Behold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world." The Gospels then being four, I deem the first fruits of the Gospels to be that which you s have enjoined me to search into according to my powers, the Gospel of John, that which speaks of him whose genealogy had already been set forth, but which begins to speak of him at a point before he had any genealogy. For Matthew, writing for the Hebrews who looked for Him who was to come of the line of Abraham and of David, says:(6) "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham." And Mark, knowing what he writes, narrates the beginning of the Gospel; we may perhaps find what he aims at in John; in the beginning the Word, God the Word. But Luke, though he says at the beginning of Acts, "The former treatise did I make about all that Jesus began to do and to teach," yet

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leaves to him who lay on Jesus' breast the greatest and completest discourses about Jesus. For none of these plainly declared His Godhead, as John does when he makes Him say, "I am the light of the world," "I am the way and the truth and the life," "I am the resurrection, "I am the door," "I am the good shepherd;" and in the Apocalypse, "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last." We may therefore make bold to say that the Gospels are the first fruits of all the Scriptures, but that of the Gospels that of John is the first fruits. No one can apprehend the meaning of it except he have lain on Jesus' breast and received from Jesus Mary to be his mother also. Such an one must he become who is to be another John, and to have shown to him, like John, by Jesus Himself Jesus as He is. For if Mary, as those declare who with sound mind extol her, had no other son but Jesus, and yet Jesus says to His mother, "Woman, behold thy son,"(1) and not "Behold you have this son also," then He virtually said to her, "Lo, this is Jesus, whom thou didst bear." Is it not the case that every one who is perfect lives himself no longer,(2) but Christ lives in him; and if Christ lives in him, then it is said of him to Mary, "Behold thy son Christ." What a mind, then, must we have to enable us to interpret in a worthy manner this work, though it be committed to the earthly treasure-house of common speech, of writing which any passer-by can read, and which can be heard when read aloud by any one who lends to it his bodily ears? What shall we say of this work? He who is accurately to apprehend what it contains should be able to say with truth,(3) "We have the mind of Christ, that we may know those things which are bestowed on us by God." It is possible to quote one of Paul's sayings in support of the contention that the whole of the New Testament is Gospel. He writes in a certain place:(4) "According to my Gospel." Now we have no written work of Paul which is commonly called a Gospel. But all that he preached and said was the Gospel; and what he preached and said he was also in the habit of writing, and what he wrote was therefore Gospel. But if what Paul wrote was Gospel, it follows that what Peter wrote was also Gospel, and in a word all that was said or written to perpetuate the knowledge of Christ's sojourn on earth, and to prepare for His second coming, or to bring it about as a present reality in those souls which were willing to receive the Word of God as He stood at the door and knocked and sought to come into them.

7. WHAT GOOD THINGS ARE ANNOUNCED IN THE GOSPELS.

But it is time we should inquire what is the meaning of the designation "Gospel," and why these books have this title. Now the Gospel is a discourse containing a promise of things which naturally, and on account of the benefits they bring, rejoice the hearer as soon as the promise is heard and believed. Nor is such a discourse any the less a Gospel that we define it with reference to the position of the hearer. A Gospel is either a word which implies the actual presence to the believer of something that is good, or a word promising the arrival of a good which is expected. Now all these definitions apply to those books which are named Gospels. For each of the Gospels is a collection of announcements which are useful to him who believes them and does not misinterpret them; it brings him a benefit and naturally makes him glad because it tells of the sojourn with men, on account of men, and for their salvation, of the first-born of all creation,(1) Christ Jesus. And again each Gospel tells of the sojourn of the good Father in the Son with those minded to receive Him, as is plain to every believer; and moreover by these books a good is announced which had been formerly expected, as is by no means hard to see. For John the Baptist spoke in the name almost of the whole people when he sent to Jesus and asked,(2) "Art thou He that should come or do we look for another?" For to the people the Messiah was an expected good, which the prophets had foretold, and they all alike, though under the law and the prophets, fixed their hopes on Him, as the Samaritan woman bears witness when she says:(3) "I know that the Messiah comes, who is called Christ; when He comes He will tell us all things." Simon and Cleopas too, when talking to each other about all that had happened to Jesus Christ Himself, then risen, though they did not know that He had risen, from the dead, speak thus,(4) "Dost thou sojourn alone in Jerusalem, and knowest not the things which have taken place there in these days? And when he said what things? they answered, The things concerning Jesus of Nazareth,(5) which was a prophet, mighty in

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deed and in word before God and all the people, and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered Him up to be sentenced to death and crucified Him. But we hoped that it was He which should redeem Israel." Again, Andrew the brother of Simon Peter found his own brother Simon and said to him,(1) "We have found the Messiah, which is, being interpreted, Christ." And a little further on Philip finds Nathanael and says to him,(2) "We have found Him of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, wrote, Jesus the son of Joseph, from Nazareth."

8. HOW THE GOSPELS CAUSE THE OTHER BOOKS OF SCRIPTURE ALSO TO BE GOSPEL.

Now an objection might be raised to our first definition, because it would embrace books which are not entitled Gospels. For the law and the prophets also are to our eyes books containing the promise of things which, from the benefit they will confer on him, naturally rejoice the hearer as soon as he takes in the message. To this it may be said that before the sojourn of Christ, the law and the prophets, since He had not come who interpreted the mysteries they contained, did not convey such a promise as belongs to our definition of the Gospel; but the Saviour, when He sojourned with men and caused the Gospel to appear in bodily form, by the Gospel caused all things to appear as Gospel. Here I would not think it beside the purpose to quote the example of Him who ... a few things ... and yet all.(3) For when he had taken away the veil which was present in the law and the prophets, and by His divinity had proved the sons of men that the Godhead was at work, He opened the way for all those who desired it to be disciples of His wisdom, and to understand what things were true and real in the law of Moses, of which things those of old worshipped the type and the shadow, and what things were real of the things narrated in the histories which "happened to them in the way of type,"(4) but these things "were written for our sakes, upon whom the ends of the ages have come." With whomsoever, then, Christ has sojourned, he worships God neither at Jerusalem nor on the mountain of the Samaritans; he knows that God is a spirit, and worships Him spiritually, in spirit and in truth; no longer by type does he worship the Father and Maker of all. Before that Gospel, therefore, which came into being by the sojourning of Christ, none of the older works was a Gospel. But the Gospel, which is the new covenant, having delivered us from the oldness of the letter, lights up for us, by the light of knowledge,(1) the newness of the spirit, a thing which never grows old, which has its home in the New Testament, but is also present in all the Scriptures. It was fitting, therefore, that that Gospel, which enables us to find the Gospel present, even in the Old Testament, should itself receive, in a special sense, the name of Gospel.

9. THE SOMATIC AND THE SPIRITUAL GOSPEL.

We must not, however, forget that the sojourning of Christ with men took place before His bodily sojourn, in an intellectual fashion, to those who were more perfect and not children, and were not under pedagogues and governors. In their minds they saw the fulness of the time to be at hand--the patriarchs, and Moses the servant, and the prophets who beheld the glory of Christ. And as before His manifest and bodily coming He came to those who were perfect, so also, after His coming has been announced to all, to those who are still children, since they are under pedagogues and governors and have not yet arrived at the fulness of the time, forerunners of Christ have come to sojourn, discourses (logoi) suited for minds still in their childhood, and rightly, therefore, termed pedagogues. But the Son Himself, the glorified God, the Word, has not yet come; He waits for the preparation which must take place on the part of men of God who are to admit His deity. And this, too, we must bear in mind, that as the law contains a shadow of good things to come, which are indicated by that law which is announced according to truth, so the Gospel also teaches a shadow of the mysteries of Christ, the Gospel which is thought to be capable of being understood by any one. What John calls the eternal Gospel, and what may properly be called the spiritual Gospel, presents clearly to those who have the will to understand, all matters concerning the very Son of God, both the mysteries presented by His discourses and those matters of which His acts were the enigmas. In accordance with this we may conclude that, as it is with Him who is a Jew outwardly and circumcised in the flesh, so it is with the Christian and with baptism. Paul and Peter were, at an earlier period, Jews outwardly and circumcised, but later they received from Christ that they should be so

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in secret, too; SO that outwardly they were Jews for the sake of the salvation of many, and by an economy they not only confessed in words that they were Jews, but showed it by their actions. And the same is to be said about their Christianity. As Paul could not benefit those who were Jews according to the flesh, without, when reason shows it to be necessary, circumcising Timothy, and when it appears the natural course getting himself shaved and making a vow, and, in a word, being to the Jews a Jew that he might gain the Jews--so also it is not possible for one who is responsible for the good of many to operate as he should by means of that Christianity only which is in secret. That will never enable him to improve those who are following the external Christianity, or to lead them on to better and higher things. We must, therefore, be Christians both somatically and spiritually, and where there is a call for the somatic (bodily) Gospel, in which a man says to those who are carnal that he knows nothing but Jesus Christ and Him crucified, so we must do. But should we find those who are perfected in the spirit, and bear fruit in it, and are enamoured of the heavenly wisdom, these must he made to partake of that Word which, after it was made flesh, rose again to what it was in the beginning, with God.

10. HOW JESUS HIMSELF IS THE GOSPEL.

The foregoing inquiry into the nature of the Gospel cannot be regarded as useless; it has enabled us to see what distinction there is between a sensible Gospel and all intellectual and spiritual one. What we have now to do is to transform the sensible Gospel into a spiritual one. For what would the narrative of the sensible Gospel amount to if it were not developed to a spiritual one? It would be of little account or none; any one can read it and assure himself of the facts it tells--no more. But our whole energy is now to be directed to the effort to penetrate to the deep things of the meaning of the Gospel and to search out the truth that is ill it when divested of types. Now what the Gospels say is to be regarded in the light of promises of good things; and we must say that the good things the Apostles announce in this Gospel are simply Jesus. one good thing which they are said to announce is the resurrection; but the resurrection is in a manner Jesus, for Jesus says:(1) "I am the resurrection." Jesus preaches to the poor those things which are laid up for the saints, calling them to the divine promises. And the holy Scriptures bear witness to the Gospel announcements made by the Apostles and to that made by our Saviour. David says of the Apostles, perhaps also of the evangelists:(1) "The Lord shall give the word to those that preach with great power; the King of the powers of the beloved;" teaching at the same time that it is not skilfully composed discourse, nor the mode of delivery, nor well practised eloquence that produces conviction, but the communication of divine power. Hence also Paul says:(2) "I will know not the word that is puffed up, but the power; for the kingdom of God is not in word but in power." And in another passage:(3) "And my word and my preaching were not persuasive words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the spirit and of power." To this power Simon and Cleophas bear witness when they say:(4) "Was not our heart burning within us by the way, as he opened to us the Scriptures?" And the Apostles, since the quantity of the power is great which God supplies to the speakers, had great power, according to the word of David: "The Lord will give the word to the preachers with great power." Isaiah too says:(5) "How beautiful are the feet of them that proclaim good tidings;" he sees how beautiful and how opportune was the announcement of the Apostles who walked in Him who said, "I am the way," and praises the feet of those who walk in the intellectual way of Christ Jesus, and through that door go in to God. They announce good tidings, those whose feet are beautiful, namely, Jesus.

II. JESUS IS ALL GOOD THINGS; HENCE THE

GOSPEL IS MANIFOLD.

Let no one wonder if we have understood Jesus to be announced in the Gospel under a plurality of names of good things. If we look at the things by the names of which the Son of God is called, we shall understand how many good things Jesus is, whom those preach whose feet are beautiful. One good thing is life; but Jesus is the life. Another good thing is the light of the world, when it is true light, and the light of men; and all these things the Son of God is said to be. And another good thing which one may conceive to be in addition to life or light is the truth. And a fourth in addition to time is the way which leads to the truth. And all these things our Saviour teaches that He is,

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when He says:(1) "I am the way and the truth and the life." Ah, is not that good, to shake off earth and mortality, and to rise again, obtaining this boon from the Lord, since He is the resurrection, as He says:(2) "I am the resurrection." But the door also is a good, through which one enters into the highest blessedness. Now Christ says:(3) "I am the door." And what need is there to speak of wisdom, which "the Lord created(4) the first principle of His ways, for His works," in whom the father of her rejoiced. delighting in her manifold intellectual beauty, seen by the eyes of the mind alone, and provoking him to love who discerns her divine and heavenly charm? A good indeed is the wisdom of God, proclaimed along with the other good foresaid by those whose feet are beautiful. And the power of God is the eighth good we enumerate, which is Christ. Nor must we omit to mention the Word, who is God after the Father of all. For this also is a good, less than no other. Happy, then, are those who accept these goods and receive them from those who announce the good tidings of them, those whose feet are beautiful. Indeed even one of the Corinthians to whom Paul declared that he knew nothing but Jesus Christ and Him crucified, should he learn Him who for our sakes became man, and so receive Him, he would become identified with the beginning of the good things we have spoken of; by the man Jesus he would be made a man of God, and by His death he would die to sin. For "Christ,(5) in that He died, died unto sin once." But from His life, since "in that He liveth, He liveth unto God," every one who is conformed to His resurrection receives that living to God. But who will deny that righteousness, essential righteousness, is a good, and essential sanctification, and essential redemption? And these things those preach who preach Jesus, saying(6) that He is made to be of God righteousness and sanctification and redemption. Hence we shall have writings about Him without number, showing that Jesus is a multitude of goods; for from the things which can scarcely be numbered and which have been written we may make some conjecture of those things which actually exist in Him in whom(7) "it pleased God that the whole fulness of the Godhead should dwell bodily." and which are not contained in writings. Why should I say, "are not contained in writings"? For John speaks of the whole world in this connection, and says:(1) "I suppose that not even the world itself would contain the books which would be written." Now to say that the Apostles preach the Saviour is to say that they preach these good things. For this is He who received from the good Father that He Himself should be these good things, so that each man receiving from Jesus the thing or things he is capable of receiving may enjoy good things. But the Apostles, whose feet were beautiful, and those imitators of them who sought to preach the good tidings, could not have done so had not Jesus Himself first preached the good tidings to them, as Isaiah says:(2) "I myself that speak am here, as the opportunity on the mountains, as the feet of one preaching tidings of peace, as one preaching good things; for I will make My salvation to be heard, saying, God shall reign over thee, O Zion!" For what are the mountains on which the speaker declares that He Himself is present, but those who are less than none of the highest and the greatest of the earth? And these must be sought by the able ministers of the New Covenant, in order that they may observe the injunction which says:(3) Go up into a high mountain, thou that preachest good tidings to Zion; thou that preachest good tidings to Jerusalem, lift up thy voice with strength!" Now it is not wonderful if to those who are to preach good tidings Jesus Himself preaches good tidings of good things, which are no other than Himself; for the Son of God preaches the good tidings of Himself to those who cannot come to know Him through others. And He who goes up into the mountains and preaches good things to them, being Himself instructed by His good Father,(4) who "makes His sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust," He does not despise those who are poor in soul. To them He preaches good tidings, as He Himself bears witness to us when He takes Isaiah(5) and reads: "The spirit of the Lord is upon me, for the Lord hath anointed me to preach good tidings to the poor, He hath sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives, and sight to the blind. For closing the book He handed it to the minister and sat down. And when the eyes of all were fastened upon Him, He said, This day is this Scripture fulfilled in your ears."

12. THE GOSPEL CONTAINS THE ILL DEEDS ALSO WHICH WERE DONE TO JESUS.

It ought not to be forgotten that in such a

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Gospel as this there is embraced every good deed which was done to Jesus; as, for example, the story of the woman(1) who had been a stalker and had repented, and who, having experienced a genuine recovery from her evil state, had grace to pour her ointment over Jesus so that every one in the house smelt the sweet savour. Hence, too, the words, "Wherever this Gospel shall be preached among all the nations, there also this that she has done shall be spoken of, for a memorial of her." And it is clear that whatever is done to the disciples of Jesus is done to Him. Pointing to those of them who met with kind treatment, He says to those who were kind to them? "What ye did to these, ye did to Me." So that every good deed we do to our neighbours is entered ill the Gospel, that Gospel which is written on the heavenly tablets and read by all who are worthy of the knowledge of the whole of things. But on the other side, too, there is a part of the Gospel which is for the condemnation of the doers of the ill deeds which have been done to Jesus. The treachery of Judas and the shouts of the wicked crowd when it said,(3) "Away with such a one from the earth," and "Crucify Him, crucify Him," the mockings of those who crowned Him with thorns, and everything of that kind, is included ill the Gospels. And as a consequence of this we see that every one who betrays the disciples of Jesus is reckoned as betraying Jesus Himself. To Saul,(4) when still a persecutor it is said, "Saul Saul, why persecutest thou Me?" and, "I am Jesus whom thou persecutest." There are those who still have thorns with which they crown and dishonour Jesus, those, namely, who are choked by the cares, and riches, and pleasures of life, and though they have received the word of God, do not bring it to perfection.(5) We must beware, therefore, lest we also, as crowning Jesus with thorns of our own, should be entered in the Gospel and read of in this character by those who learn the Jesus, who is in all and is present in all rational and holy lives, learn how He is anointed with ointment, is entertained, is glorified, or how, on the other side, He is dishonoured, and mocked, and beaten. All this had to be said; it is part of our demonstration that our good actions, and also the sins of those who stumble, are embodied in the Gospel, either to everlasting life or to reproach and everlasting shame.

13. THE ANGELS ALSO ARE EVANGELISTS.

Now if there are those among men who are honoured with the ministry of evangelists, and if Jesus Himself brings tidings of good things, and preaches the Gospel to the poor, surely those messengers who were made spirits by God,(1) those who are a flame of fire, ministers of the Father of all, cannot have been excluded from being evangelists also. Hence an angel standing over the shepherds made a bright light to shine round about them, and said:(2) "Fear not; behold I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all tile people; for there is born to you, this day, a Saviour, who is Christ the Lord, in the city of David." And at a time when there was no knowledge among men of tim mystery of the Gospel, those who were greater than men and inhabitants of heaven, the army of God, praised God, saying, "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will among men."(3) And having said this, the angels go away from the shepherds into heaven, leaving us to gather how the joy preached to us through the birth of Jesus Christ is glory in the highest to God; they humbled themselves even to the ground, and then returned to their place of rest, to glorify God in the highest through Jesus Christ. But the angels also wonder at the peace which is to be brought about on account of Jesus on the earth, that seat of war, on which Lucifer, star of the morning, fell from heaven, to be warred against and destroyed by Jesus.

14. THE OLD TESTAMENT, TYPIFIED BY JOHN, IS THE BEGINNING OF THE GOSPEL.

In addition to what we have said, there is also this to be considered about the Gospel, that in the first instance it is that of Christ Jesus, the head of the whole body of the saved; as Mark says,(4) "The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ." Then also it is the Gospel of the Apostles; whence Paul(5) says, "According to my Gospel." But the beginning of the Gospel--for in respect of its extent it has a beginning, a continuation, a middle, and an end--is nothing but the whole Old Testament. John is, in this respect, a type of the Old Testament, or, if we regard the connection of the New Testament with the Old, John represents the termination of the Old. For the same Mark says:(6) "The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, as it is written in Isaiah the prophet, Behold I send my messenger be-

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fore thy face, who shall prepare thy way. The voice of one crying m the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make His paths straight." And here I must wonder how the dissentients(1) can connect the two Testaments with two different Gods. These words, were there no others, are enough to convict them of their error. For how can John be the beginning of the Gospel if they suppose he belongs to a different God, if he belongs to the demiurge, and, as they hold, is not acquainted with the new deity? And the angels are not entrusted with but one evangelical ministry, and that a short one, not only with that addressed to the shepherds. For at the end an exalted and flying angel, having the Gospel, will preach it to every nation, for the good Father has not entirely deserted those who have fallen away from Him. John, son of Zebedee, says in his Apocalypse:(2) "And I saw an angel flying in the midst of heaven, having the Eternal Gospel, to preach it to those who dwell upon the earth, and to every nation, and tribe, and tongue, and people, saying, with a loud voice, Fear God and give Him glory, for the hour of His judgment hath come, and worship Him that made the heaven, and the earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters."

15. THE GOSPEL IS IN THE OLD TESTAMENT, AND INDEED IN THE WHOLE UNIVERSE. PRAYER FOR AID TO UNDERSTAND THE MYSTICAL SENSE OF THE WORK IN HAND.

As, then, we have shown that the beginning of the Gospel, according to one interpretation, is the whole Old Testament, and is signified by the person of John, we shall add, lest this should be called a mere unsupported assertion, what is said in the Acts about the eunuch of the queen of the Ethiopians and Philip. Philip, it is said, began at the passage of Isaiah: "He was led as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a lamb before his shearer is dumb," and so preached to him the Lord Jesus. How can he begin with the prophet and preach Jesus, if Isaiah was not a part of the beginning of the Gospel? From this we may derive a proof of the assertion made at the outset, that every divine Scripture is Gospel. If he who preaches the Gospel preaches good things, and all those who spoke before the sojourn of Jesus in the flesh preach Christ, who is as we saw good things, then the words spoken by all of them alike are in a sense a part of the Gospel. And when the Gospel is said to be declared throughout the whole world, we infer that it is actually preached in the whole world, not, that is to say, in this earthly district only, but in the whole system of heaven and earth, or from heaven and earth. And why should we discuss any further what the Gospel is? What we have said is enough. Besides the passages we have adduced,passages by no means inept or unsuited for our purpose,--much to the same effect might be collected from the Scriptures, so that it is clearly seen what is the glory of the good things in Jesus Christ shed forth by the Gospel, the Gospel ministered by men and angels, and, I believe, also by authorities and powers,(1) and thrones and dominions, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in the world to come, and indeed even by Christ Himself. Here, then, let us bring to a close what has to be said before proceeding to read the work itself. And now let us ask God to assist us through Jesus Christ by the Holy Spirit, so that we may be able to unfold the mystical sense which is treasured up in the words before us.

16. MEANING OF "BEGINNING." (1) IN SPACE.

"In the beginning was the Word."(2) It is not only the Greeks who consider the word "beginning" to have many meanings. Let any one collect the Scripture passages in which the word occurs, and with a view to an accurate interpretation of it note what it stands for in each passage, and he will find that the word has many meanings in sacred discourse also. We speak of a beginning in reference to a transition. Here it has to do with a road and with length. This appears in the saying:(3) "The beginning of a good way is to do justice." For since the good way is long, there have first to be considered in reference to it the question connected with action, and this side is presented in the words "to do justice;" the contemplative side comes up for consideration afterwards. In the latter the end of it comes to rest at last in the so-called restoration of all things, since no enemy is left them to fight against, if that be true which is said:(4) "For He must reign until He have placed His enemies under His feet. But the last enemy to be destroyed is death." For then but one activity will be left for those who have come to God on account of His word which is with Him, that, namely, of

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knowing God, so that, being found by the knowledge of the Father, they may all be His Son, as now no one but the Son knows the Father. For should any one enquire carefully at what time those are to know the Father to whom He who knows the Father reveals Him, and should he consider how a man now sees only through a glass and in a riddle, never having learned to know as he ought to know, he would be justified in saying that no one, no apostle even, and no prophet had known the Father, but when he became one with Him as a son and a father are one. And if any one says that it is a digression which has led us to this point, our consideration of that one meaning of the word beginning, we must show that the digression is necessary and useful for the end we have in view. For if we speak of a beginning in the case of a transition, and of a way and its length, and if we are told that the beginning of a good way is to do justice, then it concerns us to know in what manner every good way has for its beginning to do justice, and how after such beginning it arrives at contemplation, and in what manner it thus arrives at contemplation.

17. (2) IN TIME. THE BEGINNING OF CREATION.

Again, there is a beginning in a matter of origin, as might appear in the saying:(1) "In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth." This meaning, however, appears more plainly in the Book of Job in the passage:(2) "This is the beginning of God's creation, made for His angels to mock at." One would suppose that the heavens and the earth were made first, of all that was made at the creation of the world. But the second passage suggests a better view, namely, that as many beings were framed with a body, the first made of these was the creature called dragon, but called in another passage(3) the great whale (leviathan) which the Lord tamed. We must ask about this; whether, when the saints were living a blessed life apart from matter and from any body, the dragon, falling from the pure life, became fit to be bound in matter and in a body, so that the Lord could say, speaking through storm and clouds, "This is the beginning of the creation of God, made for His angels to mock at." It is possible, however, that the dragon is not positively the beginning of the creation of the Lord, but that there were many creatures made with a body for the angels to mock at, and that the dragon was the first of these, while others could subsist in a body without such reproach. But it is not so. For the soul of the sun is placed in a body, and the whole creation, of which the Apostle says:(1) "The whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now," and perhaps the following is about the same: "The creation was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but on account of Him who subjected it for hope;" so that bodies might be in vanity, and doing the things of the body, as he who is in the body must.(2) ... One who is in the body does the things of the body, though unwillingly. Wherefore the creation was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but he who does unwillingly the things of the body does what he does for the sake of hope, as if we should say that Paul desired to remain in the flesh, not willingly, but on account of hope. For though he thought it better(3) to be dissolved and to be with Christ, it was not unreasonable that he should wish to remain in the flesh for the sake of the benefit to others and of advancement in the things hoped for, not only by him, but also by those benefited by him. This meaning of the term" beginning," as of origin, will serve us also in the passage in which Wisdom speaks in the Proverbs.(4) "God," we read, "created me the beginning of His ways, for His works." Here the term could be interpreted as in the first application we spoke of, that of a way: "The Lord," it says, "created me the beginning of His ways." One might assert, and with reason, that God Himself is the beginning of all things, and might go on to say, as is plain, that the Father is the beginning of the Son; and the demiurge the beginning of the works of the demiurge, and that God in a word is the beginning of all that exists. This view is supported by our: "In the beginning was the Word." In the Word one may see the Son, and because He is in the Father He may be said to be in the beginning.

18. (3) OF SUBSTANCE.

In the third place a beginning may be that out of which a thing comes, the underlying matter from which things are formed. This, however, is the view of those who hold matter itself to be uncreated, a view which we believers cannot share, since we believe God to have made the things that are out of the things which are not, as the

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mother of the seven martyrs in the Maccabees teaches,(1) and as the angel of repentance in the Shepherd inculcated.(2)

19. (4) OF TYPE AND COPY.

In addition to these meanings there is that in which we speak of an arche,(3) according to form; thus if the first-born of every creature(4) is the image of the invisible God, then the Father is his arche. In the same way Christ is the arche of those who are made according to the image of God. For if men are according to the image, but the image according to the Father; in the first case the Father is the arche of Christ, and in the other Christ is the arche of men, and men are made, not according to that of which he is the image, but according to the image. With this example our passage will agree: "In the arche was the Word."

20.(5) OF ELEMENTS AND WHAT IS FORMED FROM THEM.

There is also an arche in a matter of learning, as when we say that the letters are the arche of grammar. The Apostle accordingly says:(5) "When by reason of the time you ought to be teachers, you have need again that some one teach you what are the elements of the arche of the oracles of God." Now the arche spoken of in connection with learning is twofold; first in respect of its nature, secondly in its relation to us; as we might say of Christ, that by nature His arche is deity, but that in relation to us who cannot, for its very greatness, command the whole truth about Him, His arche is His manhood, as He is preached to babes, "Jesus Christ and Him crucified." In this view, then, Christ is the arche of learning in His own nature, because He is the wisdom and power of God; but for us, the Word was made flesh, that He might tabernacle among us who could only thus at first receive Him. And perhaps this is the reason why He is not only the firstborn of all creation, but is also designated the man, Adam. For Paul says He is Adam:(6) "The last Adam was made a life-giving spirit."

21.(6) OF DESIGN AND EXECUTION.

Again we speak of the arche of an action, in which there is a design which appears after the beginning. It may be considered whether wisdom is to be regarded as the arche of the works of God because it is in this way the principle of them.

22.THE WORD WAS IN THE BEGINNING, I.E., IN WISDOM, WHICH CONTAINED ALL THINGS IN IDEA, BEFORE THEY EXISTED. CHRIST'S CHARACTER AS WISDOM IS PRIOR TO HIS OTHER CHARACTERS.

So many meanings occur to us at once of the word arche. We have now to ask which of them we should adopt for our text, "In the beginning was the Word." It is plain that we may at once dismiss the meaning which connects it with transition or with a road and its length. Nor, it is pretty plain, will the meaning connected with an origin serve our purpose. One might, however, think of the sense in which it points to the author, to that which brings about the effect, if, as we read,(1) "God commanded and they were created." For Christ is, in a manner, the demiurge, to whom the Father says, "Let there be light," and "Let there be a firmament." But Christ is demiurge as a beginning(arche), inasmuch as He is wisdom. It is in virtue of His being wisdom that He is called arche. For Wisdom says in Solomon:(2) "God created me the beginning of His ways, for His works," so that the Word might be in an arche, namely, in wisdom. Considered in relation to the structure of contemplation and thoughts about the whole of things, it is regarded as wisdom; but in relation to that side of the objects of thought, in which reasonable beings apprehend them, it is considered as the Word. And there is no wonder, since, as we have said before, the Saviour is many good things, if He comprises in Himself thoughts of the first order, and of the second, and of the third. This is what John suggested when he said about the Word:(3) "That which was made was life in Him." Life then came in the Word. And on the one side the Word is no other than the Christ, the Word, He who was with the Father, by whom all things were made; while, on the other side, the Life is no other than the Son of God, who says:(4) "I am the way and the truth and the life." As, then, life came into being in the Word, so the Word in the arche. Consider, however, if we are at liberty to take this meaning of arche for our text: "In the beginning was the Word," so as to obtain the meaning that all things came into being according to wisdom and according to the models of the system which are present in his thoughts. For I consider that as a house or a ship is built and fashioned in accordance with the sketches of the builder or designer,

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the house or the ship having their beginning (arche) in the sketches and reckonings in his mind, so all things came into being in accordance with the designs of what was to be, clearly laid down by God in wisdom. And we should add that having created, so to speak, ensouled(1) wisdom, He left her to hand over, from the types which were in her, to things existing and to matter, the actual emergence of them, their moulding and their forms.(2) But I consider, if it be permitted to say this, that the beginning (arche) of real existence was the Son of God, saying:(3) "I am the beginning and the end, the A and the W, the first and the last." We must, however, remember that He is not the arche in respect of every name which is applied to Him. For how can He be the beginning in respect of His being life, when life came in the Word, and the Word is manifestly the arche of life? It is also tolerably evident that He cannot be the arche in respect of His being the first-born from the dead. And if we go through all His titles carefully we find that He is the arche only in respect of His being wisdom. Not even as the Word is He the arche, for the Word was in the arche. And so one might venture to say that wisdom is anterior to all the thoughts that are expressed in the titles of the first-born of every creature. Now God is altogether one and simple; but our Saviour, for many reasons, since God(4) set Him forth a propitiation and a first fruits of the whole creation, is made many things, or perhaps all these things; the whole creation, so far as capable of redemption, stands in need of Him.(5) And, hence, He is made the light of men, because men, being darkened by wickedness, need the light that shines in darkness, and is not overtaken by the darkness; had not men been in darkness, He would not have become the light of men. The same thing may be observed in respect of His being the first-born of the dead. For supposing the woman had not been deceived, and Adam had not fallen, and man created for incorruption had obtained it, then He would not have descended into the grave, nor would He have died, there being no sin, nor would His love of men have required that He should die, and if He had not died, He could not have been the first-born of the dead. We may also ask whether He would ever have become a shepherd, had man not been thrown together with the beasts which are devoid of reason, and made like to them. For if God saves man and beasts, He saves those beasts which He does save, by giving them a shepherd, since they cannot have a king. Thus if we collect the titles of Jesus, the question arises which of them were conferred on Him later, and would never have assumed such importance if the saints had begun and had also persevered in blessedness. Perhaps Wisdom would be the only remaining one, or perhaps the Word would remain too, or perhaps the Life, or perhaps the Truth, not the others, which He took for our sake. And happy indeed are those who in their need for the Son of God have yet become such persons as not to need Him in His character as a physician healing the sick, nor in that of a shepherd, nor in that of redemption, but only in His characters as wisdom, as the word and righteousness, or if there be any other title suitable for those who are so perfect as to receive Him in His fairest characters. So much for the phrase "In the beginning."

23. THE TITLE "WORD" IS TO BE INTERPRETED BY THE SAME METHOD AS THE OTHER TITLES OF CHRIST. THE WORD OF GOD IS NOT A MERE ATTRIBUTE OF GOD, BUT A SEPARATE PERSON. WHAT IS MEANT WHEN HE IS CALLED THE WORD.

Let us consider, however, a little more carefully what is the Word which is in the beginning. I am often led to wonder when I consider the things that are said about Christ, even by those who are in earnest in their belief in Him. Though there is a countless number of names which can be applied to our Saviour, they omit the most of them, and if they should remember them, they declare that these titles are not to be understood in their proper sense, but tropically. But when they come to the title Logos (Word), and repeat that Christ alone is the Word of God, they are not consistent, and do not, as in the case of the other titles, search out what is behind the meaning of the term "Word." I wonder at the stupidity of the general run of Christians in this matter. I do not mince matters; it is nothing but stupidity. The Son of God says in one passage, "I am the light of the world," and in another, "I am the resurrection," and again, "I am the way and the truth and the life." It is also written, "I am the door," and we have the saying, "I am the good shepherd," and when the woman of Samaria says, "We know the

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Messiah is coming, who is called Christ; when He comes, He will tell us all things," Jesus answers, "I that speak unto thee am He." Again, when He washed the disciples' feet, He declared Himself in these words(1) to be their Master and Lord: "You call Me Master and Lord, and you say well, for so I am." He also distinctly announces Himself as the Son of God, when He says,(2) "He whom the Father sanctified and sent unto the world, to Him do you say, Thou blasphemest, because I said, I am the Son of God?" and(3) "Father, the hour is come; glorify Thy Son, that the Son also may glorify Thee." We also find Him declaring Himself to be a king, as when He answers Pilate's question,(4) "Art Thou the King of the Jews?" by saying, "My kingdom is not of this world; if My kingdom were of this world, then would My servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews, but now is My kingdom not from hence." We have also read the words,(5) "I am the true vine and My Father is the husbandman," and again, "I am the vine, ye are the branches." Add to these testimonies also the saying,(6) "I am the bread of life, that came down from heaven and giveth life to the world." These texts will suffice for the present, which we have picked up out of the storehouse of the Gospels, and in all of which He claims to be the Son of God. But in the Apocalypse of John, too, He says,(7) "I am the first and the last, and the living One, and I was dead. Behold, I am alive for evermore." And again,(8) "I am the A and the W, and the first and the last, the beginning and the end." The careful student of the sacred books, moreover, may gather not a few similar passages from the prophets, as where He calls Himself(9) a chosen shaft, and a servant of God,(10) and a light of the Gentiles.(11) Isaiah also says," "From my mother's womb hath He called me by my name, and He made my mouth as a sharp sword, and under the shadow of His hand did He hide me, and He said to me, Thou art My servant, O Israel, and in thee will I be glorified." And a little farther on: "And my God shall be my strength, and He said to me, This is a great thing for thee to be called My servant, to set up the tribes of Jacob and to turn again the diaspora of Israel. Behold I have set thee for a light of the Gentiles, that thou shouldest be for salvation to the end of the earth." And in Jeremiah too(1) He likens Himself to a lamb, as thus: "I was as a gentle lamb that is led to the slaughter." These and other similar sayings He applies to Himself. In addition to these one might collect in the Gospels and the Apostles and in the prophets a countless number of titles which are applied to the Son of God, as the writers of the Gospels set forth their own views of what He is, or the Apostles extol Him out of what they had learned, or the prophets proclaim in advance His coining advent and announce the things concerning Him under various names. Thus John calls Him the Lamb of God, saying,(2) "Behold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sins of the world," and in these words he declares Him as a man,(3) "This is He about whom I said, that there cometh after me a man who is there before me; for He was before me." And in his Catholic Epistle John says that He is a Paraclete for our souls with the Father, as thus:(4) "And if any one sin, we have a Paraclete with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous," and he adds that He is a propitiation for our sins, and similarly Paul says He is a propitiation:(5) "Whom God set forth as a propitiation through faith in His blood, on account of forgiveness of the forepast sins, in the forbearance of God." According to Paul, too, He is declared to be the wisdom and the power of God, as in the Epistle to the Corinthians:(6) "Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God." It is added that He is also sanctification and redemption: "He was made to us of God," he says, "wisdom and righteousness and sanctification and redemption." But he also teaches us, writing to the Hebrews, that Christ is a High-Priest:(7) "Having, therefore, a great High-Priest, who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our profession." And the prophets have other names for Him besides these. Jacob in his blessing of his sons(8) says, "Judah, thy brethren shall extol thee; thy hands are on the necks of thine enemies. A lion's whelp is Judah, from a shoot, my son, art thou sprung up; thou hast lain down and slept as a lion; who shall awaken him?" We cannot now linger over these phrases, to show that what is said of Judah applies to Christ. What may be quoted against this view, viz., "A ruler shall not part from Judah nor a leader from his loins, until He come for whom it is reserved;" this can better be cleared up on another occa-

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sion. But Isaiah knows Christ to be spoken of under the names of Jacob and Israel, when he says,' "Jacob is my servant, I will help Him; Israel is my elect, my soul hath accepted Him. He shall declare judgment to the Gentiles. He shall not strive nor cry, neither shall any one hear His voice on the streets. A bruised rod shall He not break. and smoking flax shall He not quench, till He bring forth judgment from victory, and in His name shall the nations hope." That it is Christ about whom such prophecies are made, Matthew shows in his Gospel, where he quotes from memory and says:(2) "That the saying might be fulfilled, He shall not strive nor cry," etc. David also is called Christ, as where Ezekiel in his prophecy to the shepherds adds as from the mouth of God:(3) "I will raise up David my servant, who shall be their shepherd." For it is not the patriarch David who is to rise and be the shepherd of the saints, but Christ. Isaiah also called Christ the rod and the flower:(4) "There shall come forth a rod out of the root of Jesse, and a flower shall spring out of tits root, and the spirit of God shall rest upon Him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel slid of might, the spirit of knowledge and of godliness, and He shall be full of the spirit of the fear of the Lord." And in the Psalms our Lord is called the stone, as follows:(5) "The stone which the builders rejected is made the head of the comer. It is from the Lord, and it is wonderful in our eyes." And the Gospel shows, as also does Luke in the Acts, that the stone is no other than Christ; the Gospel as follows:(6) "Have ye never read, the stone which the builders rejected is made the head of the corner. Whosoever falls on this stone shall be broken, but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will scatter him as dust." And Luke writes in Acts:(7) "This is the stone, which was set at naught of you the builders, which has become the head of the corner." And one of the names applied to the Saviour is that which He Himself does not utter, but which John records;--the Word who was in the beginning with God, God the Word. And it is worth our while to fix our attention for a moment on those scholars who omit consideration of most of the great names we have mentioned and regard this as the most important one. As to the former titles, they look for any account of them that any one may offer, but in the case of this one they proceed differently and ask, What is the Son of God when called the Word? The passage they employ most is that in the Psalms,(1) "My heart hath produced a good Word;" and they imagine the Son of God to be the utterance of the Father deposited, as it were, in syllables, and accordingly they do not allow Him, if we examine them farther, any independent hypostasis, nor are they clear about His essence. I do not mean that they confuse its qualities, but the fact of His having an essence of His own. For no one can understand how that which is said to be "Word" can be a Son. And such an animated Word, not being a separate entity from the Father, and accordingly as it, having no subsistence. is not a Son, or if he is a Son, let them say that God the Word is a separate being and has an essence of His own. We insist, therefore, that as in the case of each of the titles spoken of above we turn from the title to the concept it suggests slid apply it and demonstrate how the Son of God is suitably described by it, the same course must be followed when we find Him called the Word. What caprice it is, in all these cases, not to stand upon the term employed, but to enquire in what sense Christ is to be understood to be the door, and in what way the vine, and why He is the way; but in the one case of His being called the Word, to follow a different course. To add to the authority, therefore, of what we have to say on the question, how the Son of God is the Word, we must begin with those names of which we spoke first as being applied to Him. This, we cannot deny, will seem to some to be superfluous and a digression, but the thoughtful reader will not think it useless to ask as to the concepts for which the titles are used; to observe these matters will clear the way for what is coming. And once we have entered upon the theology concerning the Saviour, as we seek with what diligence we can and find the various things that are taught about Him, we shall necessarily understand more about Him not only in His character as the Word, but in His other characters also.

24. CHRIST AS LIGHT; HOW HE, AND HOW HIS DISCIPLES ARE THE LIGHT OF THE WORLD.

He said, then, that He was the light of the world; and we have to examine, along with this title, those which are parallel to it; and, indeed, are thought by some to be not merely parallel, but identical with

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it. He is the true light, and the light of the Gentiles. In the opening of the Gospel now before us He is the light of men: "That which was made,"(1) it says, "was life in Him, and the life was the light of men; and the light shines in darkness, and the darkness did not overtake it." A little further on, in the same passage, He is called the true light:(2) "The true light, which lightens every man, was coming into the world." In Isaiah, He is the light of the Gentiles, as we said before. "Behold,(3) I have set Thee for a light of the Gentiles, that Thou shouldest be for salvation to the end of the earth." Now the sensible light of the world is the sun, and after it comes very worthily the moon, and the same title may be applied to the stars; but those lights of the world are said in Moses to have come into existence on the fourth day, and as they shed light on the things on the earth, they are not the true light. But the Saviour shines on creatures which have intellect and sovereign reason, that their minds may behold their proper objects of vision, and so he is the light of the intellectual world, that is to say, of the reasonable souls which are in the sensible world, and if there be any beings beyond these in the world from which He declares Himself to be our Saviour. He is, indeed, the most determining and distinguished part of that world, and, as we may say, the sun who makes the great day of the Lord. In view of this day He says to those who partake of His light, "Work(4) while it is day; the night cometh when no man can work. As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world." Then He says to His disciples,(5) "Ye are the light of the world," and "Let your light shine before men." Thus we see the Church, the bride, to present an analogy to the moon and stars, and the disciples have a light, which is their own or borrowed from the true sun, so that they are able to illuminate those who have no command of any spring of light in themselves. We may say that Paul and Peter are the light of the world, and that those of their disciples who are enlightened themselves, but are not able to enlighten others, are the world of which the Apostles were the light. But the Saviour, being the light of the world, illuminates not bodies, but by His incorporeal power the incorporeal intellect, to the end that each of us, enlightened as by the sun, may be able to discern the rest of the things of the mind. And as when the sun is shining the moon and the stars lose their power of giving light, so those who are irradiated by Christ and receive His beams have no need of the ministering apostles and prophets--we must have courage to declare this truth--nor of the angels; I will add that they have no need even of the greater powers when they are disciples of that first-born light. To those who do not receive the solar beams of Christ. the ministering saints do afford an illumination much less than the former; this illumination is as much as those persons can receive, and it completely fills them. Christ, again, the light of the world, is the true light as distinguished from the light of sense; nothing that is sensible is true. Yet though the sensible is other than the true, it does not follow that the sensible is false, for the sensible may have an analogy with the intellectual, and not everything that is not true can correctly be called false. Now I ask whether the light of the world is the same thing with the light of men, and I conceive that a higher power of light is intended by the former phrase than by the latter, for the world in one sense is not only men. Paul shows that the world is something more than men when he writes to the Corinthians in his first Epistle:(1) "We are made a spectacle unto the world, and to angels, and to men." In one sense, too, it may be considered,(2) the world is the creation which is being delivered from the bondage of corruption into the liberty of the glory of the children of God, whose earnest expectation is waiting for the manifestation of the sons of God. We also draw attention to the comparison which may be drawn between the statement, "I am the light of the world," and the words addressed to the disciples, "Ye are the light of the world." Some suppose that the genuine disciples of Jesus are greater than other creatures, some seeking the reason of this ill the natural growth of these disciples, others inferring it from their harder struggle. For those beings which are in flesh and blood have greater labours and a life more full of dangers than those which are in an ethereal body, and the lights of heaven might not, if they had put on bodies of earth, have accomplished this life of ours free from danger and from error. Those who incline to this argument may appeal to those texts of Scripture which say the most exalted things about men, and to the fact that the Gospel is addressed directly to men; not so much is said about the creation, or, as we understand it, about the

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world. We read,(1) "As I and Thou are one, that they also may be one in Us," and(2) "Where I am, there will also My servant be." These sayings, plainly, are about men; while about the creation it is said that it is delivered from the bondage of corruption into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. It might be added that not even when it is delivered will it take part in the glory of the sons of God. Nor will those who hold this view forget that the first-born of every creature, honouring man above all else, became man, and that it was not any of the constellations existing in the sky, but one of another order, appointed for this purpose and in the service of the knowledge of Jesus, that was made to be the Star of the East, whether it was like the other stars or perchance better than they, to be the sign of Him who is the most excellent of all. And if the boasting of the saints is in their tribulations, since(3) "tribulation worketh patience, and patience probation, and probation hope, and hope maketh not ashamed," then the afflicted creation cannot have the like patience with man, nor the like probation, nor the like hope, but another degree of these, since(4) "the creation was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but on account of Him who subjected it. for hope." Now he who shrinks from conferring such great attributes on man will turn to another direction and say that the creature being subjected to vanity groans and suffers greater affliction than those who groan in this tabernacle, for has she not suffered for the utmost extent of time in her service of vanity--nay, many times as long as man? For why does she do this not willingly, but that it is against her nature to be subject to vanity, and not to have the best arrangement of her life, that which she shall receive when she is set free, when the world is destroyed and released even from the vanity of bodies. Here, however, we may appear to be stretching too far, and aiming at more than the question now before us requires. We may return, therefore, to the point from which we set out, and ask for what reason the Saviour is called the light of the world, the true light, and the light of men. Now we saw that He is called the true light with reference to the sensible light of the world, and that the light of the world is the same thing as the light of men, or that we may at least enquire whether they are the same. This discussion is not superfluous. Some students do not take anything at all out of the statement that the Saviour is the Word; and it is important for us to assure ourselves that we are not chargeable with caprice in fixing our attention on that notion. If it admits of being taken in a metaphorical sense we ought not to take it literally.(1) When we apply the mystical and allegorical method to the expression "light of the world" and the many analogous terms mentioned above, we should surely do so with this expression also.

25. CHRIST AS THE RESURRECTION.

Now He is called the light of men and the true light and the light of the word, because He brightens and irradiates the higher parts of men, or, in a word, of all reasonable beings. And similarly it is from and because of the energy with which He causes the old deadness to be put aside and that which is par excellence life to be put on, so that those who have truly received Him rise again from the dead, that He is called the resurrection. And this He does not only at the moment at which a man says,(2) "We are buried with Christ through baptism and have risen again with Him," but much rather when a man, having laid off all about him that belongs to death, walks in the newness of life which belongs to Him, the Son, while here. We always(3) "carry about in our body the dying of the Lord Jesus," and thus we reap the vast advantage, "that the life of the Lord Jesus might be made manifest in our bodies."

26. CHRIST AS THE WAY.

But that progress too, which is in wisdom and which is found by those who seek their salvation in it to do for them what they require both in respect of exposition of truth in the divine word and in respect of conduct according to true righteousness, it lets us understand how Christ is the way. In this way we have to take nothing with us,(4) neither wallet nor coat; we must travel without even a stick, nor must we have shoes on our feet. For this road is itself sufficient for all the supplies of our journey; and every one who walks on it wants nothing. He is clad with a garment which is fit for one who is setting out in response to an invitation to a wedding; and on this road he cannot meet anything that can annoy him. "No one," Solomon says,(5) "can find out the way of a serpent upon a

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rock." I would add, or that of any other beast. Hence there is no need of a staff on this road, on which there is no trace of any hostile creature, and the hardness of which, whence also it is called rock (petra), makes it incapable of harbouring anything hurtful.

27. CHRIST AS THE TRUTH.

Further, the Only-begotten is the truth, because He embraces in Himself according to the Father's will the whole reason of all things, and that with perfect clearness, and being the truth communicates to each creature in proportion to its worthiness. And should any one enquire whether all that the Father knows, according to the depth of His riches and His wisdom and His knowledge, is known to our Saviour also, and should he, imagining that he will thereby glorify the Father, show that some things known to the Father are unknown to the Son, although He might have had an equal share of the apprehensions of the unbegotten God, we must remind him that it is from His being the truth that He is Saviour, and add that if He is the truth complete, then there is nothing true which He does not know; truth must not limp for the want of the things which, according to those persons, are known to the Father only. Or else let it be shown that some things are known to which the name of truth does not apply, but which are above the truth.

28. CHRIST AS LIFE.

It is clear also that the principle of that life which is pure and unmixed with any other element, resides in Him who is the first-born of all creation, taking from which those who have a share in Christ live the life which is true life, while all those who are thought to live apart from this, as they have not the true light, have not the true life either.

29. CHRIST AS THE DOOR AND AS THE SHEPHERD.

But as one cannot be in the Father or with the Father except by ascending from below upwards and coming first to the divinity of the Son, through which one may be led by the hand and brought to the blessedness of the Father Himself, so the Saviour has the inscription "The Door." And as He is a lover of men, and approves the impulse of human souls to better things, even of those who do not hasten to reason (the Logos), but like sheep have a weakness and gentleness apart from all accuracy and reason, so He is the Shepherd. For the Lord saves men and beasts,(1) and Israel and Juda are sowed with the seed not of men only but also of beasts.(2)

30. CHRIST AS ANOINTED {CHRIST) AND AS KING.

In addition to these titles we must consider at the outset of our work that of Christ, and we must also consider that of King, and compare these two so as to find out the difference between them. Now it is said in the forty-fourth Psalm,(3) "Thou hast loved righteousness and hated iniquity, whence Thou art anointed (Christ) above Thy fellows." His loving righteousness and hating iniquity were thus added claims in Him; His anointing was not contemporary with His being nor inherited by Him from the first. Anointing is a symbol of entering on the kingship, and sometimes also on the priesthood; and must we therefore conclude that the kingship of the Son of God is not inherited nor congenital to Him? But how is it conceivable that the First-born of all creation was not a king and became a king afterwards because He loved righteousness, when, moreover, He Himself was righteousness? We cannot fail to see that it is as a man that He is Christ, in respect of His soul, which was human and liable to be troubled and sore vexed, but that He is conceived as king in respect of the divine in Him. I find support for this in the seventy-first Psalm,(4) which says, "Give the king Thy judgment, O God, and Thy righteousness to the king's Son, to judge Thy people in righteousness and Thy poor in judgment." This Psalm, though addressed to Solomon, is evidently a prophecy of Christ, and it is worth while to ask to what king the prophecy desires judgment to be given by God, and to what king's Son, and what king's righteousness is spoken of. I conceive, then, that what is called the King is the leading nature of the First-born of all creation, to which judgment is given on account of its eminence; and that the man whom He assumed, formed and moulded by that nature, according to righteousness, is the King's Son. I am the more led to think that this is so, because the two beings are here brought together in one sentence, and are spoken of as if they were not two but one. For the Saviour made both one,(5) that is, He made them according to the prototype of the two which had been made one in Himself before all things. The two I refer to human nature, since each man's soul is

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mixed with the Holy Spirit, and each of those who are saved is thus made spiritual. Now as there are some to whom Christ is a shepherd, as we said before, because of their meek and composed nature, though they are less guided by reason; so there are those to whom He is a king, those, namely, who are led in their approach to religion rather by the reasonable part of their nature. And among those who are under a king there are differences; some experience his rule in a more mystic and hidden and more divine way, others in a less perfect fashion. I should say that those who, led by reason, apart from all agencies of sense, have beheld incorporeal things, the things which Paul speaks of as "invisible," or "not seen," that they are ruled by the leading nature of the Only-begotten, but that those who have only advanced as far as the reason which is conversant with sensible things, and on account of these glorify their Maker, that these also are governed by the Word, by Christ. No offence need be taken at our distinguishing these notions in the Saviour; we draw the same distinctions in His substance.

31. CHRIST AS TEACHER AND MASTER.

It is plain to all how our Lord is a teacher and an interpreter for those who are striving towards godliness, and on the other hand a master of those servants who have the spirit of bondage to fear,(1) who make progress and hasten towards wisdom, and are found worthy to possess it. For· "the servant knoweth not what the master wills," since he is no longer his master, but has become his friend. The Lord Himself teaches this, for He says to hearers who were still servants:(3) "You call Me Master and Lord, and you say well, for so I am," but in another passage,(4) "I call you no longer servants, for the servant knoweth not what is the will of his master, but I call you friends," because(5) "you have continued with Me in all My temptations." They, then, who live according to fear, which God exacts from those who are not good servants, as we read in Malachi,(6) "If I am a Master, where is My fear?" are servants of a master who is called their Saviour.

32. CHRIST AS SON.

None of these testimonies, however, sets forth distinctly the Saviour's exalted birth; but when the words are addressed to Him, "Thou art My Son, this day have I begotten Thee,"(1) this is spoken to Him by God, with whom all time is to-day, for there is no evening with God, as I consider, and there is no morning, nothing but time that stretches out, along with His unbeginning and unseen life. The day is to-day with Him in which the Son was begotten, and thus the beginning of His birth is not found, as neither is the day of it.

33. CHRIST THE TRUE VINE, AND AS BREAD.

To what we have said must be added how the Son is the true vine. Those will have no difficulty in apprehending this who understand, in a manner worthy of the prophetic grace, the saying:(2) "Wine maketh glad the heart of man." For if the heart be the intellectual part, and what rejoices it is the Word most pleasant of all to drink which takes us off human things, makes us feel ourselves inspired, and intoxicates us with an intoxication which is not irrational but divine, that, I conceive, with which Joseph made his brethren merry,(3) then it is very clear how He who brings wine thus to rejoice the heart of man is the true vine. He is the true vine, because the grapes He bears are the truth, the disciples are His branches, and they, also, bring forth the truth as their fruit. It is somewhat difficult to show the difference between the vine and bread, for He says, not only that He is the vine, but that He is the bread of life. May it be that as bread nourishes and makes strong, and is said to strengthen the heart of man, but wine, on the contrary, pleases and rejoices and melts him, so ethical studies, bringing life to him who learns them and reduces them to practice, are the bread of life, but cannot properly be called the fruit of the vine, while secret and mystical speculations, rejoicing the heart and causing those to feel inspired who take them in, delighting in the Lord, and who desire not only to be nourished but to be made happy, are called the juice of the true vine, because they flow from it.

34. CHRIST AS THE FIRST AND THE LAST; HE IS ALSO WHAT LIES BETWEEN THESE.

Further, we have to ask in what sense He is called in the Apocalypse the First and the Last, and how, in His character as the First, He is not the same as the Alpha and the beginning, while in His character as the Last He is not the same as the Omega and the end. It appears to me, then, that the reason-

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able beings which exist are characterized by many forms, and that some of them are the first, some the second, some the third, and so on to the last. To pronounce exactly, however, which is the first, what kind of a being the second is, which may truly be designated third, and to carry this out to the end of the series, this is not a task for man, but transcends our nature. We shall yet venture, such as we are, to stand still a little at this point, and to make some observations on the matter. There are some gods of whom God is god, as we hear in prophecy,(1) "Thank ye the God of gods," and(2) "The God of gods hath spoken, and called the earth." Now God, according to the Gospel,(3) "is not the God of the dead but of the living." Those gods, then, are living of whom God is god. The Apostle, too, writing to the Corinthians, says:(4) "As there are gods many and lords many," and so we have spoken of these gods as really existing. Now there are, besides the gods of whom God is god, certain others, who are called thrones, and others called dominions, lordships, also, and powers in addition to these. The phrase,(5) "above every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come," leads us to believe that there are yet others besides these which are less familiar to us; one kind of these the Hebrews called Sabai, from which Sabaoth was formed, who is their ruler, and is none other than God. Add to all these the reasonable being who is mortal, man. Now the God of all things made first in honour some race of reasonable beings; this I consider to be those who are called gods, and the second order, let us say, for the present, are the thrones, and the third, undoubtedly, the dominions. And thus we come down in order to the last reasonable race, which, perhaps, cannot be any other than man. The Saviour accordingly became, in a diviner way than Paul, all things to all, that He might either gain all or perfect them; it is clear that to men He became a man, and to the angels an angel. As for His becoming man no believer has any doubt, but as to His becoming an angel, we shall find reason for believing it was so, if we observe carefully the appearances and the words of the angels, in some of which the powers of the angels seem to belong to Him. In several passages angels speak in such a way as to suggest this, as when(6) "the angel of the Lord appeared in a flame of fire. And he said. I am the God of Abraham and of Isaac and of Jacob." But Isaiah also says:(1) "His name is called Angel of Great Counsel." The Saviour, then, is the first and the last, not that He is not what lies between, but the extremities are named to show that He became all things. Consider, however, whether the last is man, or the things said to be under the earth, of which are the demons, all of them or some. We must ask, too, about those things which the Saviour became which He speaks of through the prophet David,(2) "And I became as a man without any to help him, free among the dead." His birth from the Virgin and His life so admirably lived showed Him to be more than man, and it was the same among the dead. He was the only free person there, and His soul was not left in hell. Thus, then, He is the first and the last. Again, if there be letters of God, as such there are, by reading which the saints may say they have read what is written on the tablets of heaven, these letters, by which heavenly things are to be read, are the notions, divided into small parts, into A and so on to W, the Son of God. Again, He is the beginning and the end, but He is this not in all His aspects equally. For He is the beginning, as the Proverbs teach us, inasmuch as He is wisdom; it is written: "The Lord rounded Me in the beginning of His ways. for His works." In the respect of His being the Logos He is not the beginning. "The Word was in the beginning." Thus in His aspects one comes first and is the beginning, and there is a second after the beginning, and a third, and so on to the end, as if He had said, I am the beginning. inasmuch as I am wisdom, and the second, perhaps, inasmuch as I am invisible, and the third in that I am life, for "what was made was life in Him." One who was qualified to examine and to discern the sense of Scripture might, no doubt, find many members of the series; I cannot say if he could find them all. "The beginning and the end" is a phrase we usually apply to a thing that is a completed unity; the beginning of a house is its foundation and the end the parapet. We cannot but think of this figure. since Christ is the stone which is the head of the corner, to the great unity of the body of the saved. For Christ the only-begotten Son is all and in all, He is as the beginning in the man He assumed, He is present as the end in the last of the saints, and He is also in those between, or else He is present

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as the beginning in Adam, as the end in His life on earth, according to the saying: "The last Adam was made a quickening spirit." This saying harmonizes well with the interpretation we have given of the first and the last.

35. CHRIST AS THE LIVING AND THE DEAD.

In what has been said about the first and the last, and about the beginning and the end, we have referred these words at one point to the different forms of reasonable beings, at another to the different conceptions of the Son of God. Thus we have gained a distinction between the first and the beginning, and between the last and the end, and also the distinctive meaning of A and W. It is not hard to see why he is called(1) "the Living and the Dead," and after being dead He that is alive for evermore. For since we were not helped by His original life, sunk as we were in sin, He came down into our deadness in order that, He having died to sin, we,(2) bearing about in our body the dying of Jesus. might then receive that life of His which is for evermore. For those who always carry about in their body the dying of Jesus shall obtain the life of Jesus also, manifested in their bodies.

36. CHRIST AS A SWORD.

The texts of the New Testament, which we have discussed, are things said by Himself about Himself. Isaiah, however, He said(3) that His mouth had been set by His Father as a sharp sword, and that He was hidden under the shadow of His hand, made like to a chosen shaft and kept close in the Father's quiver, called His servant by the God of all things, and Israel, and Light of the Gentiles. The mouth of the Son of God is a sharp sword, for(4) "The word of God is living, and active, and sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing to the dividing of soul and spirit, of both joints and marrow, and quick to discern the thoughts and intents of the heart." And indeed He came not to bring peace on the earth, that is, to corporeal and sensible things, but a sword, and to cut through, if I may say so, the disastrous friendship of soul and body, so that the soul, committing herself to the spirit which was against the flesh, may enter into friendship with God. Hence, according to the prophetic word, He made His mouth as a sword, as a sharp sword. Can any one behold so many wounded by the divine love, like her in the Song of Songs, who complained that she was wounded:(1) "I am wounded with love," and find the dart that wounded so many souls for the love of God, in any but Him who said, "He hath made Me as a chosen shaft."

37.CHRIST AS A SERVANT, AS THE LAMB OF GOD, AND AS THE MAN WHOM JOHN DID NOT KNOW.

Again, let any one consider how Jesus was to His disciples, not as He who sits at meat, but as He who serves, and how though the Son of God He took on Him the form of a servant for the sake of the freedom of those who were enslaved in sin, and he will be at no loss to account for the Father's saying to Him:(2) "Thou art My servant," and a little further on: "It is a great thing that thou shouldst be called My servant." For we do not hesitate to say that the goodness of Christ appears in a greater and more divine light, and more according to the image of the Father, because(3) "He humbled Himself, becoming obedient unto death, even the death of the cross," than if He had judged it a thing to be grasped to be equal with God, and had shrunk from becoming a servant for the salvation of the world. Hence He says,(4) desiring to teach us that in accepting this state of servitude He had received a great gift from His Father: "And My God shall be My strength. And He said to Me, It is a great thing for Thee to be called My servant." For if He had not become a servant, He would not have raised up the tribes of Jacob, nor have turned the heart of the diaspora of Israel, and neither would He have become a light of the Gentiles to be for salvation to the ends of the earth. And it is no great thing for Him to become a servant, even if it is called a great thing by His Father, for this is in comparison with His being called with an innocent sheep and with a lamb. For the Lamb of God became like an innocent sheep being led to the slaughter, that He may take away the sin of the world. He who supplies reason (logos to all is made like a lamb which is dumb before her shearer, that we might be purified by His death, which is given as a sort of medicine against the opposing power, and also against the sin of those who open their minds to the truth. For the death of Christ reduced to impotence those powers which war against the human race, and it set free

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from sin by a power beyond our words the life of each believer. Since, then, He takes away sin until every enemy shall be destroyed and death last of all, in order that the whole world may be free from sin, therefore John points to Him and says:(1) "Behold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world." It is not said that He will take it away in the future, nor that He is at present taking it, nor that He has taken it, but is not taking it away now. His taking away sin is still going on, He is taking it away from every individual in the world, till sin be taken away from the whole world, and the Saviour deliver the kingdom prepared and completed to the Father, a kingdom in which no sin is left at all, and which, therefore, is ready to accept the Father as its king, and which on the other hand is waiting to receive all God has to bestow, fully, and in every part, at that time when the saying(2) is fulfilled, "That God may be all in all." Further, we hear of a man who is said to be coming after John, who was made before him and was before him. This is to teach us that the man also of the Son of God, the man who was mixed with His divinity, was older than His birth from Mary. John says he does not know this man, but must he not have known Him when he leapt for joy when yet a babe unborn in Elisabeth's womb, as soon as the voice of Mary's salutation sounded in the ears of the wife of Zacharias? Consider, therefore, if the words "I know Him not" may have reference to the period before the bodily existence. Though he did not know Him before He assumed His body, yet he knew Him when yet in his mother's womb, and perhaps he is here learning something new about Him beyond what was known to him before, namely, that on whomsoever the Holy Spirit shall descend and abide on him, that is he who is to baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire. He knew him from his mother's womb, but not all about Him. He did not know perhaps that this is He who baptizes with the Holy Spirit and with fire, when he saw the Spirit descending and abiding on Him. Yet that He was indeed a man, and the first man, John did not know.

38. CHRIST AS PARACLETE, AS PROPITIATION, AND AS THE POWER OF GOD.

But none of the names we have mentioned expresses His representation of us with the Father, as He pleads for human nature, and makes atonement for it; the Paraclete, and the propitiation, and the atonement. He has the name Paraclete in the Epistle of John:(1) "If any man sin, we have a Paraclete with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous." And He is said in the same epistle to be the atonement(2) for our sins. Similarly, in the Epistle to the Romans, He is called a propitiation:(3) "Whom God set forth to be a propitiation through faith." Of this proportion there was a type in the inmost part of the temple, the Holy of Holies, namely, the golden mercy-seat placed upon the two cherubim. But how could He ever be the Paraclete, and the atonement, and the propitiation without the power of God, which makes an end of our weakness, flows over the souls of believers, and is administered by Jesus, who indeed is prior to it and Himself the power of God, who enables a man to say:(4) "I can do all things through Jesus Christ who strengtheneth me." Whence we know that Simon Magus, who gave himself the title of "The power of God, which is called great," was consigned to perdition and destruction, he and his money with him. We, on the contrary, who confess Christ as the true power of God, believe that we share with Him, inasmuch as He is that power, all things in which any energy resides.

39. CHRIST AS WISDOM AND SANCTIFICATION AND REDEMPTION.

We must not, however, pass over in silence that He is of right the wisdom of God, and hence is called by that name. For the wisdom of the God and Father of all things does not apprehend His substance in mere visions, like the phantasms of human thoughts. Whoever is able to conceive a bodiless existence of manifold speculations which extend to the rationale of existing things, living and, as it were, ensouled, he will see how well the Wisdom of God which is above every creature speaks of herself, when she says:(5) "God created me the beginning of His ways, for His works." By this creating act the whole creation was enabled to exist, not being unreceptive of that divine wisdom according to which it was brought into being; for God, according to the prophet David,(6) made all things in wisdom. But many things came into being by the help of wisdom, which do not lay hold of that by which they were created: and few things indeed there are which lay hold not only of that wisdom which con-

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cerns themselves, but of that which has to do with many things besides, namely, of Christ who is the whole of wisdom. But each of the sages, in proportion as he embraces wisdom, partakes to that extent of Christ, in that He is wisdom; just as every one who is greatly gifted with power, in proportion as he has power, in that proportion also has a share in Christ, inasmuch as He is power. The same is to be thought about sanctification and redemption; for Jesus Himself is made sanctification to us and redemption. Each of us is sanctified with that sanctification, and redeemed with that redemption. Consider, moreover, if the words "to us," added by the Apostle, have any special force. Christ, he says, "was made to us of God, wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption." In other passages, he speaks about Christ as being wisdom, without any such qualification, and of His being power, saying that Christ is the power of God and the wisdom of God, though we might have conceived that He was not the wisdom of God or the power of God, absolutely, but only for us. Now, in respect of wisdom and power, we have both forms of the statement, the relative and the absolute; but in respect of sanctification and redemption, this is not the case. Consider, therefore, since(1) "He that sanctifies and they that are sanctified are all of one," whether the Father is the sanctification of Him who is our sanctification, as, Christ being our head, God is His head. But Christ is our redemption because we had become prisoners and needed ransoming. I do not enquire as to His own redemption, for though He was tempted in all things as we are, He was without sin, and His enemies never reduced Him to captivity.

40. CHRIST AS RIGHTEOUSNESS; AS THE DEM