APPENDIX History of The Roman Empire and Roman Papacy Traced. Also the Rise and Progress of Islamic Empires of Arabs and Turks.
The maps used here are collated from four different history books listed below. They are taken from secular text books for the documented evidence of the historical data. Much can be learned from maps.
Map number 1: shows the Roman Empire while it was still a neat package of Dioceses. This could represent Rome for several hundred years previously. This map is chosen because it shows Rome just before the chaotic breakup of its continuous, static, and almost monotonous territorial existence. That territorial tranquility was going to change. The harbinger of change had already happened in the battle of Hadrianople, with the fall of a Roman army and its emperor, Valens, to the Goths in 378 A.D. This would be the last time in history a map would be drawn showing Rome in so orderly an arrangement.
Map number 2: This map corresponds to a period just closing which is described in Revelation 7:1-3 as a time of the growth and triumph of the Christian church. In Revelation the four angels are commanded to hold back the four winds.
(1) And after these things I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree. (2) And I saw another angel ascending from the east, having the seal of the living God: and he cried with a loud voice to the four angels, to whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea, (3) Saying, Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads.You would naturally suppose that after the period of sealing the servants of God that one would say, "loose the four winds." And so the map looks like the winds are blowing. The movement of many barbarian nations are recorded on this map including the four who made direct attacks on Rome. You can see that the dates show the Goths who burned the land were first, by 410, followed by the sack of Rome by the Vandals, then by the Huns, who had moved into the area first but were next after the Vandals in their visit to the city of Rome. The Ostro-Gothic Odoacer finished this sequence in 476 and brought about the end of Rome in the West.
Into this vacuum of power the bishop of Rome would move and by 533 he would have the authority of Justinian the eastern Emperor to back him up.
Map number 3: shows the expansion of Islam. Mohammedans had started their conquests by 632. This map shows the extent of their holdings in 750. The eastern portion of the Roman Empire had just lost another one third of its area and henceforth would have just those parts that are shaded on the map. This map is an outline of the area just a few years before the Papacy got its first temporal holdings.
Map number 4: shows the empire of Charlemagne in 814. It would later be passed on in the name of the Holy Roman Empire. By this time Charlemagne wore the title of Emperor of the Romans. The Patrimony of Peter included all three Papal states by 800, which are clearly marked on this map. Also on this map see the extent of Arab conquests and the eastern empire now called Byzantine.
Map number 5: is dated around 840. Charlemagne had been crowned the emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo in the year 800 on December 25 in St, Peter's in Rome.. The Papal States had already been acquired, beginning in 755. Upon his death, Charlemagne's empire had been divided by his three sons. Lothair inherited the Imperial crown. Note the Papal States on the map, called the States of the Church, which indicates the Pope was a temporal ruler as well as spiritual, from this time with only brief intermissions due to wars until 1870.
Map number 6: is dated 1190 and shows the further reduction of the Byzantine Empire due to the rise of the Turks who have occupied all former Arab lands and have taken most of Asia minor. Also see that the most important political division of Europe is called the Holy Roman Empire and the Papal States are called the Patrimony of Peter. This political power in Europe of Papacy ruling temporal lands and crowning the kings of Europe was about 400 years old at the time this map depicts.
Map number 7: This map shows Italy in the same period (12th century) as map number 6 to give a clearer view of central Italy by a different historian.. Notice the dominance of what is called Papal Possessions in central Italy.
Map 1390: The Crusades were still under way during this period with the Holy Land still a prize to be won from the Turks by Western Christendom. The Pope was using the very real threat of the Turks to support his need for a Papal temporal dominion with armed forces. Indeed the Turks were threatening to roast the Pope on the altar of St Peter's. Byzantium or the Eastern Roman Empire was reduced to just a foot hold in Europe and the western part of Asia Minor. It would pass away in 63 years from the date of this map with the fall of Constantinople in 1453. In spite of all the changes the Papal States still were the center of political power in Europe. The Pope still ratified the Emperor and the kings of Europe.
` Map number 8: shows the political conditions of Europe in the era of the Protestant Reformation. (1500's) Notice that there has been no damage to the political power of the Papacy by the Protestant Revolt.. See on the Map that the Holy Roman Empire is still alive and well even in Protestant northern Europe. The Pope still ratified the crowning of Emperor and the kings of Europe through the Holy Roman Empire and the temporal Papal States which are clearly marked on this map. See also that the Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium, no longer exists. The end of the Roman Empire in the east came in 1453 with the fall of Constantinople to the Turks. See on the map that the Turks have occupied all of Greece, Macedonia, and Hungary. They are at the peak of their power in the period depicted in this map.
Map number 9: shows a close-up of Italy in the same period as map number 8. (16th Century) The States of the Church clearly dominate central Italy. This use of temporal power is now more than 700 years old at the time this map depicts.
Map number 10: shows Europe 200 years after the time of map number 9. The States of the Church have not declined in political power and clearly dominate central Italy. Even though the Protestant Reformation has changed much of northern Europe, by this time, the political system is still feudal and the Holy Roman Emperor is a German, hence the Holy Roman Empire is called the German Empire on this map. The feudal system in Germany still depended for its temporal authority on a pyramid of ascending vassals and lords with the Pope at the top even though northern Europe was more Protestant than Papal.
Map number 11: in 1789 shows the map of Europe just before the overthrow of the old order. The Holy Roman Empire and Papal States are still the dominant force at the threshold of the French Revolution. Note that beside Papal States and The Holy Roman Empire there are huge areas in black that are church lands in central Europe. No wonder there was a revolution. The Holy Roman Empire is just short of 1,000 years old at this time. The Papal States' temporal rule over land in central Italy, by a continuous line of Popes, is over 1,000 year old at this time. That is a long time to hold continuous unbroken authority. In this book we have made it a point of importance to show that this feudal authority should have been broken by the Protestant Revolt, but was not. Read the chapter on the Little Book to see why.
Map number 12: shows Europe as it appeared for a short period during the Napoleonic wars. The Holy Roman Empire is gone from the map of Europe forever! Over 1,000 years of history now past! The Papal States do not appear on this map of Europe in 1810 because they were occupied by French troops under Napoleon for a few years. The Pope was actually imprisoned in Avignon. But that did not last since the Pope's "temporality" was restored in a few years after the defeat of Napoleon as the next map will show..
Map number 13: shows Europe after 1815 and the Congress of Vienna, which tried but failed to revive the old order after Napoleon had made such a mess of it. Nationalism was clearly the wave of the future, however, the Papal States were taken from the French armies and given back into the Pope's hands by these European statesmen at Vienna, as clearly marked on this map. The Pope was restored after a brief interruption to still be a temporal ruler with statehood, although seriously weakened, by the events of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. These were the first blows to his temporal authority. According to the scheme in Revelation, historical interpreters of the period were looking for the end of the 1260 years ` and the end of the Turkish woe, the sounding of the 7th trumpet to be followed historically by the loss of the Papal States and temporal authority for the Pope as the next step. They were not disappointed. See the chapter in this book on the pouring out of the bowls. Notice also, the Turkish Ottoman Empire still makes a formidable appearance on this map, but this is the last time she will appear strong.
Map number 14: This is it! -- the end of the Papal States! Although the States of the Church appear on this map of central Italy, they are only delineated there to show what dates they were permanently taken from the Papacy. Italian unity was effected during the period 1848 to 1870. Portions of the Papal States were lost in 1848; the largest part was lost in 1860 as shown on this map, and the portion around Rome was finally taken in 1870 by invading Italian armies, which the Pope's armies fought with cannons, yes cannons, until the Italians under Victor Emmanuel, had breached the walls of Rome. This is described in detail in the chapter on the Pouring out of the Bowls
Map number 15: shows a more familiar Europe and is included to remind the reader that the Papal States have disappeared forever from the political maps of Europe but may we also remind you, the aspirations to a restored authority and the claim of legal validity to the right to that authority has not disappeared from the Papal system! Well over 1,100 years of history saw the Roman Pontiff as a political figure who ran a human government and entered world politics including waging war as his government's policy. That period is now over, not due to Papal desires, mind you, because they have not repented!
Map number 16: shows the convergence of the two part thrust of the Cimmerian Celts and the Muski which brought about the end of the Hittite Empire about 1200 B.C. These maps are found in the following books. See the Bibliography for more detailed description of the sources.
Greer, Thomas H.; A Brief History of Man, To 1650; Harcourt, Brace, Janvanovich, Inc. New York, 1972. Map 4.
Gurney, O.R.; The Hittites; Penguin, London, 1972. Map 16.
Hyma, & Rickard; Ancient, Medieval and Modern History; Barnes and Noble, 1965. Maps: 1, 2,5,6, 8, 9, 11, to 15.
Scheville, Ferdinand; A History of Europe from the Reformation to the Present Day; Harcourt, Brace, New York, 1946. Maps 9, 10.
Shotwell, James; An Introduction to the History of Western Europe; Ginn and Company, 1934. Map 7.
Wells, H.G.; Outline of History; Garden City, New York, 1930. Map 3.