The Great Isaiah Scroll 45:21 to 47:11
This is the 3rd page of 4 on the 12th strip of leather that makes up the scroll. There are very few blemishes on this page except for a small tear at the top middle and a slight crease mark at the lower right. Otherwise this page is in good condition with all letters easily read. But this is the end of most of the "easy reading" we made note of in page 37.
Paragraphs and Spatiums:
There are no paragraphs indicated by indentations but three paragraphs are indicated by incomplete filling of a line. New paragraphs begin: in line 8: = 46:3; and line 18 = 46:12 and line 20 is the first verse in chapter 47.
There are 7 spatiums on this page marking breaks in thought that correspond to current versification. The spatiums: in line 5: = the first verse of chapter 46; in line 10; = 46:5; in line 13: = 46:8; in line 14; = 46:9; and there are 2 in line 23: = chapter 47:4 and 5; and in line 27: = 47:8.
There are no editorial marks on this page.
Editorial additions to the text:
There are few editorial additions on this page. An exception may be above the 5th word in line 28. There a mark resembling a waw but more like a misprint is seen. In M the word calls for schva and a holem as pointing. But a waw is edited above the last word in line 23.
Q Scribal Spelling:
The addition of aleph to the end of short words, the addition of "he" to suffixes and waw as a semi-vowel indicator of any vowel sound and as a substitute for yod and yod for waw is continued: thus we will not notice the individual occurrences on this page of these differences from the M text. Except you may look on line 21: 3rd word for an example of interchanging waw where yod is the obvious reading.
Variations in Q from the Masoretic Text:
Line 4: 9th word: Q = imp 3ms "y 'omer" and M = pf 3ms. " 'amar".
Line 6: 5th word nos'uteykemah (your burdens or that which is carried) There is a dot over the nun which appears to be a holem. The holem as a masoretic vowel point for long oh sound creates a controversy in chronology. See more in the introduction on controversial marks. Line 6: 3rd from last word: a different reading: Q = "mashmiy'eyhemah" a 5th stem m.pl. part.. of "shama' " (cause to hear or your announcements? or ?) plus 2mpl suf.; The same form is translated "sounding" in 1 Chron 15:16. And M = "masa' la-'ayephah" (a burden to the weary).
Line 7: last word: Q = "halku" pf 3mpl (they have gone) and M "halakah" pf 3fs(she has gone)
Line 8: 1st word: Q = "shem'a" pf 3ms (hear) and M = "shem'u" pf 3mpl. 10th word: Q = "mimeniy" and M = "miniy" last word: Q = "miniy" but it appears that "mimeniy" was written and the first letter rubbed out.
Line 9: last word: Q = " 'anachnu" 1cpl pr noun (we) and M = " 'aniy" 1cs pr noun (I). Only careless attention can account for this mistake in Q. It is contextually impossible.
Line 10: next to last word: Q = "ve-'admah" (and earth) and M = "ve-nidmeh" (comparison to another thing). The context clearly needs the M text and the insertion of "earth" is further evidence to the careless or less than cognitive copying of the Q scribe. He gets a poor mark here.
Line 11: 7th and 10th words: Q = all the rest of the five verbs in this verse are 3mpl and so are these 2 in M but the Q scribe wrote these two as 3ms. 6th word A good example of waw for shva.
Line 12: last word: Q = "yiz'aq" (cry out) and M = "yits'aq" (call out as in pain). words 1 and 4 end in hiy instead of hu for 3ms suffix.
Line 14 and others: There are too many misplaced yods for waws and waws for yods in this section for it to be a mistake. It may indicate a different pronunciation for these endings and suffixes among the Qumran community. Other additions of syllables with aleph and he at the end of a word and additions of yod to 2fs suffixes and feminine endings in he may indicate a different accent and pronunciation in what we already know was a different dialect of Hebrew than that which was spoken by those educated in Jerusalem. These are indications that the dialect varied from the "norm" more than previously thought.
Line 15: last word: Q = "ye'aseh" 3ms imp [an obvious mistake] and M = " 'e-'aseh" 1cs imp. (I will do or make).
Line 16: 1st word: Q = spelling "qore' " (part. calling) with final "he" and not aleph. The Q scribe alternates between this mistaken and the correct spelling. it is spelled properly in line 21: 3rd word and again see the same in Line 24: 7th word.
Line 18: 6th word: Q = "qarovah tsadaqtiy" (my righteousness is near) and M = "qaravtiy tsadaqtiy" (I will bring my righteousness near)
Line 21: 3rd word: Q = a waw begins the word where yod is the obvious reading. (see the same also in line 24: 7th word) The interchange of waw for yod and yod for waw is an often found anomaly of the Q scribe. This observation makes little difference here but it does in Isaiah 49:12 where modern editors ascribe "seveynim" (Aswan) to Q instead of siniym (China) which is the reading when this anomaly of the Q scribe is understood. See page 41.
Line 22: 1st word: Q = "sholeyke" noun + suf 2fs (your robe) and M = "shobel" (leg). This line also has good examples of the consistent use of kaph only (without a "heh" thus "ke") to indicate 2fs suf. (3 times 1st, 6th and 8th words). Q scribe uses "kah" for 2ms suf.
Line 25: next to last word: You must pardon my asterisk over "hikbadtiy" which is the 1cs verbal form of "hikbiyd" 5th stem pf 3ms, which is crucial to the proper translation of Isaiah 9:1. All moderns translate "hikbiyd" as honor or glorification in 9:1 which is a mistake. Here the 5th stem counterpart of "hikbiyd" in Q is 5th stem pf and has the appearance of 1csing but it is actually 2fs... [Although "hikbadtiy" with "tiy" ending may be the Q scribe's form of 2fs: see note under line 30 below] Also see the next note marked Line 25 6th word: for another example of "tiy" ending being 2fs. M = 2fs "hikbadte." (you have very heavily laid). In any case the word can not carry the idea of glory here but there is in the 5th stem a transmutative change in meaning from the root of "cavod" which may mean glory in some cases. But the root itself which often means glory, very frequently has a negative kind of heaviness in its meaning. There is no place in scripture where the 5th stem carries any other idea but a heavy chain or yoke or punishment.
Line 25: 6th word: Same as above. This is a good example of Q adding a yod to 2fs qal pf. verb "te" ending. M = "samte" (you put) Q renders the same form "samtiy." Which makes it look like 1cs "I" instead of "you." The subject of this verb is Chaldea. Hebrew Kasdiyym. The ending for 1cs is also "tiy" so one has to observe the context to see which is required. Adding yod to 2fs is frequent but not consistent. See line 30 for examples in words 1, 5, 6, 8, and 10 where no yod is added to 2fs suf.
Line 26 8th 11th and last words: Again Q = a yod added to 2fs endings including tau and kaf making tiy and kiy as 2fs. Which is common Q grammar. See words 7, 10 and 11.
Line 27: 1st word: Q = " 'acharonah" (her end) and M = " 'acharithah" (the latter end of it).
Line 28: 6th word: Q = " 'era'eh" (I will see) [not] and M = " 'e:da' " (I will know) [not].
Line 29: 6th word: Q = an example of correction of a simple scribal error probably by the scribe himself. The scribe originally wrote a kaph and corrected this by inscribing a beth with the "tail" of the final kaph left hanging down. The beth is correct.
Line 30: 2nd word: Q = addition of yod to the end of 2fs pf verb.