THE BISITUN (BEHISTUN) INSCRIPTION
From R. Kent, Old Persian: Grammar, Texts, Lexicon. (New Haven, 1950).
 
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Translation of  DB  I:

§1.1-3. I am Darius the Great King, King of Kings, King in Persia, King of countries, son of Hystaspes, grandson of Arsames, an Achaemenian.

§2.1.3-6. Saith Darius the King: My father was Hystaspes; Hystaspes' father was Arsames; Arsames' father was Ariaramnes; Ariaramnes' father was Teispes; Teispes' father was Achaemenes.

§3. 1.6-8. Saith Darius the King: For this reason we are called Achaemenians. From long ago we have been noble. From long ago our family had been kings.

§4. 1.8-11. Saith Darius the King: VIII of our family (there are) who were kings afore; I am the ninth; IX in succession we have been kings.

§5. 1.11-2. Saith Darius the King: By the favor of Ahuramazda I am King; Ahuramazda bestowed the kingdom upon me.

§6. 1.12-7. Saith Darius the King: These are the countries which came unto me; by the favor of Ahuramazda I was king of them: Persia, Elam, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, (those) who are beside the sea, Sardis, Ionia, Media, Armenia, Cappadocia, Parthia, Drangiana, Aria, Chorasmia, Bactria, Sogdiana, Gandara, Scythia, Sattagydia, Arachosia, Maka: in all, XXIII provinces.

§7. 1.17-20. Saith Darius the King: These are the countries which came unto me; by the favor of Ahuramazda they were my subjects; they bore tribute to me; what was said unto them by me either by night or by day, that was done.

§8. 1.20-4. Saith Darius the King: Within these countries, the man who was loyal, him I rewarded well; (him) who was evil, him I punished well; by the favor of Ahuramazda these countries showed respect toward my law; as was said to them by me, thus was it done.

§9. 1.24-6. Saith Darius the King: Ahuramazda bestowed the kingdom upon me; Ahuramazda bore me aid until I got possession of this kingdom; by the favor of Ahuramazda I hold this kingdom.

§10. 1.26-35. Saith Darius the King: This is what was done by me after that I became king. A son of Cyrus, Cambyses by name, of our family--he was king here. Of that Cambyses there was a brother, Smerdis by name, having the same mother and the same father as Cambyses. Afterwards, Cambyses slew that Smerdis. When Cambyses slew Smerdis, it did not become known to the people that Smerdis had been slain. Afterwards, Cambyses went to Egypt. When Cambyses had gone off to Egypt, after that the people became evil. After that the Lie waxed great in the country, both in Persia and in Media and in the other provinces.

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§11 1.35-43. Saith Darius the King: Afterwards, there was one man, a Magian, Gaumata by name; he rose up from Paishiyauvada. A mountain by name Arakadri--from there XIV days of the month Viyakhna were past when he rose up. He lied to the people thus: "I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus, brother of Camby8e8." After that, all the people became rebellious from Cambyses, (and) went over to him, both Persia and Media and the other provinces. He seized the kingdom; of the month Garmapada IX days were past, then he seized the kingdom. After that, Cambyses died by his own hand.

§12. 1.43-8. Saith Darius the King: This kingdom which Gaumata the Magian took away from Cambyses, this kingdom from long ago had belonged to our family. After that, Gaumata the Magian took (it) from Cambyses; he took to himself both Persia and Media and the other provinces, he made (them) his own possession, he became king.

§13. 1.48-61. Saith Darius the King: There was not a man, neither a Persian nor a Mede nor anyone of our family, who might make that Gaumata the Magian deprived of the kingdom. The people feared him greatly, (thinking that) he would slay in numbers the people who previously had known Smerdis; for this reason he would slay the people, "lest they know me, that I am not Smerdis the son of Cyrus." Not anyone dared say anything about Gaumata the Magian, until I came. After that I besought help of Ahuramazda; Ahuramazda bore me aid; of the month Bagayadi X days were past, then I with a few men slew that Gaumata the Magian, and those who were his foremost followers. A fortress by name Sikayauvati, a district by name Nisaya, in Media--there I slew him. I took the kingdom from him. By the favor of Ahuramazda, I became king; Ahuramazda bestowed the kingdom upon me.

§14. 1.61-71. Saith Darius the King: The kingdom which had been taken away from our family, that I put in its place; I reestablished it on its foundation. As before, so I made the sanctuaries which Gaumata the Magian destroyed. I restored to the people the pastures and the herds, the household slaves and the houses which Gaumata the Magian took away from them. I reestablished the people on its foundation, both Persia and Media and the other provinces. As before, so I brought back what had been taken away. By the favor of Ahuramazda this I did: I strove until I reestablished our royal house on its foundation as (it was) before. So I strove, by the favor of Ahuramazda, so that Gaumata the Magian did not remove our royal house.

§ 15. 1.71-2. Saith Darius the King: This is what I did after that I became king.

§16. 1.72-81. Saith Darius the King: When I had slain Gaumata the Magian, afterwards one man, by name Açina, son of Upadarma rose up in Elam. To the people thus he said: "I am king in Elam." Afterwards the Elamites, became rebellious, (and) went over to that Açina; he became king in Elam. And one man, a Babylonian, by name Nidintu-Bel, son of Ainaira--he rose up in Babylon; thus he deceived the people--"I am Nebuchadrezzar the son of Nabonidus." Afterwards the Babylonian people all went over to that Nidintu-Bel; Babylonia became rebellious; he seized the kingdom in Babylon.

§17. 1.81-3. Saith Darius the King: After that I sent (a message) to Elam. This Açina was led to me bound; I slew him.

§ 18. 1.83-90. Saith Darius the King: After that I went off to Babylon, against that Nidintu-Bel who called himself Nebuchadrezzar. The army of Nidintu-Bel held the Tigris; there it took its stand, and on account of the waters (the Tigris) was unfordable. Thereupon (some of) my army I supported on (inflated) skins, others I made came]borne, for others I brought horses. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda we got across the Tigris. There I smote that army of Nidintu-Bel exceedingly; of the month Açiyadiya XXVI days were past, then we fought the battle.

§19. 1.90-6. Saith Darius the King: After that I went off to Babylon. When I had not arrived at Babylon, a town by name Zazana, beside the Euphrates-there this Nidintu-Bel who called himself Nebuchadrezzar came with an army against me, to deliver battle. Thereupon we joined battle; Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda I smote that army of Nidintu-Bel exceedingly. The rest was thrown into the water, (and) the water carried it away. Of the month Anamaka 11 days were past, then we fought the battle.

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Translation of DB II:

§20. 2.1-5. Saith Darius the King: After that, Nidintu-Bel with a few horsemen fled; he went off to Babylon. Thereupon I went to Babylon. By the favor of Ahuramazda. both I seized Babylon and I took that Nidintu-Bel prisoner. After that, I slew that Nidintu-Bel at Babylon.

§21. 2.5-8. Saith Darius the King: While I was in Babylon, these are the provinces which became rebellious from me: Persia, Elam, Media, Assyria, Egypt, Parthia, Margiana, Sattagydia, Scythia.

§22. 2.8-11. Saith Darius the King: One man, by name Martiya, son of Cincikhri-a town by name Kuganaka, in Persia-there he abode. He rose up in Elam; to the people thus he said, "I am Imanish, king in Elam."

§23. 2.11-3. Saith Darius the King: At that time I was near unto Elam. Thereupon the Elamites were afraid of me; they seized that Martiya who was their chief, and slew him.

§24. 2.13-7. Saith Darius the King: One man, by name Phraortes, a Median--he rose up in Media. To the people thus he said, "I am Khshathrita, of the family of Cyaxares." Thereafter the Median army which (was) in the palace, became rebellious from me, (and) went over to that Phraortes. He became king in Media.

§25. 2.18-29. Saith Darius the King: The Persian and Median army which was with me, this was a small (force). Thereupon I sent forth an army. A Persian by name Hydarnes, my subject-him I made chief of them; thus I said to them: "Go forth, smite that Median army which does not call itself mine!" Thereupon this Hydarnes with the army marched off. When he arrived in Media, a town by name Maru, in Media--there he joined battle with the Medes. He who was chief among the Medes, he at that time was not there. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly. Of the month Anamaka XXVII days were past, then the battle was fought by them. Thereafter this army of mine, a district by name Kampanda, in Media- there it waited for me until I arrived in Media.

§26. 2.29-37. Saith Darius the King: An Armenian by name Dadarshi, my subject--him I sent forth to Armenia. Thus I said to him: "Go forth, that rebellious army which does not call itself mine, that do thou smite!" Thereupon Dadarshi marched off. When he arrived in Armenia, thereafter the rebels assembled (and) came out against Dadarshi to join battle. A place by name Zuzahya, in Armenia--there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Thuravahara VIII days were past, then the battle was fought by them.

§27. 2.37-42. Saith Darius the King: Again a second time the rebels assembled (and) came out against Dadarshi to join battle. A stronghold by name Tigra, in Armenia-there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army

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exceedingly; of the month Thuravahara XVIII days were past, then the battle was fought by them.

§28. 2.42--9. Saith Darius the King: Again a third time the rebels assembled (and) came out against Dadarshi to join battle. A fortress by name Uyama, in Armenia-there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Thaigarci IX days were past, then the battle was fought by them. Thereafter Dadarshi waited for me until I arrived in Media.

§29. 2.49-57. Saith Darius the King: Thereafter a Persian by name Vaumisa, my subject-him I sent forth to Armenia. Thus I said to him: "Go forth; the rebellious army which does not call itself mine-that do thou smite!" Thereupon Vaumisa marched off. When he arrived in Armenia, then the rebels assembled (and) came out against Vaumisa to join battle. A district by name Izala, in Assyria--there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Anamaka XV days were past, then the battle was fought by them.

§30. 2.57-63. Saith Darius the King: Again a second time the rebels assembled (and) came out against Vaumisa to join battle. A district by name Autiyara, in Armenia--there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; on the last day of the month Thuravahara--then the battle was fought by them. After that, Vaumisa waited for me in Armenia until I arrived in Media.

§31. 2.64-70. Saith Darius the King: Thereafter I went away from Babylon (and) arrived in Media. When I arrived in Media, a town by name Kunduru, in Media-there this Phraortes who called himself king in Media came with an army against me to join battle. Thereafter we joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda that army of Phraortes I smote exceedingly; of the month Adukanaisha XXV days were past, then we fought the battle.

§32. 2.70-8. Saith Darius the King: Thereafter this Phraortes with a few horsemen fled; a district by name Rap, in Media-along there he went off. Thereafter I sent an army in pursuit; Phraortes, seized, was led to me. I cut off his nose and ears and tongue, and put out one eye; he was kept bound at my palace entrance, all the people saw him. Afterward I impaled him at Ecbatana; and the men who were his foremost followers, those at Ecbatana within the fortress I (flayed and) hung out (their hides, stuffed with straw).

§33. 2.78-91. Saith Darius the King: One man by name Ciçantakhma, a Sagartian--he became rebellious, to me; thus he said to the people, "I am king in Sagartia, of the family of Cyaxares." Thereupon I sent off a Persian and Median army; a Mede by name Takhmaspada, my subject--him I made chief of them. Thus I said to them: "Go forth; the hostile army which shall not call itself mine, that do ye smite!" Thereupon Takhmaspada with the army went off; he joined battle with Ciçantakhma. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army and took Ciçantakhma prisoner, (and) led him to me. Afterwards I cut off both his nose and ears, and put out one eye, he was kept bound at my palace entrance all the people saw him. Afterwards I impaled him at Arbela.

§34. 2,91-2. Saith Darius the King: This is what was done by me in Media.

§35. 2.92-8. Saith Darius the King: Parthia and Hyrcania became rebellious from me, called themselves (adherents) of Phraortes. Hystaspes my father-he was in Parthia; him the people abandoned, became rebellious. Thereupon Hystaspes went forth with the army which wag faithful to him. A town by name Vishpauzati, in Parthia--there he joined battle with the Parthians. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda Hystaspes smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Viyakhna XXII days were past--then the battle was fought by them.

Translation of DB III:

§36. 3.1-9. Saith Darius the King: After that I sent forth a Persian army to Hysta8pes, from Rap. When this army came to Hystaspes, thereupon Hystaspes took that army (and) marched out. A town by name Patigrabana, in Parthia--there he joined battle with the rebels. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda Hystaspes smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Garmapada 1 day was past--then the battle was fought by them.

§37. 3.9-10. Saith Darius the King: After that the province became mine. This is what was done by me in Parthia.

§38. 3.1". Saith Darius the King: A province by name Margiana--it became rebellious to me. One man by name Frada, a Margian--him they made chief. Thereupon I sent forth against him a Persian by name Dadarshi, my subject, satrap in Bactria. Thus I said to him: "Go forth, Smite that army which does not call itself mine!" After that, Dadarshi marched out with the army; he joined battle with the Margiana. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Açiyadiya XXIII days were past--then the battle was fought by them.

§39. 3.19-21. Saith Darius the King: After that the province became mine. This is what was done by me in Bactria.

§40. 3.21-8. Saith Darius the King: One man by name Vahyazdata--a town by name Tarava, a district by name Yautiya, in Persia--there he abode. He made the second uprising in Persia. To the people thus he mid: "I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus." Thereupon the Persian army which (was) in the palace, (having come) from Anshan previously--it became rebellious from me, went over to that Vshyazdata. He became king in Persia.

§41. 3.28-40. Saith Darius the King: Thereupon I sent forth the Persian and Median army which was by me. A Persian by name Artavardiya, my subject-him I made chief of them. The rest of the Persian army went forth behind me to Media. Thereupon Artavardiya with his army went forth to Persia. When he arrived in Persia, a town by name Rakha, in Persia--there this Vahyazdata who called himself Smerdis came with his army against Artavardiya, to join battle. Thereupon they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army Smote that army of Vahyazdata exceedingly; of the month Thuravahara XII days were past--then the battle was fought by them.

§42. 3.40-9. Saith Darius the King: After that, this Vahyazdata with a few horsemen fled; be went off to Paishiyauvada. From there he got an army; later he came against Artavardiya to join battle. A mountain by name Parga--there they joined battle. Ahuramazda, bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that army of Vahyazdata exceedingly; of the month Garmapada V days were past-then the battle was fought by them, and that Vahyazdata they took prisoner, and those who were his foremost followers they captured.

§43. 3,49-52. Saith Darius the King: After that I that Vahyazdata and those who were his foremost followers--a town by name Uvadaicaya, in Persia-there them I impaled.

§44. 3.52-3. Saith Darius the King: This is what was done by me in Persia.

§45. 3.54-44. Saith the King: This Vahyazdata who called himself Smerdis had sent an army to Arachosia--Persian by name Vivana, my subject, satrap in Arachosia--against him; and he had made one man their chief. Thus he said to them: "Go forth; smite Vivian and that army which calls itself King Darius’s!" Thereupon this army marched off, which Vahyazdata had sent forth against Vivian, to join battle. A fortress by name Kapishakani--there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army [Page 128] exceedingly; of the month Anamaka XIII days were past-then the battle was fought by them.

§46. 3.64.-9. Saith Darius the King: Again later the rebels assembled (and) came out against Vivian to join battle. A district by name Gandutava--there they joined battle. Ahuramazda, bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda. my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly; of the month Viyakhna VII days were past-then the battle was fought by them.

§47. 3.69-75. Saith Darius the King: After that, this man who was the chief of that army which Vahyazdata had sent forth against Vivian -he fled with a few horsemen (and) got away. A fortress by name Arshada, in Arachosia--past that he went. Afterwards Vivian with his army went off in pursuit of them; there he took him prisoner and the men who were his foremost followers, (and) slew (them).

§48. 75-6. Saith Darius the King: After that the province became mine. This is what was done by me in Arachosia.

§49. 3.76-83. Saith Darius the King: While I was in Persia and Media, again a second time the Babylonians became rebellious from me. One man by name Arkha, an Armenian, son of Haldita--he rose up in Babylon. A district by name Dubala--from there he thus lied to the people: "I am Nebuchadrezzar the son of Nabonidus." Thereupon the Babylonian people became rebellious from me, (and) went over to that Arkha. He seized Babylon; he became king in Babylon.

§50. 3.83-92. Saith Darius the King: Thereupon I sent forth an army to Babylon. A Persian by name Intaphernes, my subject--him I made chief of them. Thus I said to them: "Go forth; that Babylonian army smite, which shall not call itself mine!" Thereupon Intaphernes with the army marched off to Babylon. Ahuramazda bore me aid; by the favor of Ahuramazda Intaphernes smote the Babylonians and led them in bonds; of the month Varkazana XXII days were past--then that Arkha who falsely called himself Nebuchadrezzar and the men who were his foremost followers he took prisoner. I issued an order: this Arkha and the men who were his foremost followers were impaled at Babylon.

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Translation of DB IV:

§51. 4.1-2. Saith Darius the King: This is what was done by me in Babylon.

§52. 4.2-31. Saith Darius the King: This is what I did by the favor of Ahuramazda in one and the same year after that I became king. XIX battles I fought; by the favor of Ahuramazda I smote them and took prisoner IX kings. One was Gaumata by name, a Magian; he lied; thus he said: "I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus;" he made Persia rebellious. One, Açina by name, an Elamite; he lied; thus he said: "I am king in Elam;" he made Elam rebellious to me. One, Nidintu-Bel by name, a Babylonian; he lied; thus he said: "I am Nebuchadrezzar, the son of Nabonidus; he made Babylon rebellious. One, Martiya, by name, a Persian; he lied; thus he said- "I am Imanish, king in Elam;" he made Elam rebellious. One, Phraortes by name, a Mede; he lied; thus he said: "I am Khshathrita, of the family of Cyaxares;" he made Media rebellious. One Ciçantakhma by name, a Sagartian; he lied; thus he said: "I am king in Sagartia, of the family of Cyaxares;" he made Sagartia rebellious. One, Frada by name, a Margian; be lied; thus he said: "I am king in Margiana;" he made Margiana rebellious. One, Vahyazdata by name, a Persian; he lied; thus he said: "I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus;" he made Persia rebellious. One, Arkha by name, an Armenian; he lied; thus he said: "I am Nebuchadrezzar, the son of Nabonidus;" he made Babylon rebellious.

§53. 4.31-2. Saith Darius the King: These IX kings I took prisoner within these battles.

§54. 4.33-6.Saith Darius the King: Them are the provinces which became rebellious. The Lie made them rebellious, so that these (men) deceived the people. Afterwards Ahuramazda put them into my hand; as was my desire, so I did unto them.

§55. 4.36-40. Saith Darius the King: Thou who shalt be king hereafter, protect thyself vigorously from the Lie; the man who shall be a Lie-follower, him do thou punish well, if thus thou shalt think, "May my country be secure!"

§56. 4.40-3. Saith Darius the King: This is what I did; by the favor of Ahuramazda, in one and the same year I did (it). Thou who shalt hereafter read this inscription, let that which has been done by me convince thee; do not thou think it a lie.

§57. 4.43-5. Saith Darius the King: I turn myself quickly to Ahuramazda, that this (is) true, not false, (which) I did in one and the same year.

§58. 4.45-50. Saith Darius the King: By the

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favor of Ahuramazda and of me much else was done; that has not been inscribed in this inscription; for this reason it has not been inscribed, lest whoso shall hereafter read this inscription, to him what has been done by me seem excessive, (and) it not convince him, (but) he think it false.

§59. 4.50-2. Saith Darius the King: Those who were the former kings, as long as they lived, by them was not done thus as by the favor of Ahuramazda was done by me in one and the same year.

§60. 4.52-6. Saith Darius the King: Now let that which has been done by me convince thee; thus to the people impart, do not conceal it: if this record thou shalt not conceal, (but) tell it to the people, may Ahuramazda be a friend unto thee, and may family be unto thee in abundance, and may thou live long!

§61. 4.57-9. Saith Darius the King: If this record thou shalt conceal, (and) not tell it to the people, may Ahuramazda be a smiter unto thee, and may family not be to thee!

§62. 4.59-61. Saith Darius the King: This which I did, in one and the same year by the favor of Ahuramazda I did; Ahuramazda bore me aid, and the other gods who are.

§63. 4.61-7. Saith Darius the King: For this reason Ahuramazda bore aid, and the other gods who are, because I was not hostile, I was not a Lie-follower, I was not a doer of wrong--neither I nor my family. According to righteousness I conducted myself. Neither to the weak nor to the powerful did I do wrong. The man who cooperated with my house, him I rewarded well; whoso did injury, him I punished well.

§64. 4.67-9. Saith Darius the King: Thou who shalt be king hereafter, the man who shall be a Lie--follower or who shall be a doer of wrong--unto them do thou not be a friend, (but) punish them well.

§65. 4.69-72. Saith Darius the King: Thou who shalt hereafter behold this inscription which I have inscribed, or these sculptures, do thou not destroy them, (but) thence onward protect them, as long as thou shalt be in good strength!

§66. 4.72-6. Saith Darius the King: If thou shalt behold this inscription or these sculptures, (and) shalt not destroy them and shalt protect them as long as unto thee there is strength, may Ahuramazda be a friend unto thee, and may family be unto thee in abundance, and may thou live long, and what thou shalt do, that may Ahuramazda make successful for thee!

§67. 4.76-80. Saith Darius the King: If thou shalt behold this inscription or these sculptures, (and) shalt destroy them and shalt not protect them as long as unto thee there is strength, may Ahuramazda be a smiter unto thee, and may family not be unto thee, and what thou shalt do, that for thee may Ahuramazda utterly destroy!

§68. 4.80-6. Saith Darius the King: These are the men who were there at the time when I slew Gaumata the Magian who called himself Smerdis; at that time these men cooperated as my followers: Intaphernes by name, son of Vayaspara, a Persian; Otanes by name, son of Thukhra, a Persian; Gobryas by name, son of Mardonius, a Persian; Hydarnes by name, son of Bagabigna, a Persian; Megabyzus by name, son of Datuvahya, a Persian; Ardumanish by name, son of Vahauka, a Persian.

§69. 4.86-8. Saith Darius the King: Thou who shalt be king hereafter, protect well the family of these men.

§70. 4.88-92. Saith Darius the King: By the favor of Aburamazda this is the inscription which I made. Besides, it was in Aryan, and on clay tablets and on parchment it was composed. Besides, a sculptured figure of myself I made. Besides, I made my lineage. And it was inscribed and was read off before me. Afterwards this inscription I sent off everywhere among the provinces. The people unitedly worked upon it.

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Translation of DB V:

§71. 5.1-14. Saith Darius the King: This is what I did in both the second and the third Year af ter that I became king. A province by name Elam--this became rebellious. One man by name Atamaita, an Elamite--him they made chief. Thereupon I sent forth an army. One man by name Gobryas, a Persian, my subject--him I made chief of them. After that, Gobryas with the army marched off to Elam; he joined battle with the Elamites. Thereupon Gobryas smote and crushed the Elamites, and captured the chief of them; he led him to me, and I killed him. After that the province became mine.

§72. 5.14-7. Saith Darius the King: Those Elamites were faithless and by them Ahuramazda, was not worshipped. I worshipped Ahuramazda; by the favor of Ahuramazda, as was my desire, thus I did unto them.

§73. 5.18-20. Saith Darius the King: Whoso shall worship Ahuramazda, divine blessing will be upon him, both (while) living and (when) dead.

§74. 5.20-30. Saith Darius the King: Afterwards with an army I went off to Scythia, after the Scythians who wear the pointed cap. These Scythians went from me. When I arrived at the sea, beyond it then with all my army I crowed Afterwards, I smote the Scythians exceedingly; another (leader) I took captive; this one was led bound to me, and I slew him. The chief of them, by name Skunkha--hirn they seized and led to me. Then I made another their chief, as was my desire. After that, the province became mine.

§75. 5.30-3. Saith Darius the King: Those Scythians ... (= DB 5.15-7).

§76. 5.33--6. . . . (= DB 5.18-20).