The Great Isaiah Scroll 47:11 to 49:4
This is the 4th and last page on the 12th strip of leather that makes up the scroll. The seam at the left shows a little restitching but is in very good condition. A small piece of leather has chipped away at the bottom of the seam and there are a few small tears at top and bottom but only those at the bottom extend into the text area.
There are four blemishes on the page one is in the blank place between lines 4 and 5 but causes no problem. The second is at the end of line 19 where it is possible that an attempted erasure by an editor to amend the text was aborted. The third is just below this in line 20 where a word has been obliterated (perhaps erased) but there is no text missing; and the fourth is in line 29 where a letter obliterated by the blemish is edited darkly above the next letter.
Smudges, at least one of which is likely a finger print caused by clumsy editing can be seen in lines 19 at the left side and mid page between lines 19 to 22 and again in line 29 associated with a crudely written kaph that was edited between the lines. See page 44 for a more obvious fingerprint and links to other pages with fingerprints.
Paragraphs and Spatiums:
Paragraphs are shown by not filling out the last line or by indenting the next line after a line which ends a paragraph is completely filled. There are two indentations on this page. Paragraphs begin on Lines : 6 = chapter 48:1 and line 17 = 48:12; and line 23 = 48:17; and line 25 = 48:20; and line 28 = chapter 49:1; and line 31 = 49:4.
Spatiums which show a break in thought are here consistent with current versification. They are in lines: 8 = 48:3 and line 15 = 48:10.
There are two sets of horizontal marks on this page setting off two small sections as being important to the editor. These are in lines 21 to 24 and enclose verses 48:17 to 19 and the next is in lines 27 and 30 and encompasses verses 49: 1- 2. There is an X in the next margin on the other side of the seam which would seem to show it belonged to the next page but with the exception of this mark the others are related to material to the right of the mark.
A Blot or Smudge
The last 2 words on line 19: are "a'niy a'niy" (I even I). There appears to have been an attempt to edit above the line and then wipe out the un-needed correction.
Editorial additions to the text:
A waw is edited above the 7th word in line 1.
In line 9 a series of dots; 3 above and 3 below three letters are inserted to show that the letters were written in error. The aleph is left undotted but is an additional letter not in M. The correction is of the Q scribe's having written two words "me'asher" (from which) and :"yada'tiy" verb imp 3ms (I know) Eliminating the three letters makes it one word which conforms to M: "mida' tiy" an inf cs. + suf 1cs (my knowing) except for the aleph which is a part of the erroneously written "'asher" but not removed. Dots were also placed over "kiy' " at the end of line 13 to show that it was written in error; Also see below
A "kiy' " which was omitted by the scribe is inserted between the lines by an editor. An attempted correction was added in error above the 10th word in line 19. Also an attempted correction made in error (a lamed) was abandoned over the 10th word in line 26; and a kaph was reentered above the 5th word in line 29.
Q Scribal Spelling:
Examples of added yod to pf. 2fs verbal sufform. can be seen in line 1: last word: and in line 4: 3rd from last word:
Variations in Q from the Masoretic Text:
There are more errors in this page than most other pages. Many words found in M are missing and words not in M are offered instead.
Line 1: There are 12 words missing from Q that are in M. After the 2nd word "'alayik" (upon you) The words are:
notice that the last word missing is the word just previous to the first word missing. Thus it is a common copiest error. He wrote what he saw and then returned to the page and lighted on the same word further on in the sentense and took up again at that point with the word pith'om (suddenly). The missing words in English are "evil, you shall not know its rising, and ruin shall fall on you, you shall not be able to purge it, and it shall come on you" (suddenly holocaust).
Line 2: vss 12 & 13: Q = omissions and additions beginning with the 2nd word in line 2: The 1st word ends the agreement with the M text. The last 5 words in M after this place are omitted and 2 words "ve-'ad ha-yom" (and until this day) are in their place.. The 5 words in the M text of this verse that are omitted are:
" 'ulay tukliy ho'iyl 'ulay ta'arotsiy"
(perhaps you can profit, perhaps you can cause fear). The next word which should be the first word of vs 13 is also omitted: "nil'e:te" (you are wearied). Then the first word in vs 13 in Q (line 2: 4th word;) = "karov" (according to [your] many) and M =, be-rov" (in [your] many). 5th word: Q = " 'atsteke" singular (your counsel) and M = " 'atsatayik" plural (your counsels). 9th word Q = "chovrey" agrees with M qerey, M kituv = "chovru." next to last word: Q = waw conj not in M.
Line 3: 5th word: Q = " 'aleyheymah" (upon them) and M = " 'alayik" (upon you). 3rd from last word Q = "hotsiylu" 5th stem pf 3mpl (they will [not] deliver) and M = "yatsiylu" 5th stem imp 3mpl ( they will [not] deliver).
Line 8: last word: Q = "yats'ah" pf 3fs (it went out) and M = "yats' u" pf 3cpl (they went out)
Line 9: 5th and 6th words: Dots: Q has two words that have been corrected by an editor to agree with the reading in M. The M reading is "Midda' tiy" prep min + pf 1cs verb translated (because I know). Q = "me:'asher yada 'tiy" and the editor has placed dots under and over the letters he considers to be incorrect (shin daleth and yod) which make the reading the same as M except for initial aleph after prep. mem. See more on the use of dots in the introductory page. Last word: Most of the 2nd person noun suffixes have been fem. thus far on this page. The gender now changes and this is a good illustration of the addition of "he" to the 2ms suf. to distinguish it from the 2fs suf which has no "he" appended. See the next word as well for the same form Line 10: 1st word)
Line 12: 3rd word: Q = "yada'te:n" pf 2ms + suf 3fpl (you know them) and M = "yada'tem" pf 3ms + suf 3mpl (same).
Line 13: 1st word: Same differences as the last entry. 4th word: It is possible the Q scribe confused the gender of the verb and wrote his form of 2fs instead of 3ms which he follows in the next verb (7th word.) Last word: Q = "kiy" and an editor has placed dots over each of the letters to show the presence of the word here is a mistake. It is not in M.
Line 14: 5th word: Q = "yiqra'u" imp 3mpl (they shall call) and M = "qor'a" part. (called).
Line 15: 6th word: Q = "be-chantiykah" This must be a spelling mistake. It is prep beth + verb pf 1cs + suf 2fs (it would be translated: when I showed mercy to you) and M = "bechartiyka" verb pf 1cs + suf 2ms ( I have chosen you).
Line 16: 3rd word: Q = possible spelling mistake? aleph added as 1st letter of "ye:chal" 2nd stem imp 3ms (it be polluted)
Line 18: 5th word: Q = "qoreh" part. (calling) should end with aleph. This is a common misspelling in Q. The scribe alternates between spelling this word with final aleph which is correct and final "he" which is incorrect. The word is spelled correctly 2 lines below as the 3rd word in line 20. Last 3 words: Q = "yiqebatsu" (verb 3mpl imp) "kulam" (noun ms + suf 3mpl) "ve-yishma'au" (conj + imp 3mpl) (All of them gather and they shall hear) and M = "hiqabetsu" (5th stem imper. pl) "culakem" (noun + suf 2mpl) "u-shma'u" (conj + qal imper mpl) (gather yourselves all of you and hear).
Line 20: suffixes: Q = 3rd word 3ms suf. missing. 4th and 6th words 2ms sufs. spelled "hu" 9th word: Q = a word that has been rubbed out. Nothing is missing from the text. Next to last word: Q = conj waw not in M.
Line 21: Chap. 48:16: 2nd word: Q = a missing aleph from the word "ro'sh" (head). Read my commentary on this verse for the interesting trinitarian implications in this verse. The grammar is discussed there showing that "spirit" (last word) is the secondary subject of a plural subject with a singular verb rather than the secondary object of the verb as almost all modern translators mistakenly render this verse.
Line 23: 1st word: Q = "hadereykah" The "kah" is obviously 2 ms suf. Thus "hadrey" leaves a "hdr" root or an article + "dr" This may be a misspelling but there is a "hdr" root of a Chaldean word and therefore is an Aramaic word that means "crooked paths." and M = "madrikeka" 5th stem part. (leading you). For the rest of this verse Q = "be-derek 'asher telek bah" (in the way which you shall go in it.) and M = simply "be-derek telek" (in the way you shall go.) For this phrase this is the possible Q rendering "I am YHWH your God who is leading you to profit in your crooked path to a way in which you should walk in it." See more on Aramaic spelling in Q.
Line 23: 10th word: Q = "ve-hayah" (and it is etc.) and M = "va-yehiy" a jussive (and it shall be.)
Line 25: 9th word: Q = after the 9th word "zoth" (this) a word found in M is missing in Q. The word seems redundant and superfluous in M as it has already been expressed in the preceding word. In M it is "hotsiy'uha" 5th stem masc pl imper. + suf 3fs. (let it go out).
Line 26: words 10 through 13: Q = "holiyko (5th stem part. + suf 3ms) mayim mitsor haziv (5th stem part of zuv)" (he led him, causing water to gush from the rock" and M = "holiykem (5th stem pf 3ms. + suf 3mpl) mayim mitsor hiziyl (5th stem pf 3ms)" (he led them, he caused water to flow from the rock.) "zuv" (ve-yazuvu) is the 3rd word in the next line (27)
Line 29: 3rd from last word: Q = a misspelled word that is clumsily corrected. A kaph which is a mistake is over written with a lamed. last word: an extra word which has been partially obliterated. It is not in M and not noticed by at least one major editor. It is partially abraded but may have been an abandoned attempt by the scribe to write the next word and he left off after the first 3 letters "be'ash" of the word "be'ashpetayv" (in his quiver) which is the first word on the next line (30).
Line 31: 5th word: Q = "le toah" a misspelling of "le tohu"